Autor Wątek: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń  (Przeczytany 170516 razy)

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« Odpowiedź #210 dnia: Styczeń 27, 2018, 23:57 »
Apollo 1
STS-51L Challenger
STS-107 Columbia



Link do materiału:

https://www.nasa.gov/specials/dor2017/

NASA Honors Its Fallen Heroes, Marks 15th Anniversary of Columbia Accident
Jan. 23, 2018 MEDIA ADVISORY M18-011

NASA will pay will tribute to the crews of Apollo 1 and space shuttles Challenger and Columbia, as well as other NASA colleagues who lost their lives while furthering the cause of exploration and discovery, during the agency's annual Day of Remembrance on Thursday, Jan. 25. (...)

https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-honors-its-fallen-heroes-marks-15th-anniversary-of-columbia-accident

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« Odpowiedź #211 dnia: Styczeń 28, 2018, 23:34 »
Day of Remembrance 2018
Jan. 25, 2018



Amy Resnik, sister-in-law of the late space shuttle Challenger astronaut Judith Resnik, left, and Kristy Carroll, family friend of the late space shuttle Columbia astronaut William McCool embrace by the Space Shuttle Columbia and Challenger Memorials during NASA's Day of Remembrance, Thursday, Jan. 25, 2018, at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia. Wreaths were laid in memory of those men and women who lost their lives in the quest for space exploration.

On the last Thursday in January, NASA pays tribute to the crews of Apollo 1 and space shuttles Challenger and Columbia, as well as other NASA colleagues who lost their lives while furthering the cause of exploration and discovery, during the agency's annual Day of Remembrance. This year, NASA acting Administrator Robert Lightfoot and other agency senior officials led an observance at Arlington National Cemetery.

Image Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls
https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/day-of-remembrance-2018

zdjęcia na Flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/nasahqphoto/sets/72157668859256249

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« Odpowiedź #212 dnia: Styczeń 28, 2018, 23:42 »
Umieszczanie kul odblaskowych na orbicie wokółziemskiej ma już długą tradycję.

Rocket Lab reveals 'The Humanity Star,' a 'disco ball' satellite shining from space


Rocket Lab's "The Humanity Star," now in Earth orbit, is expected to become the brightest object in the night sky. (Rocket Lab)

Jan. 24, 2018 — A commercial space company seeking to shine among the satellite launch industry has secretly sent its own "star" into orbit. (...)

The Starshine project comprised three spherical satellites fitted by the United States Naval Research Laboratory with small mirrors polished by students from around the world. The Starshine-1 and -2 satellites were launched on NASA space shuttle missions STS-96 in June 1999 and STS-108 in December 2001, respectively. The 19-inch diameter (48 cm) spheres were each covered in more than 850 mirrors.

Starshine-3, which was almost twice the size of the earlier satellites and fitted with 1500 polished mirrors, was lofted into orbit on an Athena I uncrewed rocket from the Kodiak Launch Complex in Alaska in September 2001. It reflected light back at the Earth for two years, completing more than 7,400 revolutions.


Starshine-2 is seen being deployed into orbit by the space shuttle Endeavour during the STS-108 mission in December 2001. (NASA)

Japan also launched a mirror-covered satellite, "Ajisai," in August 1986, on board the maiden launch of its H-I rocket. The 85-inch (215 cm) experimental geodetic satellite is still in orbit and can be seen with binoculars. (...)
http://www.collectspace.com//news/news-012418a-rocket-lab-humanity-star-satellite.html


Starshine 1, 2, 4


Starshine 3 (Starshine-OSCAR 43, SO 43)


EGS (Ajisai)

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« Odpowiedź #213 dnia: Styczeń 31, 2018, 23:33 »
Podczas misji STS-87 Columbia w 1997 było testowane  narzędzie  AERCam Sprint (Autonomous Extra-vehicular Robotic Camera) , które mogło mieć zastosowanie do zdalnej inspekcji promu kosmicznego i ISS. W tej misji udział brała Kalpana Chawla , która  też weszła póżniej w skład załogi ostatniego lotu Columbii.


S97-08327 (24 July 1997) --- The Autonomous Extravehicular Activity Robotic Camera Sprint (AERCam Sprint) is an experiment planned to demonstrate the use of a prototype free-flying television camera that could be used for remote inspections of the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). The AERCam Sprint free-flyer is a 14-inch diameter, 35-pound sphere that contains two television cameras, an avionics system and 12 small nitrogen gas-powered thrusters. Astronaut Winston E. Scott, mission specialist, will release the sphere, which looks like an over-sized soccer ball, during a planned Extravehicular Activity (EVA). It will then fly freely in the forward cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Columbia for about half an hour. The free-flyer will be remotely controlled by astronaut Steven W. Lindsey, pilot, from Columbia's aft flight deck using a hand controller, two laptop computers and a window-mounted antenna.
https://spaceflight.nasa.gov/gallery/images/shuttle/sts-87/html/s97-08327.html


STS087-752-035 (19 November – 5 December 1997) --- This out-the-window view shows the Autonomous Extravehicular Activity Robotic Camera Sprint (AERCam Sprint) free-flying in the vicinity of the cargo bay of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia. The AERCam Sprint is a prototype free-flying television camera that could be used for remote inspections of the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). This view, backdropped over southern Madagascar, was taken during this flight's second Extravehicular Activity (EVA), on December 3, 1997.
https://spaceflight.nasa.gov/gallery/images/shuttle/sts-87/html/sts087-752-035.html

Polskie Forum Astronautyczne

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« Odpowiedź #213 dnia: Styczeń 31, 2018, 23:33 »

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« Odpowiedź #214 dnia: Luty 01, 2018, 00:02 »
60 lat temu - 31 stycznia 1958 - wystrzelono pierwszego amerykańskiego sztucznego satelitę - Explorer 1




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« Odpowiedź #215 dnia: Luty 01, 2018, 00:08 »
60 lat temu , po dwukrotnym  przekładaniu startu , 1 lutego 1958 o 03:47:56 UTC z Cape Canaveral wystartowała RN Juno-1, która wyniosła na orbitę  o parametrach : hp=358 km , ha= 2550 km , t=114,8 min , i=33,24° pierwszego naukowego satelitę Ziemi Explorer 1 o masie 13,97 kg ( masa ładunku użytecznego 4,83 kg). Misja trwała 111 dni.
W jej trakcie dokonano odkrycia cząstek promieniowania  kosmicznego uwięzionego przez ziemskie pole magnetyczne Ziemi . Później obszary odkrytego promieniowania nazwano pasami radiacyjnymi van Allena.

Explorer 1: The Beginning of American Space Science
JANUARY 23, 2018


A vintage JPL graphic celebrating the Explorer 1 satellite. Image credit NASA/JPL-Caltech


Explorer 1 sits atop the Jupiter-C rocket (designated "Juno-1") in the gantry as its launch date nears. Image credit: NASA


The Juno-1 launch vehicle carrying Explorer 1 lifts off from Cape Canaveral, Florida, at 10:48 p.m. EST on Jan. 31, 1958. Image credit: NASA


A model of Explorer 1 is held high by (left to right) JPL Director William Pickering, James Van Allen, and Wernher von Braun at a late-night news conference announcing the launch of Explorer 1, held at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC. Image credit NASA/JPL-Caltech

Sixty years ago next week, the hopes of Cold War America soared into the night sky as a rocket lofted skyward above Cape Canaveral, a soon-to-be-famous barrier island off the Florida coast.

The date was Jan. 31, 1958. NASA had yet to be formed, and the honor of this first flight belonged to the U.S. Army. The rocket's sole payload was a javelin-shaped satellite built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Explorer 1, as it would soon come to be called, was America's first satellite.




Against the backdrop of the 1950s Cold War, after the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik, Americans were determined to launch their own Earth-orbiting satellite. Flash back to events leading up to the successful launch of America's Explorer 1, and the beginnings of America's Space Age, as told through newsreel and documentary clips of the time.

"The launch of Explorer 1 marked the beginning of U.S. spaceflight, as well as the scientific exploration of space, which led to a series of bold missions that have opened humanity's eyes to new wonders of the solar system," said Michael Watkins, current director of JPL. "It was a watershed moment for the nation that also defined who we are at JPL."

In the mid-1950s, both the United States and the Soviet Union were proceeding toward the capability to put a spacecraft in orbit. Yet great uncertainty hung over the pursuit. As the Cold War between the two countries deepened, it had not yet been determined whether the sovereignty of a nation's borders extended upward into space. Accordingly, then-President Eisenhower sought to ensure that the first American satellites were not perceived to be military or national security assets.

In 1954, an international council of scientists called for artificial satellites to be orbited as part of a worldwide science program called the International Geophysical Year (IGY), set to take place from July 1957 to December 1958. Both the American and Soviet governments seized on the idea, announcing they would launch spacecraft as part of the effort. Soon, a competition began between the Army, Air Force and Navy to develop a U.S. satellite and launch vehicle capable of reaching orbit.

At that time, JPL, which was part of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, primarily performed defense work for the Army. (The "jet" in JPL's name traces back to rocket motors used to provide "jet assisted" takeoff for Army planes during World War II.) In 1954, the laboratory's engineers began working with the Army Ballistic Missile Agency in Alabama on a project called "Orbiter." The Army team included Wernher von Braun (who would later design NASA's Saturn V rocket) and his team of engineers. Their work centered around the Redstone Jupiter-C rocket, which was derived from the V-2 missile Germany had used against Britain during the war.

JPL's role was to prepare the three upper stages for the launch vehicle, which included the satellite itself. These used solid rocket motors the laboratory had developed for the Army's Sergeant guided missile. JPL would also be responsible for receiving and transmitting the orbiting spacecraft's communications. In addition to JPL's involvement in the Orbiter program, the laboratory's then-director, William Pickering, chaired the science committee on satellite tracking for the U.S. launch effort overall.

The Navy's entry, called Vanguard, had a competitive edge in that it was not derived from a ballistic missile program -- its rocket was designed, from the ground up, for civilian scientific purposes. The Army's Jupiter-C rocket had made its first successful suborbital flight in 1956, so Army commanders were confident they could be ready to launch a satellite fairly quickly. Nevertheless, the Navy's program was chosen to launch a satellite for the IGY.

University of Iowa physicist James Van Allen, whose instrument proposal had been chosen for the Vanguard satellite, was concerned about development issues on the project. Thus, he made sure his scientific instrument payload -- a cosmic ray detector -- would fit either launch vehicle. Meanwhile, although their project was officially mothballed, JPL engineers used a pre-existing rocket casing to quietly build a flight-worthy satellite, just in case it might be needed.

The world changed on Oct. 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union launched a 23-inch (58-centimeter) metal sphere called Sputnik. With that singular event, the space age had begun. The launch resolved a key diplomatic uncertainty about the future of spaceflight, establishing the right to orbit above any territory on the globe. The Russians quickly followed up their first launch with a second Sputnik just a month later. Under pressure to mount a U.S. response, the Eisenhower administration decided a scheduled test flight of the Vanguard rocket, already being planned in support of the IGY, would fit the bill. But when the Vanguard rocket was, embarrassingly, destroyed during the launch attempt on Dec. 6, the administration turned to the Army's program to save the country's reputation as a technological leader.

Unbeknownst to JPL, von Braun and his team had also been developing their own satellite, but after some consideration, the Army decided that JPL would still provide the spacecraft. The result of that fateful decision was that JPL's focus shifted permanently -- from rockets to what sits on top of them.

The Army team had its orders to be ready for launch within 90 days. Thanks to its advance preparation, 84 days later, its satellite stood on the launch pad at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

The spacecraft was launched at 10:48 p.m. EST on Friday, Jan. 31, 1958. An hour and a half later, a JPL tracking station in California picked up its signal transmitted from orbit. In keeping with the desire to portray the launch as the fulfillment of the U.S. commitment under the International Geophysical Year, the announcement of its success was made early the next morning at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, with Pickering, Van Allen and von Braun on hand to answer questions from the media.

Following the launch, the spacecraft was given its official name, Explorer 1. (In the following decades, nearly a hundred spacecraft would be given the designation "Explorer.") The satellite continued to transmit data for about four months, until its batteries were exhausted, and it ceased operating on May 23, 1958.

Later that year, when the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was established by Congress, Pickering and Caltech worked to shift JPL away from its defense work to become part of the new agency. JPL remains a division of Caltech, which manages the laboratory for NASA.

The beginnings of U.S. space exploration were not without setbacks -- of the first five Explorer satellites, two failed to reach orbit. But the three that made it gave the world the first scientific discovery in space -- the Van Allen radiation belts. These doughnut-shaped regions of high-energy particles, held in place by Earth's magnetic field, may have been important in making Earth habitable for life. Explorer 1, with Van Allen's cosmic ray detector on board, was the first to detect this phenomenon, which is still being studied today.

In advocating for a civilian space agency before Congress after the launch of Explorer 1, Pickering drew on Van Allen's discovery, stating, "Dr. Van Allen has given us some completely new information about the radiation present in outer space....This is a rather dramatic example of a quite simple scientific experiment which was our first step out into space."

Explorer 1 re-entered Earth's atmosphere and burned up on March 31, 1970, after more than 58,000 orbits.
https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=7043




https://explorer1.jpl.nasa.gov/
https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Explorer_1
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« Odpowiedź #216 dnia: Luty 01, 2018, 07:51 »
A pomyśleć, że Explorer 1 mógł wystartować miesiące wcześniej gdyby tylko prezydent USA pozwolił na użycie wojskowej rakiety do pierwszej misji satelitarnej USA. Ale wówczas pierwszeństwo miał cywilny program Vanguard: rakieta i satelita. Po starcie Sputnika 1 prezydent w końcu pozwolił działać Wernherowi von Braunowi z rakietą wojskową w kierunku wysłania pierwszej misji satelitarnej USA. Ciekawie jest to opisane w książce: ,,Monshot" autorstwa Ala Scheparda i Donalda Slaytona. Polska wersja tej książki to: ,,Kierunek Księżyc" wydana przez Prószyński i Spółka około 15 lat temu.

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« Odpowiedź #217 dnia: Luty 03, 2018, 08:10 »
A U.S.-Made Moon: 60 Years Since Explorer 1, Dawn of America's Space Program
By Ben Evans February 2nd, 2018




The United States’ inaugural attempt to gets its own satellite into space went dreadfully awry on the morning of 6 December, when the U.S. Navy’s Vanguard booster rose just four feet (1.2 meters) from LC-18A at the Cape, before exploding in a conflagration. Aboard, the tiny Vanguard 1A satellite was thrown clear of the destruction and landed nearby, its radio transmitter still beeping. Eight weeks later, at LC-26A, a Juno I booster was readied for its own launch, carrying Explorer 1. A member of the Army’s Redstone family, the Juno I was based upon the earlier Jupiter-C sounding rocket, which had flown three times in 1956-57 to evaluate the nosecone re-entry characteristics.

Standing 70 feet (21.2 meters) tall, the Juno I was a four-stage beast. At the instant of liftoff, the single Rocketdyne-built A-7 engine of its Redstone core burned liquid oxygen and a substance called “hydyne”—a 60-percent mix of unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine and 40-percent diethylenetriamine—to generate 93,564 pounds (42,439 kg) of thrust. Launch was originally scheduled for 28 January 1958, but was scrubbed due to unusual weather in the lower stratosphere. In those final days of the month, the jetstream was far further south than normal and concern existed that the Juno I could be lost if it launched in such dynamic conditions. An attempt on the 30th was considered ill-advised and launch was rescheduled for the following evening. As darkness fell over Florida on 31 January, everyone willed Explorer 1 to succeed and make the United States a spacefaring nation.



The scientific section of Explorer 1 remained affixed to the fourth Sergeant stage of the Juno I. Image Credit: NASA


http://www.americaspace.com/2018/02/02/a-u-s-made-moon-60-years-since-explorer-1-dawn-of-americas-space-program/

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« Odpowiedź #218 dnia: Luty 07, 2018, 07:31 »
10 lat temu 7 lutego 2008 w   misji STS-122
Atlantis
na ISS  zostało wyniesione europejskie laboratorium Columbus.

COLUMBUS: 10 YEARS A LAB
16 January 2018

In 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue… In 2008 another Columbus sailed into space.

Next month, Europe’s Columbus laboratory achieves 10 years in orbit. Circling our planet at 28 800 km/h, this element of the International Space Station created space history as the first European module dedicated to long-term research in weightlessness.

Throughout this year, we will be celebrating its many successes as a remarkable multi-user experiment facility.

A past full of planning


The European Columbus laboratory is lifted out of the Shuttle payload bay, prior to attachment to the International Space Station.

Like the transatlantic voyages that Christopher Columbus made half a millennium ago, the Columbus module was meticulously planned, budgeted, scrapped and redesigned before getting the official blessing to build, ship and launch.

The laboratory ascended to orbit aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, USA on 7 February 2008. Nestling in the spaceplane’s cargo bay, Columbus was accompanied by a seven-man crew.

On 11 February, the crew on the International Space Station captured the new arrival. At that moment, Columbus became Europe’s first permanent human outpost in orbit and Europe became a full partner of the International Space Station.

A decade of scientific research


The STS-122 and Expedition 16 crews on the International Space Station worked together to install the Columbus lab.

Columbus houses as many disciplines as possible in a small volume, from astrobiology to solar science through metallurgy and psychology – more than 225 experiments have been carried out during this remarkable decade. Countless papers have been published drawing conclusions from experiments performed in Columbus.

To mark the momentous occasion, the larger Columbus family of planners, builders, scientists, support teams and astronauts will gather to celebrate the lab at ESA’s technical heart in the Netherlands on 7 February. More to come on this event soon …

http://m.esa.int/Our_Activities/Human_Spaceflight/Columbus/Columbus_10_years_a_lab
http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3104.msg115257#msg115257
http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3104.msg115398#msg115398
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« Odpowiedź #219 dnia: Luty 11, 2018, 14:53 »
Columbus: Celebrating 10 Years of Science on Station
Feb. 7, 2018



On Feb. 7, 2008, the European Space Agency's (ESA) Columbus lab module blasted off inside Space Shuttle Atlantis' STS-122 mission on a two-day ride to the International Space Station. Canadarm2, the station’s robotic arm, removed Columbus from Atlantis’s cargo bay after its arrival and attached it the starboard side of the Harmony module.

In this image, NASA astronaut Rex Walheim works outside the new Columbus lab shortly after it was installed in Feb. 2008.

Columbus is about 23 feet long and 15 feet wide, allowing it to hold 10 "racks" of experiments, each approximately the size of a phone booth. Each rack provides independent controls for power and cooling, as well as communication links to Earth-bound controllers and researchers. These links will allow scientists all over Europe to participate in their own experiments in space and continues to do so to this day.

Image Credit: NASA
https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/columbus-celebrating-10-years-of-science-on-station

Columbus Laboratory
Sept. 30, 2013


The Columbus laboratory is featured in this image photographed by an STS-122 crew member on space shuttle Atlantis. Credits: NASA

As the European Space Agency's largest single contribution to the space station, the research laboratory module supports scientific and technological research in the microgravity environment of space. The physical design and layout of the Columbus laboratory is not unlike the three multi-purpose logistics modules (MPLM) built by the Italian Space Agency and used for transporting scientific experiments, materials and supplies to the station via the space shuttles.

Columbus is about 23 feet long and 15 feet wide, allowing it to hold 10 "racks" of experiments, each approximately the size of a phone booth. Each rack provides independent controls for power and cooling, as well as communication links to earthbound controllers and researchers. These links will allow scientists all over Europe to participate in their own experiments in space from several user centers and, in some cases, even from their own work locations.

The Columbus laboratory's flexibility provides room for the researchers on the ground, aided by the station's crew, to conduct thousands of experiments in life sciences, materials sciences, fluid physics and other research in a weightless environment not possible on Earth.


Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank uses Neurospat hardware to perform a science session with the PASSAGES experiment in the Columbus laboratory. Credits: NASA

In addition, the station crew can conduct experiments outside the module within the vacuum of space, thanks to four exterior mounting platforms that can accommodate external payloads. With a clear view of Earth and the vastness of space, external experiments can run the gamut from the microscopic world of bacteria to the limitlessness of space.

The control center for the work conducted in the Columbus laboratory is located in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. From there, ground controllers can communicate with the module as the space station orbits the Earth, as well as with researchers across Europe and their partners in the United States and Russia.
 
Columbus Specifications
Length 23 feet Diameter 15 feet Mass 22,700 pounds Launch date 2/7/2008
Last Updated: Feb. 7, 2018
Editor: Jerry Wright
https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/structure/elements/columbus.html











https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vKDcdMAp3Xg\









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« Odpowiedź #220 dnia: Luty 11, 2018, 14:54 »
Ponad trzy dekady zaangażowania Airbusa w załogowe loty kosmiczne
9 lutego 2018, 10:54

Trzydzieści-cztery lata temu na orbitę okołoziemską trafił Spacelab, otwierając tym samym program europejskich załogowych lotów kosmicznych, który w kolejnych latach zaowocował takimi pionierskimi osiągnięciami techniki, jak automatyczne statki transferowe (ATV), moduł Columbus i Europejski Moduł Serwisowy statku Orion.

Pierwszy lot laboratorium Spacelab 28 listopada 1983 r. był pierwszą z jego 22 misji, w ramach których przeprowadzono szereg przełomowych eksperymentów, w tym próby z nowymi materiałami, przetwarzanie produktów farmaceutycznych i obserwacje astronomiczne. To pierwsze europejskie laboratorium kosmiczne było dziełem konsorcjum przemysłowego, na którego czele stał koncern MBB-Erno, jeden z poprzedników Grupy Airbus.

Początek wielkiej przyjaźni

„Sięgnijmy wzrokiem poza tę misję i postarajmy się kontynuować naszą współpracę w tym samym duchu partnerstwa i wzajemnego wsparcia, w którym zjednoczyliśmy się tu dzisiaj” – te słowa, wypowiedziane w 1982 r. przez administratora NASA,  Jamesa M. Beggsa podczas ceremonii powitania przetransportowanego z Europy modułu Spacelab w Stanach Zjednoczonych okazały się być prorocze. I choć program Spacelab zakończył się w 1998 r., użyto go następnie jako wzorca dla modułu Columbus, wybudowanego przez Airbus Defence and Space laboratorium stanowiącego obecnie główny element wkładu Europy w Międzynarodową Stację Kosmiczną (ISS).

Columbus – miejsce prowadzenia badań wyprzedzających epokę

Od dziesięciu lat Columbus pozostaje pierwszym stałym europejskim ośrodkiem badawczym w kosmosie. Odkąd moduł ten zadokowano do Stacji w 2008 roku, posłużył on do przeprowadzenia setek doświadczeń. Jednym z najpoważniejszych wyzwań, z którymi trzeba było sobie poradzić, była zmiana położenia stacji w 2012 r. w celu zarejestrowania pełnego obrotu Słońca za pomocą instrumentów SOLAR. To właśnie wówczas po raz pierwszy przemieszczono ISS w celu wykonania doświadczenia naukowego.

ATV – zaawansowany transportowiec kosmiczny

Ogromnym osiągnięciem koncernu Airbus było pięć tzw. automatycznych statków transferowych (ATV), którymi do 2015 r. przewieziono na ISS ponad 31,5 tony zaopatrzenia. Statki ATV posiadały zdolność automatycznego dokowania do Międzynarodowej Stacji Kosmicznej, którą zawdzięczały zastosowaniu technologii niezwykle istotnej dla dalszych przedsięwzięć w dziedzinie eksploracji kosmosu. Co więcej, ATV stanowią dokonanie koncernu Airbus zrealizowane na arenie europejskiej, bez większego wsparcia ze strony NASA ani Rosji. Dzięki pojazdom ATV Airbus stał się pełnoprawnym partnerem NASA w znaczących programach kosmicznych.

Ludzie w otwartej przestrzeni kosmicznej

Spacelab, Columbus i transportery ATV umożliwiły nam opracowanie wyjątkowo niezawodnego, wysokiej jakości systemu, który będzie mieć krytyczne znaczenie dla powodzenia misji eksploracyjnych NASA: Europejskiego Modułu Serwisowego statku załogowego Orion MPCV.

               Nicolas Chamussy, szef działu Space Systems koncernu Airbus

Zbudowany przez NASA Orion ma w przyszłości zabrać załogę na Księżyc i jeszcze dalej, potencjalnie nawet na którąś z asteroid i – w latach trzydziestych naszego stulecia – na Marsa. Airbus to główny dostawca jego Europejskiego Modułu Serwisowego (ESM), znajdującego się poniżej modułu załogi komponentu odpowiedzialnego w przyszłych załogowych misjach dalekosiężnych za zasilanie Oriona, jego napęd, sterowanie temperaturą, zaopatrzenie w wodę i powietrze.

ESM: więcej niż wszechstronne zaplecze Oriona

Moduł ESM ma walcowaty kształt, mierzy około czterech metrów średnicy i tyle samo wysokości. Jego charakterystyczną cechą są cztery skrzydła paneli słonecznych, mierzące w pełnym rozłożeniu 19 metrów rozpiętości – typowe wyposażenie statków ATV. Panele słoneczne mają być używane podczas długich misji, eliminując potrzebę uzupełniania systemów ogniw paliwowych w trakcie podróży przez otwartą przestrzeń kosmiczną.

ESM zabierze 8,6 tony paliwa, z którego będzie korzystać jego silnik główny i 32 mniejsze silniki korekcyjne, niezbędne do manewrowania na orbicie i sterowania pułapem lotu. Także i w tym przypadku ESA będzie czerpać z doświadczeń zgromadzonych podczas prac nad statkami ATV, które z powodzeniem używały silników korekcyjnych do wykonywania uników, dzięki którym Międzynarodowa Stacja Kosmiczna mogła usunąć się z trajektorii lotu kosmicznych śmieci.

Misja na Księżyc nakłada jednak zupełnie inne wymogi, niż loty na ISS po niskiej orbicie okołoziemskiej. Musieliśmy więc zmienić konstrukcję ATV, między innymi przez wyposażenie modułu w jeden duży silnik podstawowy o mocy pozwalającej na podróż na Księżyc i z powrotem. Na razie funkcję tę pełnić będzie zregenerowany silnik manewrowy z programu lotów promów kosmicznych

                           Nicolas Chamussy, szef działu Space Systems koncernu Airbus

Na Księżyc i jeszcze dalej

W latach 2019/2020 kapsuła Orion zostanie wysłana na bezzałogową misję o kryptonimie Exploration Mission-1, której celem będzie weryfikacja jej osiągów przez próbę osiągnięcia odległości 64 tys. kilometrów poza orbitą Księżyca. Podczas planowanej na 2023 rok pierwszej misji załogowej Exploration Mission-2 lot Orionem odbędzie czterech astronautów.

Będzie ona zwieńczeniem wspólnych starań, zapowiedzianym przez administratora NASA Jamesa M. Beggsa przeszło cztery dekady wcześniej.

http://www.space24.pl/ponad-trzy-dekady-zaangazowania-airbusa-w-zalogowe-loty-kosmiczne

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #221 dnia: Luty 18, 2018, 23:17 »
'Beautiful, Beautiful Moment': Ten Years Since Europe's Columbus Lab Arrived at Space Station
By Ben Evans February 18th, 2018

(...) More than 22.5 feet (6.8 meters) in length and 15 feet (4.5 meters) in diameter, it would be permanently attached to the starboard port of the station’s Harmony node and, over its first decade of operational life, saw no fewer than 13 European astronauts from France, Germany, Belgium, Sweden, Italy, the Netherlands, Denmark and the United Kingdom float through its hatch, support a broad range of scientific research and display their national flags in its roomy interior. In its ten years, Columbus has supported more than 1,700 discrete experiments and an estimated 800 terabytes of data has passed through its Data Management System (DMS).

Columbus had evolved from an early ESA program to develop an autonomous manned space station, tended by the French-built Hermes mini-shuttle. Budget cuts eventually killed off both Hermes and Columbus’ man-tended free-flyer and polar platform components, leaving only its Attached Pressurized Module (APM). This morphed into the lab which today resides aboard the ISS. Its structure was closely modeled upon the Italian-built Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and Columbus’ core was delivered for integration to Bremen, Germany. In early 2003, the development of the Columbus Control Centre got underway at Oberpfaffenhofen, near Munich, Germany, with an expectation that the lab itself would launch in October 2004. That was indefinitely postponed, following the loss of Columbia, but following the resumption of shuttle missions the campaign to launch Columbus entered high gear. (...)

http://www.americaspace.com/2014/04/11/the-future-that-wasnt-the-hermes-spaceplane/

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #222 dnia: Luty 20, 2018, 21:31 »
19 lutego minęło 545 lat od narodzin Mikołaja Kopernika

Copernicus: Revelations about the Renaissance Man
 User Marek Kępa 2018/02/16

Mikołaj Kopernik (or Nicolaus Copernicus) was born in Toruń on 19th February 1473, as a subject of the King of Poland, seven years after the war had ended. His father, a wealthy merchant also named Mikołaj, had financially supported Prussia’s operation to join Poland. Barbara, the prospective astronomer’s mother, came from the influential Toruń family of Watzenrode – her father had been on the same side as Mikołaj Snr. The young Mikołaj was one of four siblings – he had two older sisters and an older brother. The well-connected family owned two houses, one in the Market Square (non-existent today) the other in what is now known as ul. Kopernika 17 (17 Copernicus Street). The latter still stands and is where the creator of the heliocentric theory was born.

http://culture.pl/en/article/copernicus-revelations-about-the-renaissance-man

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #223 dnia: Marzec 06, 2018, 09:56 »
20 lat temu 5 marca 1998 roku pierwsza pilotka wahadłowca Eileen Collins została uhonorowana w Białym Domu.

‘Trying to Do Her Job’: 20 Years Since the First Female Shuttle Commander Was Assigned
By Ben Evans March 4th, 2018


First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton and President Bill Clinton applaud Eileen Collins in the Roosevelt Room of the White House on 5 March 1998, after announcing her selection as the first female Space Shuttle commander. Photo Credit: Houston Chronicle

Twenty years ago, this week, First Lady Hillary Clinton—flanked by President Bill Clinton to her left and NASA Administrator Dan Goldin to her right—took the podium in the Roosevelt Room at the White House to make a quite remarkable announcement. It was 5 March 1998, the first week of Women’s History Month, and veteran astronaut Eileen Collins had just been named not only as the first woman in history to command the Space Shuttle, but also the first to lead a crew of astronauts into orbit. Blazing a trail begun by Soviet cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova, more than three decades earlier, Collins had already flown two shuttle missions as a pilot and would go on to command the first flight after the Columbia disaster. Hers was another annal in the story of women’s achievements in the high frontier of space.

“One big step forward for women,” said Mrs. Clinton, drawing on Neil Armstrong’s oft-repeated historic words, “and one giant leap for humanity.” Noting that the announcement was being made at the dawn of Women’s History Month—which runs throughout March—she reflected on her own letter to NASA, as a 14-year-old girl, asking about the qualifications and experience needed to become an astronaut. Back then, in the early 1960s, she received “a really thin envelope” in response from the space agency, which was “never a good sign”, advising her that women were not then being considered for positions on the United States’ first piloted space missions. “Well,” breathed Mrs. Clinton, to a mixture of stifled groans and chuckles from her audience, “times have certainly changed!”


http://www.americaspace.com/2018/03/04/trying-to-do-her-job-20-years-since-the-first-female-shuttle-commander-was-assigned/

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #224 dnia: Marzec 06, 2018, 10:02 »
Szkoda, że nie doczekaliśmy w pełni kobiecej załogi wahadłowca  :(

Polskie Forum Astronautyczne

Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #224 dnia: Marzec 06, 2018, 10:02 »