Autor Wątek: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń  (Przeczytany 221083 razy)

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #90 dnia: Sierpień 31, 2016, 14:37 »
35 lat temu 31 sierpnia 1981 Columbia w ramach przygotowań do pierwszego w historii powrotu wahadłowca na orbitę w  misji STS 2 została ustawiona na wyrzutni  39A  na przylądku Canaveral na Florydzie.

Pierwsza misja wahadłowca była obarczona większym ryzykiem w historii załogowych lotów:

STS-1 was arguably one of the most dangerous piloted missions ever attempted. On all previous U.S. spaceflights, astronauts had only ridden a new vehicle or launched atop a new rocket after it had first been trialed and extensively tested in an unmanned capacity. However, in the case of the shuttle, its extreme complexity led many engineers and managers to consider an unmanned flight as far trickier than a manned one. It was felt by some astronauts that having a crew aboard to handle the wide range of problems would make the success potential of the mission much greater.

The risks associated with STS-1 are anecdotally highlighted in a story from around this time. One day, Young went to lunch in the cafeteria at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas, with fellow astronaut Joe Allen. Young had no money, so Allen paid for him. Later, Young insisted on paying Allen back. Allen laughed and told him to forget it. “No,” retorted Young, firmly. “You don’t go fly these things when you gotdebts!”

Pierwszy lot Columbii nie bez problemów doszedł do skutku. Rozpórka łącząca ET z orbiterem mogła nie wytrzymać pod wpływem fal uderzeniowych podczas startu. Ciśnienie wywołane zapłonem boosterów spowodowało nieznaczne wygięcie skrzydła orbitera.
Sporo płytek z TPS odpadło od Columbii w czasie inauguracyjnego startu.

But on several occasions, the mission came close to calamity. Shockwaves produced by the three Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) and the twin Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) had buckled a strut holding Columbia onto the External Tank (ET). Had it failed, it was later determined, the result could have been catastrophic and steps were taken to strengthen the struts in readiness for future missions.

Then, when Young and Crippen achieved orbit, they found that a number of protective tiles had been lost from one of the shuttle’s starboard Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods. Thousands of tiles covered Columbia and were tasked with guarding her airframe against high thermal loads during re-entry and the fact that some had been shaken loose during the violent ascent underscored a problem which would haunt the shuttle program for the next three decades. Although no tiles appeared to be missing from Columbia’s wings, it was impossible for Young and Crippen to view the craft’s belly, which would bear the brunt of re-entry heating.

Na 30 września zaplanowano nowy termin startu Columbii.
Pod koniec kwietnia Columbia na grzbiecie Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) została przetransportowana na KSC.
Termin wrześniowy okazał się nierealny z powodu naprawy TPS.

“Tile repair was the primary thing that we probably prepared for as a result of STS-1,” noted Engle. In fact, 350 tiles needed to be replaced, 818 others needed repair, and a further 2,000 would be serviced in-place. A revised launch date of 9 October was set, and on 10 August Columbia rolled from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) into the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) for stacking onto her fuel tank and boosters. On the final day of August, she arrived at Pad 39A.

Nowy termin startu zaplanowany na 9 października został anulowany z powodu potrzeby dodatkowej wymiany płytek żaroodpornych:

Her first attempt to launch on 9 October was scrubbed, due to an accidental spillage of highly toxic nitrogen tetroxide, which forced 379 tiles to be removed, cleaned, and replaced.

Termin 4 listopada też został anulowany z powodu wyższego ciśnienia w APU:

A second try on 4 November was also called off when Columbia’s Auxiliary Power Units (APUs) exhibited higher-than-normal oil pressures. After several efforts to rectify the problem within the “window,” the attempt was called off and launch was rescheduled for the 12th.

Krótko przed startem pojawił się problem z Multiplexer-Demutiplexer (MDM), który został zastąpiony przez takie samo urządzenie pochodzące z wahadłowca Challenger.

After several efforts to rectify the problem within the “window,” the attempt was called off and launch was rescheduled for the 12th. On the evening prior, a Multiplexer-Demutiplexer (MDM)—responsible for providing instrumentation measurements, commands, and data to Engle and Truly’s cockpit displays—failed. A spare was fitted, but also failed, requiring NASA to fly another MDM in from California on the morning of launch day.

The replacement MDM, incidentally, came from the second shuttle orbiter, Challenger, which was then undergoing final assembly and checkout at Rockwell International’s Palmdale facility.

Załogi dwóch załóg lotów Columbii sprzed 35 lat  będą honorowane  17 września 2016 przez Astronaut Scholarship Foundation (ASF).

Załoga misji STS 2 była też załogą rezerwową pierwszego lotu Columbii.
Odbędzie się panelowa dyskusja z udziałem trzech astronautów tamtych lotów: Roberta Crippena, Joe Engle I Richarda  Truly'ego.

John Young  nie będzie mógł uczestniczyć w tym wydarzeniu.

AmericaSpace was told by ASF Development Co-ordinator Danielle Getty that, unfortunately, Young is unable to attend the event.

Spotkanie będzie moderował przewodniczącym Rady  ASF Daniel  Brandenstein

Będzie to pierwsze wspólne publiczne wystąpienie obu załóg.

“The panel discussion will be a variety of topics,” Ms. Getty told AmericaSpace. “We will discuss the background of each mission, the design and reusability of the Shuttle, events following each flight and leave time for an audience Q & A.”

“ASF is excited to offer this intimate and exclusive gathering in Houston, which is something we have never done before,” said ASF Executive Director Tammy Knowles. “Space enthusiasts have expressed their excitement to finally be able to see astronauts Crippen, Engle and Truly together to share what it was like to be involved in this era of space that has helped to make future space exploration possible. This is a once-in-a-lifetime experience to meet and hear from the legends of this amazing spacecraft.”
« Ostatnia zmiana: Sierpień 31, 2016, 15:13 wysłana przez Orionid »

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #91 dnia: Wrzesień 25, 2016, 08:31 »
17 września 2016 odbyła się uroczystość upamiętniająca 35. rocznice lotów STS - 1 i STS - 2 .
W debacie wzięło udział 3 członków  załóg tych wypraw.
Rozmowę moderował Daniel Brandenstein , który przed 35 laty pełnił funkcję  CAPCONa tych misji.
« Ostatnia zmiana: Październik 29, 2016, 15:18 wysłana przez Orionid »

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« Odpowiedź #92 dnia: Wrzesień 25, 2016, 10:43 »
65 lat temu 20 września 1951 odbył się udany powrót na Ziemię małpy Yorick i 11 myszy, które zostały wystrzelone rakietą Aerobee-19 na wysokość 72 km. Małpa i 2 myszy z uwagi na długie oczekiwanie w  wysokiej temperaturze  w kapsule lądującej nie przeżyły.

Aerobee-19: 65 years after animal flight that paved the way for Project Mercury
September 20, 2016 by Chris Gebhardt

Dubbed the “arkful of animals” flight, Aerobee-19 launched on 20 September 1951, reaching an altitude of 72 km (44.7 miles) before beginning its descent back to Earth. (...)

Where the Aerobee-12 flight failed, Aerobee-19 succeeded, parachuting safely to the New Mexican desert with all 11 mice and its rhesus monkey occupants in healthy condition.

However, technicians were not quick to recover the capsule, which sat in the hot desert sun inside an unventilated capsule.

Yorick and two of the 11 mice died of heat prostration awaiting recovery – making the flight only a partial success in terms of its overall goals of proving that recovery was possible and safely recovering all animals.

Importantly, though, Aeromedical Aerobee-19 was a huge success for the U.S. human rocket industry in that it proved that U.S. technology could successfully launch and land living creatures. (...)

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #93 dnia: Wrzesień 27, 2016, 13:11 »
20 lat temu 26 września 1996 Shannon Lucid na pokładzie promu kosmicznego Atlantis w misji STS-79 powróciła po Ziemię po 188- dniowym locie.

Została pierwszą Amerykanką biorącą udział w długim pobycie na orbicie. Do tej pory jest najstarszą kobietą , która brała udział w tego typu locie.
Wtedy została też astronautą NASA o najwyższym nalocie (  223:02:52:18) 
Stała się też pierwszą kobietą , która 5 razy poleciała w kosmos.

W 2007 Shannon Lucid odwiedziła Polskę.,61,1541670,art,t,id,tm.html,nId,192428

Amerykańska astronautka we Wrocławiu
Aneta Augustyn

Najdłużej przebywająca w kosmosie kobieta, amerykańska astronautka Shannon Lucid opowiadała w czwartek we Wrocławiu o swoich doświadczeniach z misji kosmicznych.

Amerykanka przyleciała do Polski na zaproszenie Polskiej Akademii Nauk w związku z 50-leciem ery kosmicznej - dokładnie pół wieku temu wystrzelono pierwszego sztucznego satelitę, radzieckiego Sputnika. Shannon Lucid spędziła w kosmosie aż 223 dni - brała udział w pięciu misjach kosmicznych, na pokładach Discovery, Atlantis, Columbia i Mir.

W czwartek na Wydziale Fizyki i Astronomii Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego opowiadała o biologicznych eksperymentach i pracach technicznych prowadzonych na promach: - To wcale nie jest takie proste zamontować jakąś część, kiedy człowiek ma na sobie siedem warstw kombinezonu i nieporęczne rękawice.

- Nie bardzo przepadałam za ćwiczeniami fizycznymi, a podczas lotu musiałam, przypięta pasami, przez dwie godziny dziennie ćwiczyć na bieżni i rowerku. Badaliśmy wpływ wysiłku na ludzki organizm w przestrzeni kosmicznej.

Za najtrudniejszą w kosmosie uważa umiejętność zgodnego przebywania z innymi. - Jeśli masz kogoś dosyć, w normalnej sytuacji możesz po prostu wyjść. Tutaj takiej opcji nie było - śmiała się.

Amerykanka pobiła także rekord w kategorii: "nie-rosyjski astronauta najdłużej przebywający na stacji Mir". Spędziła na niej dokładnie pół roku. - Jestem szczęściarą, że mogłam tam współpracować z tak wspaniała ekipą - wspomina.

Urodzona w Szanghaju w rodzinie misjonarzy baptystów i wychowana w Oklahomie dr Lucid została wybrana przez NASA w 1978 roku. Zdecydowało jej biochemiczne wykształcenie. - Marzyłam o kosmosie już jako mała dziewczynka, podobnie zresztą jak teraz moja wnuczka. Kiedyś wieczorem siedzimy razem w domu i patrzymy na niebo. "Babciu, chyba strasznie daleko jest do tego księżyca?", pyta Amberle. "No, daleko", potwierdzam. "Babciu, a jakbyśmy sobie do niego drabinę przystawiły?".


Launched to Mir aboard Atlantis on STS-76 in March 1996, it was not NASA’s or Russia’s intent to keep Lucid aboard the station for so long. In fact, she was scheduled to return to Earth on 9 August, after 140 days, which would still have positioned her ahead of Thagard on the U.S. national experience table, though somewhat short of Kondakova’s 169-day empirical record for woman. However, following Columbia’s STS-78 launch in June 1996, NASA found worrisome damage to the field joint of the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs), apparently caused by the leakage of hot gases through a total of six discrete joints. It was a catastrophic “blow-by” of the booster’s rubberized O-ring seals which had caused the loss of Challenger in January 1986. Upon close inspection, it was found that the gas-path in the case of STS-78’s boosters had not penetrated their capture joints and, correspondingly, the SRBs had performed within their design requirements.

For all six astronauts, it was the first time that they had seen Lucid in over six months and Wilcutt, for one, was amazed at the extent to which she had adapted and become a creature of weightlessness. “All the long-duration crew members who spent time on Mir said that after about a month, they noticed a difference in themselves,” he told a Smithsonian interviewer, several years later. “They’d truly adapted to zero-G. I could see it with Shannon Lucid. She was so graceful; there was never an unnecessary motion. She could hover in front of a display when anyone else would be constantly touching something to hold their position.”

Lista kobiet , które odbyły lub są przewidziane do długoterminowych kosmicznych ekspedycji:

Jelena  Kondakowa  (1957)
169:05:21:20           1994/95 Mir

Shannon  Lucid  (1943)
188:04:00:09          1996 Mir

Susan  Helms  (1958)
167:06:40:49      2001  Expedition 2

Peggy  Whitson  (1960)
184:22:14:23   2002  Expedition  5
191:19:07:05  2007/2008  Expedition  16
Misja planowana 2016/2017   Expedition 50/51

Sunita  Williams  (1965)
194:18:02:01  2006/2007 Expedition 14/15
126:23:13:17  2012  Expedition  32/33

Sandra  Magnus  (1964)
133:18:17:47  2008/2009    Expedition  18

Nicole  Stott  (1962)
090:10:44:43  2009  Expedition  20/21

Tracy  Caldwell-Dyson  (1969)
176:01:18:38  2010    Expedition 23/24

Shannon Walker  (1965)
163:07:11:34  2010   Expedition 24/25

Catherine  Coleman  (1960)
159:07:17:15  2010/2011   Expedition 26/27

Karen  Nyberg  (1969)
166:06:17:36  2013      Expedition 36/37

Jelena  Sierowa  (1976)
167:05:42:40  2014/2015  Expedition  41/42

Samantha Cristoforetti  (1977)
199:16:42:43  2014/2015  Expedition 42/43

Kathleen  Rubins  (1978)
Lot w toku 2016 Expedition 48/49

Jeanette  Epps  (1970)
Misja planowana    2018  Expedition 56/57

Serena  Aunon  (1976)
Misja planowana  2018/2019  Expedition 57/58
Do tej pory  14 kobiet brało udział w długich lotach. Kosmiczny debiut dwóch astronautek jest planowany.
2. astronautki brały udział 2 razy w długich wyprawach. Peggy Whitson  przygotowuje się do trzeciej długiej wyprawy.
W sumie  na dzień dzisiejszy razem z planowanymi wyprawami 16 pań  wzięło lub weźmie udział w  19 długich lotach kosmicznych.
Najkrótszy lot w tej kategorii odbyła Nicole  Stott  090:10:44:43  , a najdłuższy Samantha Cristoforetti  199:16:42:43.
« Ostatnia zmiana: Październik 29, 2016, 15:31 wysłana przez Orionid »

Polskie Forum Astronautyczne

Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #93 dnia: Wrzesień 27, 2016, 13:11 »

Offline Orionid

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #94 dnia: Październik 03, 2016, 13:59 »
40 lat temu 17 września 1976 miało miejsce  uroczyste oddanie do użytku OV-101, który w wyniku nacisku fanów Star Treka otrzymał nazwę Enterprise.
Wahadłowiec przeznaczony był do testowych lotów atmosferycznych, których odbył 5.

Enterprise’s name has become the stuff of space program legend. Original plans, dating to July 1972, when NASA contracted with North American Rockwell to build a pair of Earth-orbiting shuttles: one named “Constitution” (OV-101) and the other “Columbia” (OV-102). The former would support the ALT series, before being upgraded for orbital missions, whilst Columbia would kick off a space career on her very first flight. However, a mass influx of over 100,000 letters to then-President Gerald Ford from Star Trek fans prompted NASA to rename Constitution as “Enterprise.” The space agency reportedly did not approve of the new name, preferring to honor the forthcoming 1977 bicentennial of the U.S. Declaration of Independence. But when Enterprise rolled out of Rockwell’s Air Force Plant 42 at Palmdale, Calif., on 17 September 1976, the fans’ wish was visibly granted. (...)

Flying Enterprise for the first time were Commander Fred Haise—a veteran of the ill-fated Apollo 13 mission—and Pilot Gordon Fullerton. Haise had been assigned to shuttle development duties since April 1973 and from February 1976 had led the ALT Program. Joining him on the program were Fullerton and fellow astronauts Joe Engle and Dick Truly. “The initial Approach and Landing Tests on the orbiter were, in fact, just that,” recalled Engle in a May 2004 oral history for NASA, “and that was to place the vehicle in aerodynamic flight by itself and exercise all of the systems that we could: hydraulic systems, electronic systems, the flight control systems and landing gear, in a real flight environment, and to gather as much as flight test information as far as stability and control parameters and performance parameters and do it partly in an ideal environment. In other words, not have to worry about coming in to land and the wind coming up and giving you a big cross wind, or low clouds or things like that. You could take off and an hour later, drop, and you knew what the weather was going to be. Of course, at Edwards, it was normally pretty good anyway. But you could set yourself up ideally over the lakebed, too, so you didn’t have the navigation concerns that you do coming back from orbit. (...)

Haise and Fullerton were meant to take Enterprise on her first captive-active flight on 17 June (1977), but were postponed by 24 hours when one of the shuttle’s computers required replacement. At 8:06 a.m. PDT the next morning, the 400,000-pound (180,000-kg) SCA lumbered off the Edwards runway, with the 150,000-pound (68,000-kg) Enterprise on her back. It was a strange sensation, sitting aboard the shuttle at such a great height above the runway. “When we first rode on top,” Haise recalled in a NASA oral history interview, “you couldn’t see the 747, no matter how [much] you’d try to lean over and try to look out the side windows. Not even a wingtip! It was kind of like a magic carpet ride. You’re just moving along the ground and you take off; and something below you [was carrying you]; you knew it was there, but you couldn’t see what was taking you aloft. It was also deceptive sitting up that high. Things always looked like it was going slower than it was, for your taxiing and particularly the first takeoff.” For an instant, Haise was convinced that SCA pilot Fitz Fulton had rotated too early. “It didn’t look like we were going fast enough.” (...)

By the end of October 1977, Haise, Fullerton, Engle, and Truly would have wrapped up no fewer than five landings and closed out the ALT program in spectacular style. “It handled better, in a piloting sense, than we had seen in any simulation,” said Haise, “either our mission simulators or the Shuttle Training Aircraft. The term I use is: it was tighter. [It was] crisper in terms of control inputs and selecting a new attitude in any axis and being able to hold that attitude; it was just a better-handling vehicle than we’d seen in the simulation.” Initial hopes that Enterprise would be outfitted as a spaceworthy vehicle ultimately came to nothing, as it proved more cost-efficient to upgrade Structural Test Article (STA)-099. Enterprise was briefly considered for potential upgrade again after the loss of Challenger, but lived out her days firstly in the Smithsonian and, from 2012, in the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in New York.
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« Odpowiedź #95 dnia: Październik 24, 2016, 02:45 »
O milowych krokach w podboju Marsa:

15 lat temu  24 Października 2001 najstarsza funkcjonująca obecnie sonda marsjańska Mars Odyssey weszła na orbitę wokół Czerwonej Planety.
Obecnie trwające misje marsjańskie:

1 NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey
07.04.2001 start
24.10.2001 Wejście na orbitę wokółmarsjańską 

2 ESA Mars Express
02.06.2003 start
25.12.2003   Wejście na orbitę wokółmarsjańską

3 NASA MER-B    Mars Exploration Rover-B  Opportunity
08.07.2003 start
25.01.2004 sonda wylądowała na dnie niewielkiego krateru o średnicy około 20 metrów i głębokości 1,8 metra

4 NASA MRO    Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
12.08.2005 start
10.03.2006  wejście na orbitę wokółmarsjańską 

5 NASA Curiosity   MSL (Mars Science Laboratory)
26.11.2011 start
06.08.2012  sonda wylądowała w kraterze Gale zlokalizowanym na południe od równika

6 ISRO MOM  Mars Orbiter Mission   [MangalYaan]
05.11.2013 start
24.09.2014 wejście na orbitę wokółmarsjańską 

7 NASA MAVEN   Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution
18.11.2013 start
22.09.2014  wejście na orbitę wokół Marsa 

8 ESA-Roskosmos  ExoMars 2016  Trace Gas Orbiter TGO
14.03.2016 start
19.10.2016 wejście na orbitę wstępną (hp=346 km, ha=95228 km, i=9,7°, T=4,2 sola)
« Ostatnia zmiana: Październik 29, 2016, 15:22 wysłana przez Orionid »

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« Odpowiedź #96 dnia: Październik 29, 2016, 18:21 »
21 lat temu 7 lipca 1995 Norman  Thagard  na pokładzie Atlantisa w locie
STS-71 powrócił na Ziemię po 115 dniach spędzonych na orbicie.

Po 21 latach został  ustanowiony nowy rekord długości  lotu kosmicznego Amerykanina.
Dr Thagard został pierwszym amerykańskim astronautą, który poleciał w kosmos rosyjskim statkiem kosmicznym i pierwszym Amerykaninem, który wracał na Ziemię na pokładzie innego statku niż wystartował.

Na orbicie spotkał Walerija  Polakowa , który kończył rekordowy lot kosmiczny oraz Jelenę Kondakową , która jako pierwsza kobieta odbywała długotrwały pobyt na orbicie.

For Thagard, selection in February 1994 to fly the first NASA “increment” to Mir was a prize he had sought for several years. In the summer of 1991, as he was preparing to fly his fourth shuttle mission, STS-42, he heard about a U.S.-Russian agreement, which would involve a long-duration flight to the Russian space station. A year later, Thagard was chatting with fellow astronaut Dave Hilmers about what might entice them to remain at NASA; Hilmers had already accepted a place at medical school, but Thagard was intrigued by the possibility of embarking on a mission with the Russians. His mind was made up when Chief Astronaut Dan Brandenstein asked him, point-blank, if he would fly. Thagard’s response was immediate: “Absolutely!” [...]

On 3 February 1994, NASA formally announced Thagard’s selection, and, bowing to Russian pressure, also assigned a backup crew member in the form of veteran shuttle astronaut Bonnie Dunbar. They would both embark on a year of preparations at the Star City training center, on the forested outskirts of Moscow, in readiness for launch with two Russian cosmonauts aboard Soyuz TM-21 in March 1995. [...]

Funding took two months to arrive between JSC in Houston and Star City, since it had to be funneled through NASA Headquarters, the U.S. State Department, the U.S. embassies in Paris and Moscow, before it ended up (in cash) in the hands of Ken Cameron for distribution to his team. Shipments of the astronauts’ own items from home, including clothes, irons, and ironing boards, were notoriously slow to arrive, and since the arrangement between Russia and the United States was strictly quid pro quo, the astronauts were told in no uncertain terms that they should learn to “live like Russians.” On one occasion, Ken Cameron got hold of some margarita mix and the three astronauts watched videos and ate popcorn as Thagard’s noisy washer breakdanced its way across the bathroom and dislodged the sink from the wall. “That was our entertainment,” said Dunbar, “for several weeks.” [...]

część 1 artykułu

In traditional fashion, Dezhurov, the commander, symbolically requested permission to conduct the Soyuz TM-21 mission from the commanding general. Arriving at the base of the launch pad, the crew was faced with the gargantuan rocket which would deliver them into orbit. Unlike the United States, where all non-essential personnel were kept away from the launch pad, it surprised Thagard that he, Dezhurov, and Strekalov had to literally wade through a gaggle of people to reach the elevator which took them to the top of the rocket. “You’re literally brushing by them as you go through,” he told the NASA oral historian. As he ascended the steps, someone called his name in an American ascent; Thagard turned to respond and almost lost his grip. Composing himself, he waved back, then walked to the top of the steps and strode across to the elevator, which took the crew up to boarding level. Thagard was first to clamber through the side hatch of Soyuz TM-21’s orbital module, followed by Strekalov, who quickly moved into his couch on the left-hand side of the descent module. “He had to turn on electrical power,” recalled Thagard, “so Gennadi went in, and then I went in and then Veloga [Dezhurov] went in, and then, of course, you shut the hatch.” By this stage, about two hours remained before liftoff. Although Thagard and Strekalov both had windows on their respective sides of the cabin, they were covered by the rocket’s aerodynamic shroud, offering them no view of the titanic events which would soon engulf them as they left Earth. [...]

Meanwhile, in low-Earth orbit, Dezhurov, Strekalov, and Thagard were bound for a two-day rendezvous to reach Mir. Three hours after reaching orbit, the crew performed the first of two maneuvering system burns to raise their orbit slightly, and, early on 15 March, executed a small “phasing” burn and two further rendezvous burns to adjust their altitude to match that of the space station itself. During those two days, the crew was confined to the cramped descent and orbital modules of the Soyuz, and, although there were rudimentary toilet facilities, the complete lack of privacy had led many cosmonauts to avoid responding to the need “to go” for as long as possible. The toilet, said Thagard, was “a funnel-like affair that’s attached with a flexible tube to the structure,” but stressed that “folks usually tried to get themselves in a position so they don’t have to defecate while they’re on the Soyuz.” Most spacefarers took enemas before launch, as Thagard did, and he noticed that the probability of suffering space sickness was reduced aboard the more confined Russian craft.[...]

część 2

Opis bez retuszu i z ciekawymi szczegółami przygód dr Thagarda związanych z lotem na  Mirze :

Dr. Polyakov gave Thagard good reason for his cheerfulness. Thagard said, "He didn’t look like a person—either from a physical or a psychological standpoint—who had been on a space station for over 141⁄2 months. His legs were just as big as tree trunks, and he was in a great mood. Of course, I’m sure knowing that he was going home in a few days would probably put him in a great mood. Nonetheless, I got the feeling that he had done perfectly fine." Thagard was very interested in the physical and psychological aspects of being in space for months at a time. Seeing Polyakov reassured him that "indeed, at least some humans can do it without much of a problem, and he was clearly one of those who did…. I figured, gee, if he did that well after 141⁄2 months, I probably didn’t have much to worry about, for just three [months]." [...]

Command structure was another thing that Thagard noted early in the flight. Although he was still a rookie at spaceflight, Mir-18’s Commander Vladimir Dezhurov became more authoritarian than he had been before the flight. As the flight progressed, veteran cosmonaut Gennady Strekalov would sometimes chafe under Dezhurov, then "level a blast" at his commander, who would "back off a little." Thagard himself tried Strekalov’s oratorical tactic to a good result. Interpersonal relations warmed during the mission. According to Thagard, "Over the course of time, things just got better and better and better. By the end of the mission, any time Velodya [Dezhurov] would address me, it was always, ‘My friend.’ It was great, but it didn’t start out that way." Other U.S. Mir astronauts would similarly comment that Russian Mir commanders were more autocratic than their U.S. Space Shuttle counterparts, who generally added "please" and "thank you" to their orders.[...]

Deprivation of another kind caused problems, too. This had to do with a human metabolism investigation and Thagard’s diet. According to Thagard, the Mir-18 food supply consisted of a basic, repeating, six-day menu. Four of the entrees were canned fish, which Thagard loathed. All the basic foods were bar-coded so crewmembers could record with a scanner exactly what they ate. Also onboard was a supply of more flavorful supplementary foods. But these were not bar-coded, and crewmembers had been asked to record everything they ate. However, such a dEarth of paper existed onboard Mir that none was available to keep a meal log. Thagard gave this example: "Later on, when we moved the solar battery and had to reroute the electrical cables, … Gennady took marker pens and wrote out the new schematics on an aluminum can lid." Meals and their recording became a situation of diminishing returns.

Thagard biking on Mir "The upshot," Thagard said, was that "the food supply was not adequate for any of us." Dezhurov and Strekalov basically quit the food program. Strekalov told Thagard that half his food was coming from the supplementary supply. "But I," Thagard said, "religiously adhered to the requirement, and I was constantly hungry." Worse, he was losing weight. [...]
« Ostatnia zmiana: Październik 29, 2016, 19:32 wysłana przez Orionid »

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« Odpowiedź #97 dnia: Listopad 11, 2016, 14:10 »
50 lat temu 11 listopada 1966 nastąpił start Gemini XII
Był to 10. i zarazem ostatni lot statku z tej serii.
Buzz Aldrin po 3. EVA z 5,5 godzinami ustanowił nowy rekord.

For Aldrin, whose Nassau Bay backyard bordered that of the Bassetts, it was a devastating way to receive a flight assignment. Three weeks after the accident, he and his wife, Joan, visited Jeannie Bassett to tell her the news. “I felt terrible,” he wrote, “as if I had somehow robbed Charlie Bassett of an honor he deserved.” Jeannie responded with quiet dignity and characteristic grace: her husband, she explained, felt that Aldrin “should have been on that flight all along … I know he’d be pleased.” (...)

Lovell and Aldrin’s four-day mission had brought Project Gemini to a spectacular ending and demonstrated rendezvous, docking, gravity gradient tethered operations, and the ability of skilled human pilots to calculate a rendezvous with sextants and charts and a slide rule and pencil. Such human skills, using, in Aldrin’s own words, the “Mark One Cranium Computer,” had relaxed managers’ concerns about the viability of astronauts being able to perform a manual rendezvous, if necessary, in orbit around the Moon.
« Ostatnia zmiana: Listopad 11, 2016, 14:12 wysłana przez Orionid »

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« Odpowiedź #98 dnia: Listopad 11, 2016, 17:13 »

Dokładnie 34 lata temu (11.11.1982) amerykański wahadłowiec po traz pierwszy wystartował do misji operacyjnej. Ładunkiem wyniesionym na orbitę były dwa komercyjne satelity telekomunikacyjne.

Wahadłowcem tym była Columbia w misji STS-5 ( (dopiero w STS-6 pierwszy raz poleciał inny orbiter - Challenger), a dowódcą 4-osobowej załogi był weteran jeszcze z programu Apollo, Vance Brand (

« Ostatnia zmiana: Listopad 11, 2016, 17:21 wysłana przez JSz »

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« Odpowiedź #99 dnia: Listopad 12, 2016, 09:09 »
W czasie lotu miało dojść do pierwszego EVA w ramach programu STS. Na początku choroba lokomocyjna Josepha Allena i Williama  Lenoira przeszkodziła w jego wykonaniu , a potem usterka systemu wentylacyjnego skafandrów.
Dzisiaj już tylko połowa składu załogi misji STS - 5 żyje.
Uznano, że orbiter się sprawdził podczas misji testowych i począwszy od tego lotu zrezygnowano z  dwóch  foteli mogących ewakuować część załogi.

STS-5, the fifth flight of Columbia and the first operational mission, was intended to feature the deployment of a pair of commercial telecommunications satellites, SBS-3 for Satellite Business Systems and Anik-C3 for Telesat Canada, as well as the first Shuttle-based EVA by Mission Specialists Bill Lenoir and Joe Allen. The two satellites and their attached solid-rocket motors were each encased in a lightweight sunshade, protected by clamshell doors, and their carriage on STS-5 had netted NASA a first fee of $18 million. The agency hoped that the Shuttle would ultimately out-compete for commercial contracts with Europe’s new Ariane rocket, by also offering ‘free’ rides into orbit for customers’ representatives.

More trouble was afoot, however, when they tried again to perform the EVA on 15 November. When the men finally donned their suits and ran through the standard checks, a problem was noticed with Allen’s ventilation fan; it sounded “like a motorboat”. In effect, it was starting up, running unexpectedly slowly, surging, struggling and finally shutting down. Nor was Allen’s suit the only one giving trouble. Lenoir’s primary oxygen regulator – which would have been used during his pre-breathing exercises and throughout the EVA – failed to generate enough pressure. Some of the astronauts’ helmet-mounted floodlights also refused to work properly. After fruitless efforts to troubleshoot the problems, the EVA was cancelled and deferred to the next Shuttle mission, STS-6.

STS-5 and the impact of Apollo-era decision-making
by Paul Torrance
Monday, September 10, 2007

Some time between June 27 and November 11, 1982, the Apollo-era managers at NASA made a key decision: they ordered the removal the crew escape provisions from the Space Shuttle. Not that the shuttle crew escape provisions were any good—in fact, the crew escape system was never “crash dummy” tested as was done with the Apollo launch escape system (LES) and the modern automobile. Unlike the Apollo LES, two SR-71-style Blackbird ejection seats were basically just put into the Space Shuttle without “crash dummy” testing.
« Ostatnia zmiana: Listopad 12, 2016, 16:01 wysłana przez Orionid »

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« Odpowiedź #100 dnia: Listopad 12, 2016, 09:23 »
W czasie tej misji zostały wykonane pierwsze spacery kosmiczne w ramach programu STS.

Jak cytujesz poniżej, *miały* zostać wykonane - ale nie zostały.
Waldemar Zwierzchlejski

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« Odpowiedź #101 dnia: Listopad 12, 2016, 17:22 »
35 lat temu 12 listopada 1981 Columbia po raz pierwszy powróciła na orbitę.
Jedyny raz w programie STS załoga składała się z astronautów bez wcześniejszego kosmicznego doświadczenia.
Po raz pierwszy zostało przetestowane kanadyjskiej produkcji ramię robotyczne wahadłowca RMS.
Wyprawa  STS-2   została skrócona o trzy dni z powodu awarii ogniwa paliwowego.
Columbia po 37 okrążeniach Ziemi wylądowała w bazie Edwards.

STS-2 got underway with a perfect liftoff at 10:09 a.m. EST, reaching space within nine minutes. Columbia’s second launch suffered only from the need to shut down one of the APUs slightly earlier than expected, due to high oil temperatures. After dumping residual propellant into space—a process terminated 16 seconds early, due to the APU problem—Engle and Truly performed a pair of Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) firings to circularize their orbit at approximately 120 miles (193 km) x 125 miles (201 km), inclined 38 degrees to the equator. The low orbit was needed on STS-2 to permit OSTA-1 to gather its data at the required resolution. The astronauts also opened the payload bay doors to expose the scientific platform to space for the first time.

Although only the first two OMS burns were necessary to establish Columbia in her correct orbit, two additional firings were performed to raise the altitude to 137 miles (220 km). The third burn was split into two halves in order to satisfy one of STS-2’s flight test objectives: an ability to turn off an OMS engine and restart it a few minutes later in the vacuum of space, with no ill-effects. The fourth firing then demonstrated the ability of the OMS to feed the right-hand engine with the left-hand pod and vice versa. All of the tests proved successful.

What did not turn out to operate well, only a couple of hours into the mission, was one of the fuel cells. This had damaging implications for the accomplishment of the scheduled five-day mission, during which Engle and Truly were to conduct extensive tests of the RMS in both manual and automatic modes and try out the new shuttle Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suit in the middeck. All that began to change dramatically late on the afternoon of the 12th, when ground controllers spotted a high pH indication on the No. 1 cell. Its overall performance, though, at least at this stage, remained more or less normal.

That, however, would change dramatically for the worse.

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« Ostatnia zmiana: Listopad 12, 2016, 17:24 wysłana przez Orionid »

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« Odpowiedź #102 dnia: Listopad 13, 2016, 17:21 »
2 część artykułu o misji STS-2

(...) The situation deteriorated rapidly and within two hours a sharp voltage drop was recorded on the cell, indicating the probable failure of one or more “stacks” inside it. If that was the case, it meant that the cell’s capability to generate electricity for the orbiter and (as a byproduct) also drinking water for the astronauts, might be compromised. With the likelihood of a contaminated water supply, the No. 1 cell was switched off later that evening, and in response to worries that the water was being electrolyzed—thus forming a potentially explosive mixture—it was also depressurized. Under prescriptive mission rules, all three fuel cells had to be fully operational in order for a mission to continue. Disappointingly, Capcom Sally Ride told Engle and Truly that their mission was being shortened by 60 percent and they would come home the very next day, 14 November, after just 54 hours.

“That’s not so good,” was all a dejected Truly could say. He and Ride had spent a significant amount of time together, working on the RMS development tasks, and it seemed that their efforts were now in vain. The next-best option was to extract as much science from STS-2 as possible in the short time available. A large payload of instruments, provided by NASA’s Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications, dubbed “OSTA-1,” was already gathering atmospheric and environmental data and, indeed, even on the shortened mission Engle and Truly managed to tick-off almost 90 percent of their assigned tasks. (...)

OSTA-1 proved hugely successful, observing Earth with a large synthetic aperture radar antenna, mapping rock and mineral deposits, classifying surface features—water, vegetation, bare land, snow, cloud, and ice—and examining the severity of worldwide carbon monoxide levels. Plankton and chlorophyll levels in the oceans were monitored, and instances of lightning were recorded during orbital daytime and nighttime passes.

Re-entry on 14 November 1981 was dramatic, with 29 maneuvers planned for Engle and Truly during the period from Mach 24 to subsonic speeds. In essence, Engle became the only shuttle commander to fly a manual re-entry. “The rationale behind the maneuvers was [that] we were very anxious to see how much margin the shuttle had in the way of stability and control authority,” he recalled, years later. “Also, in the event that a deorbit had to be made on an orbit that had excessive cross-range to the landing site, in order to get more cross-range rather than S-band back and forth to deplete energy, the technique was to just leave the vehicle in the bank in one direction and keep flying to the landing site, off your straight ground-track toward your landing site. You could increase that cross-range ability by actually decreasing the angle of attack. It allowed the leading edge of the wing to heat up a bit more and would cut down on the total number of missions that a shuttle could fly, but it would allow you to get that extra performance to make it to the landing site. (...)
« Ostatnia zmiana: Listopad 13, 2016, 17:27 wysłana przez Orionid »

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« Odpowiedź #103 dnia: Listopad 15, 2016, 19:21 »
November 15, 1966: Gemini XII Crew Returns to Earth
Nov. 15, 2016

Following the Gemini XII splashdown on Nov. 15, 1966, astronauts Buzz Aldrin, left, and Jim Lovell are welcomed aboard the recovery aircraft carrier, USS Wasp, concluding their four-day mission. Gemini XII was the final flight of the Gemini program, a bridge between the Mercury and Apollo programs, designed to test equipment and mission procedures in Earth orbit and to train astronauts and ground crews for missions to the moon in the 1960s and 1970s. (...)

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« Odpowiedź #104 dnia: Listopad 21, 2016, 06:01 »
20 lat temu 19 listopada 1996 wystartowała do 21. lotu orbitalnego Columbia. Misja STS-80 była najdłuższą w historii programu STS (17d 15h 53m 17s).

W czasie wyprawy umieszczono przejściowo na zewnątrz orbitera przy pomocy RMS  2 patformy do badań naukowych ORFEUS-SPAS II (Orbiting Retrievable Fal and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometr) oraz WSF-3 (Wake Shield Facility).
Dwa EVA nie odbyły się  z powodu problemów ze śluzą powietrzną. Prócz tego przypadku  tylko w misji STS- 5 zostały w ogóle niezrealizowane  zaplanowane spacery kosmiczne.

Story Musgrave stał się pierwszym człowiekiem, który po raz 6. poleciał wahadłowcem. Był wtedy w wieku 61 lat najstarszym człowiekiem w kosmosie. Jest też jedynym astronautą, który odbył  loty kosmiczne na pokładzie wszystkich 5. amerykańskich orbiterów ( Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis, Endeavour, Columbia).
W czasie powrotu Columbii na Ziemię astronauta w pozycji stojącej kręcił film.

The first major objective was the deployment of ORFEUS-SPAS-2, a mouthful of an acronym, which identified the Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer, accommodated on a Shuttle Pallet Satellite. Flying for the second time, after an inaugural mission in September 1993, it was a co-operative venture between NASA and the Deutsche Agentur für Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), the German Aerospace Agency. ORFEUS consisted of a 4-foot-diameter (1.2-meter) telescope, designed to explore very hot and very cold matter in the Universe at far-ultraviolet (90-125 nm) and extreme-ultraviolet (40-90 nm) wavelengths. Virtually invisible to ground-based observers, this region of the electromagnetic spectrum carries the highest density of spectral lines (especially from various states of hydrogen and helium) which are emitted or absorbed by matter of greatly differing temperatures. Combined with an Interstellar Medium Absorption Profile Spectrograph (IMAPS), ORFEUS-SPAS-2 was expected to offer insight into the life-cycles of celestial sources, including white dwarfs, supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei, and star-forming clouds of gas and dust. (...)

However, what was occurring for the very first time on STS-80 was deployment and retrieval operations with two separate satellites, simultaneously. A year earlier, Cockrell had piloted STS-69, which deployed and retrieved the Wake Shield Facility on its second flight, together with a solar physics platform named “SPARTAN,” but in that case the first satellite had been retrieved before the second one was deployed. On STS-80, by contrast, the Wake Shield would make its third orbital flight and would be released into space to fly an unusual, multi-day ballet with both ORFEUS-SPAS-2 and the shuttle. (...)

Deployment of the saucer-shaped Wake Shield got underway on 22 November 1996, about three days into the mission. The events leading up to its release from Columbia were indicative of its nature: for the 11.8-foot-diameter (3.6-meter) Wake Shield was tasked with “growing” thin and extremely pure semiconducting films in the ultra-vacuum environment left in the satellite’s wake as it traveled through space. In order to set up the contamination-free conditions for this lab work, Jones robotically detached the Wake Shield from its berth and positioned it over the side of the shuttle’s payload bay for 2.5 hours. By thus facing the film-growing wake side into the “slipstream” of reactive atomic oxygen, the Wake Shield’s surface would be scoured of interfering compounds, ahead of deployment and operations.

Late on 27 November, the cabin pressure was lowered in order to reduce the amount of time needed for the spacewalkers to pre-breathe pure oxygen. Next morning—a little ironically, with the benefit of hindsight—the crew was awakened by the sound of Robert Palmer’s “Some Guys Have All The Luck.” Sadly, Jernigan and Jones’ EVA fortunes proved ill-starred that day, when the outermost hatch on Columbia’s airlock failed to open.

“Initially, I thought we just had a sticky hatch and the fact that Tammy’s initial rotation wasn’t able to free it up was just an indication that we’d have to put a little more elbow grease into it,” Jones told CNN in a space-to-ground news conference on 2 December. “Certainly, we are feeling some combination of disappointment at the failure of the hatch, but pleasure in being part of this mission that’s been in every other way very successful,” added Jernigan. Both astronauts remained confident that lessons would be learned from the experiment. The airlock hatch handle stopped after about 30 degrees of rotation, making it unable to release a series of latches around its circumference.

Unable to release the hatch dogs using the rotary handle, the EVA crew was told to repressurize the airlock and postpone the EVA while flight controllers looked for a cause—and a fix. “That was the most dismal Thanksgiving dinner I’ll ever consume,” said Jones. “Our EVA had been canceled—we hoped temporarily—and none of us felt very grateful for the experience.”

An engineering team was promptly assembled to determine the most likely cause of the mishap, and Mission Control adjusted the STS-80 crew’s schedule in hopeful anticipation of a second attempt on 29 November. A minor problem was also noted with a signal conditioner in Jones’ suit, and it was decided to replace it should the EVA go ahead. (...)

By the beginning of December, it was increasingly likely that STS-80 would be extended beyond its original duration of 15 days and 16 hours. The mission was formally lengthened to almost 17 days, with a new landing date of 6 December 1996. This allowed one of the crew’s deployable payloads—“ORFEUS-SPAS-2,” the second flight of the Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer, mounted atop a German-built Shuttle Pallet Satellite—to enjoy an additional 24 hours of science-gathering. Other science was undertaken with educational payloads and medical experiments, before ORFEUS-SPAS-2 was retrieved by Jernigan in the small hours of 3 December. All told, this payload employed its far-ultraviolet and extreme-ultraviolet sensors to make 420 observations of 150 celestial objects, including the Moon, several nearby stars, active galactic nuclei, and a quasar. (...)

Aware that STS-80 would be his final mission, Musgrave stood on the flight deck for the entire descent, videotaping the spectacular, trailing re-entry plume, through Columbia’s overhead windows, from Mach 25 through Mach 12. “The video is lousy, because I’m standing up with 80 pounds (36 kg) of gear on, ready for bailout,” he told a Smithsonian interviewer, years later. “I’m taking all the Gs after an 18-day shuttle flight. I have no cooling in my suit, because I’m supposed to be downstairs, plugged into the cooling lines, instead of looking out the windows up on the flight deck. The video is a mess, but for whatever it’s worth, I have it.” Because of the viewing angle through the top cabin windows, Jones told this author, Musgrave’s plume video is actually some of the best reentry footage taken by a space shuttle crew.
« Ostatnia zmiana: Listopad 21, 2016, 06:13 wysłana przez Orionid »

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« Odpowiedź #104 dnia: Listopad 21, 2016, 06:01 »