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Artykuły astronautyczne / [ Spaceflight Now] NASA wrestles with what to do with ISS after 2024
« Ostatnia wiadomość wysłana przez Orionid dnia Maj 21, 2018, 08:07 »
NASA wrestles with what to do with International Space Station after 2024
May 20, 2018 Stephen Clark

Bill Gerstenmaier, associate administrator for NASA’s human exploration and operations directorate (left), and Paul Martin, NASA’s inspector general (right), testify before the Senate Subcommittee on Space, Science, and Competitiveness on May 16. Credit: NASA/Joel Kowsky

Lawmakers last week questioned the Trump administration’s proposal to end direct U.S. government support of the International Space Station in 2025, citing concerns about the economic viability of commercial outposts in low Earth orbit.

In a pair of hearings before Senate and House panels, NASA’s manager in charge of human spaceflight activities, the agency’s inspector general, and independent experts testified on the future of the International Space Station, and the White House’s plans to discontinue government funding of the orbiting research laboratory.

It has been NASA’s goal since the Obama administration to eventually turn over human spaceflight operations in low Earth orbit, a region a few hundred miles in altitude, to commercial companies, freeing up federal funding to pay for expeditions deeper into space.

The Trump administration in February proposed ending direct U.S. government support of the space station in 2025, prompting debate and discussion over whether commercial industry can make a business of building and operating orbiting research facilities staffed by astronauts.

There are numerous unanswered questions facing lawmakers, NASA officials and entrepreneurs studying the issue.

What is the commercial demand for an orbiting laboratory? Can a commercial operator maintain a space station in low Earth orbit without substantial financial support from the government?

What are NASA’s needs for research in low Earth orbit, as the space agency turns its sights toward the moon and Mars? Will China’s planned space station eat into the market for a commercial research complex in orbit? What do the International Space Station’s other partners think about the plan to privatize human space operations in low Earth orbit?

And there are other questions under consideration, such as how much it will cost to transport humans and cargo between Earth and an orbiting space station in the late 2020s.

Paul Martin, NASA’s inspector general, told the Senate’s Subcommittee on Space, Science, and Competitiveness on Wednesday that it is unlikely a commercial operator could wholly take over the space station’s annual budget by 2025.

“Based on our work, we question whether a sufficient business case exists under which private companies can create a self-sustaining and profit-making business using the ISS, independent of significant government funding, Martin said. “From our perspective, it is unlikely that a private entity or entities would assume the station’s annual operating costs, currently projected at $1.2 billion in 2024.

“Such a business case requires robust demand for commercial market activities,” Martin added. “Candidly, the scant commercial interest shown in the station over its nearly 20 years of operation give us pause about the agency’s current plans.”

Expedition 55 flight engineer Ricky Arnold works with an experiment on the International Space Station. Credit: NASA

Two senators expressed their opposition to the station’s privatization during Wednesday’s hearing.

Sen. Ted Cruz, R-Texas, called the Trump administration’s proposal to end federal funding for the space station in 2025 “deeply troubling.”

“Nowhere in federal statute is there a request from Congress seeking a hard deadline to end federal support for ISS, to cross our fingers and hope for the best,” said Cruz, chairman of the Senate subcommittee that oversees NASA. “We’ve seen that act play out too many times in our national space program, and it’s time we learn the lessons of history. Prematurely canceling a program for political reasons costs jobs and wastes billions of dollars.”

The subcommittee’s ranking member, Sen. Bill Nelson, D-Florida, agreed with Cruz.

“Abandoning this incredible orbiting laboratory where they are doing research, when we are on the cusp of a new era of space exploration, would be irresponsible at best, and probably disastrous,” Nelson said.

Nelson said the White House’s proposal to end federal funding of the space station in 2025 was a “random date.”

“So it was a political decision, and as far as this committee is concerned — and I can tell you as far as this senator is concerned — that proposal is dead on arrival,” Nelson said.

“It’s not fair to NASA or to industry to force a transition based on an arbitrary date,” Nelson said. “That decision should be based on factors like NASA’s research requirements and the readiness of industry to take the lead. We need to listen to our scientists and the experts at NASA.”

“We didn’t see the necessity of picking a specific date within the agency, but as part of the administration, we came to the conclusion that picking a date would prompt a serious discussion,” said Bill Gerstenmaier, NASA’s associate administrator for human exploration and operations.

Cruz and Nelson said they agreed on the importance of maintaining support for the space station.

“As long as I am chairman of this subcommittee, the ISS will continue to have strong support — strong bipartisan support — in the United States Congress,” Cruz said.

NASA and its partners have spent more than $100 billion designing, building and operating the space station over three decades. The research facility costs between $3 billion and $4 billion per year to operate, a budget that includes costs for cargo and crew transportation.

Following the privatization model used in cargo and crew transportation after the space shuttle’s retirement, NASA wants to commercialize human spaceflight operations in low Earth orbit in hopes of easing costs and freeing up government funding for deep space missions.

Bigelow Aerospace, which is developing technology for a commercial space station, has proposed installing a large commercial expandable habitat on the International Space Station as a follow-up to ongoing experiments with a smaller module. Credit: Bigelow Aerospace

NASA plans to construct a mini-space station in orbit around the moon in the 2020s for use as a research platform to gain experience with long-duration crew stays farther away from Earth. The Lunar Orbital Platform-Gateway could also be a staging point for landers carrying experiments and astronauts to and from the moon’s surface.

Gerstenmaier said NASA does not intend to give up on human spaceflight in low Earth orbit, but that the agency aims to be one of multiple customers for a potential commercial space station — either a privatized ISS or a new privately-developed platform.

He identified the development of new pharmaceutical drugs and in-space manufacturing as two potential commercial applications for an orbiting space station.

“To be clear, NASA is not abandoning low Earth orbit,” Gerstenmaier said. “We must ensure the right pieces are in place to maintain an operational human preseence in low Earth orbit, whether through a modified ISS program, commercial platforms, or some combination of both.”

A recent audit concluded that NASA will not be able to complete research aboard the International Space Station into the human health risks of long-duration spaceflight, or finish developing new technologies to enable lengthy crewed missions to the moon and Mars, by the end of 2024, according to Martin, the agency’s inspector general.

NASA released a solicitation Thursday asking U.S. companies and research institutions for studies examining the market for a commercial space station in low Earth orbit, detailed business plans, and concepts for orbiting human research outposts. Organizations selected by NASA later this summer will receive up to $1 million each for their studies.

NASA is also asking companies for concepts that may include the attachment of commercial habitats or labs to the forward end of the International Space Station’s Harmony module.

But Martin said the agency must find a way to reduce its expenditures on low Earth orbit human spaceflight programs if it hopes to pay for crewed missions to the moon’s vicinity, and eventually the lunar surface.

“Any assumption that ending direct federal funding (of the International Space Station) frees up $3 to $4 billion beginning in 2025 to use on other NASA exploration initiatives is wishful thinking,” Martin said. “That said, unless the agency receives a substantial increase in funding or can dramatically reduce costs, it will be hard-pressed to continue supporting ISS operations under its current model while attempting to fund other initiatives such as the lunar gateway … a moon landing, and a crewed Mars mission.”

Gerstenmaier said he believes a relatively flat budget, adjusted for inflation and economic growth, could simultaneously support a somewhat reduced low Earth orbit human spaceflight program and NASA’s deep space exploration initiatives.

He said the International Space Station, which has modules originally designed for a 15-year lifetime, could be operated safely through at least 2028, the 30-year anniversary of the launch of the facility’s first elements.

“I think we have a good operational life at least through 2028, and possibly a little bit further beyond that,” Gerstenmaier said. “We just need to continue to watch station, continue to maintain it.

“What we don’t want to have happen is where we’re spending more time doing maintenance than we are doing research,” he said. “At that point, then the utility of station starts to diminish. We have not seen that. Station is very viable at least through 2028.”

In a separate hearing Thursday before the House Science Committee, lawmakers heard testimony from Bhavya Lal, who helped lead a study investigating the viability of a commercially-operated space station at the Institute for Defense Analyses’s Science and Technology Policy Institute.

“This transition (to a commercial space station) can occur in two primary ways,” she said. “The ISS could be privatized, as in all or parts of it could be taken over by a private entity and operated on behalf of the government, much like most DOE (Department of Energy) labs are today. Alternatively, a private sector entity could build, launch and operate a commercial low Earth Orbit based platform for profit.”

Bhavya Lal, a researcher at the Institute for Defense Analyses’s Science and Technology Policy Institute, testifies during a House Science Committee hearing on May 17. Credit: NASA/Joel Kowsky

Lal’s team looked at two different space station configurations, and they assumed that launch prices in 2025 would be reduced by 50 to 75 percent from today’s prices, a prospective price cut she described as an “aggressive assumption.”

“In three of the four scenarios we postulated, revenues did not cover costs,” she said. “Venture capitalists we spoke to indicated that projected revneue streams are too far in the future and too uncertain to warrant making significant investments today. Overall, our analysis showed that it is unlikely the a commercial space station would be economically viable by 2025.”

Lal agreed with Gerstenmaier and Martin that an extension of the space station’s lifetime through 2028 — with operating costs similar to today’s — would take money away from deep space exploration and delay the return of astronauts to the moon.

“It may also take away opportunities from a rapidly burgeoning private sector that feels ready to lead acitvities in LEO,” Lal said.

“The ISS or modules within it could be privatized with a private sector entity operating the station, but paid for largely by the government,” she said. “Depending on how the deal is structured, this could, in principle, yield cost savings, although this cannot be assumed.

“NASA could select a private entity to operate a commercial platform and grant space or request services as a tenant,” Lal said. “While this option is best suited to help LEO commercialization, it will likely require some level of a government subsidy for the commercial operator. In our analysis, an annualized payment of about $2 billion could cover the cost of the platform, even in a case of zero revenues.”

Gerstenmaier said NASA will take the information from the commercial studies to be conducted later this year to help plan the future of the International Space Station.

“We need to see what comes from industry and see what’s reasonable, and then do the budget analysis.”

Once NASA decides to retire and decommission the space station, the complex will be de-orbited over the Pacific Ocean, and most it will burn up during re-entry.

One company that has long planned to develop a commercial space station is Bigelow Aerospace, founded by Robert Bigelow, a billionaire who made his fortune in real estate.

Bigelow announced in February the formation of a subsidiary named Bigelow Space Operations that will manage sales, operations and customer service for Bigelow Aerospace’s space stations. Bigelow has an experimental expandable module currently attached to the International Space Station, the company says it plans to launch two larger expandable modules in 2021.

In a statement accompanying the announcement, Bigelow said the new sales firm will spend “missions of dollars this year” to probe the market for a commercial space station.

“The time is now to quantify in detail the global, national and corporate commercial space market for orbiting stations,” the Bigelow statement said. “This subject has had ambiguity for many years.”

Source: NASA wrestles with what to do with International Space Station after 2024
Mars / Odp: Załogowa wyprawa na Marsa
« Ostatnia wiadomość wysłana przez piools dnia Maj 21, 2018, 06:48 »
Większą produktywność mają uprawy z wykorzystanie hydroponiki i aeroponiki. Można też stosować rośliny karłowate i uprawiać je w szafach uprawowych jedna nad drugą. Dodatkowo sztuczne oświetlenie przez całą dobę skraca cykl wegetacji. To wszystko zmniejsza potrzebną powierzchnię do uprawy roślin.
Co do mięsa to pewnie sojowe albo z bioreaktora. Ewentualnie kurczaki i przepiórki w hodowli klatkowej. Innych opcji. np. transportu krów na Marsa nie wyobrażam sobie.
Ziemia - bezzałogowe / Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Ostatnia wiadomość wysłana przez Orionid dnia Maj 21, 2018, 06:33 »
45 lat temu 14 maja 1973 w ostatnim starcie Saturna V została wyniesiona  na orbitę wokółziemską  największa jednomodułowa stacja orbitalna  Skylab

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NsW86kNLu1k" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NsW86kNLu1k</a>

Zaraz po starcie pojawiły się problemy techniczne w postaci dużych wibracji: 63 sekundy po starcie oderwana została osłona przeciwmeteorytowa laboratorium wraz z jednym z paneli słonecznych. Resztki osłony unieruchomiły przeciwległy panel słoneczny, uniemożliwiając automatyczne rozłożenie po umieszczeniu na orbicie. Aby zaradzić problemom z zasilaniem, stacja manewrowała na orbicie tak, aby skierować w kierunku Słońca panele słoneczne modułu ATM. Takie ustawienie jednak spowodowało nagrzewanie pozbawionego oderwanej osłony laboratorium do ponad 50 °C.

Attitude Control Game: Remembering Skylab's Fateful Launch, 45 Years Ago
By Ben Evans May 20th, 2018

The Saturn V which launched Skylab was visually quite distinct from its predecessors. Although it possessed the S-IC and S-II first and second stages, the place of the third stage (S-IVB) was taken by the inert space station. Photo Credit: NASA

(...) A minute after launch, the Saturn had gone supersonic and, shortly thereafter, passed through a period of maximum aerodynamic turbulence—nicknamed “Max Q”—during which atmospheric forces on the vehicle reached their most severe. It was a few seconds later that telemetry data indicated something was not right. The data almost went unnoticed, but indicated a premature deployment of Skylab’s protective micrometeroid shield and its No. 2 solar array. If the telemetry was for real, and was not an instrumentation error, it signalled very bad news and meant that both shield and array were as good as lost and the future of the mission thrown into doubt. For now, however, the assumption was made that it was nothing more than a spurious signal. (...)

The micrometeoroid shield had a secondary duty to provide thermal control; its external face carried a black and white pattern to absorb heat, whilst its internal face and the hull of the station itself were covered with gold foil to regulate the heat flow between them. As long as the shield stayed in place, the system would have kept Skylab on the cool side of the comfort zone…but now that it was gone, or disabled, the gold would begin to absorb heat and render the station uninhabitable. Sensors indicated external temperatures of 82 degrees Celsius (179 degrees Fahrenheit) and, inside, around 38 degrees Celsius (100 degrees Fahrenheit). Thermal engineers were already predicting that these would soon climb further, respectively, endangering the astronauts’ food stocks, camera film and perhaps even the physical structure of Skylab itself.

There were other dangers, too. Under such high temperatures, materials inside the station could “outgas”, producing contaminants which might suffocate a crew of astronauts. Lining the interior walls was a thick layer of polyurethane foam and fibreglass, one of whose constituents was a particularly nasty chemical, known as “toluene diisocynate”, which is today listed as one of the dozen most hazardous substances to human health. At temperatures of around 199 degrees Celsius (390 degrees Fahrenheit), it would begin to break down and release toxicity into Skylab’s atmosphere. In the days that followed, a set of gas-sampling tubes were prepared for Pete Conrad’s crew to measure the levels of toluene before entering the station. (...)
Księżyc / Odp: Chang'e 4R Sroczy Most - satelita komunikacyjny
« Ostatnia wiadomość wysłana przez Orionid dnia Maj 21, 2018, 05:27 »
Wystrzelono retranslator dla CE-4
  20.05. o 21:28 z Xichang wystrzelona została RN CZ-4C, która wyniesie na trajektorię wiodącą do punktu libracyjnego L2
układu Ziemia-Księżyc Queqiao (CE-4R) - satelitę retransmisji danych z sondy księżycowej Chang'e-4 oraz subsatelity
Longjiang 1 i 2 (DSLWP-A1 i A2).

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TC1bsPDsKgQ" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TC1bsPDsKgQ</a>

Udany start księżycowego Chang’e-4R

Start rakiety CZ-4C z satelitą Queqiao / CNSA

20 maja przed północą z Chin wystartowała rakieta nośna CZ-4C. Na pokładzie znajdowała się misja Chang’e 4R – satelita telekomunikacyjny, który pozwoli przeprowadzić misję lądownika i łazika Chang’e 4.

Pod koniec roku Chiny planują przeprowadzić misję lądownika i łazika Chang’e 4, która wylądują w kraterze Von Karmana na niewidocznej z Ziemi “ciemnej stronie Księżyca”. Misja będzie bazowała sprzęcie rozwiniętym dla Chang’e 3 z 2013 roku.

Ponieważ w nadchodzącym przypadku bezpośrednia komunikacja z lądownikiem i łazikiem będzie niemożliwa, koniecznym było wystrzelenie dedykowanego satelity telekomunikacyjnego. Chang’e 4R – nazywany również Queqiao (czyt. Ćueciao) wystartował na pokładzie rakiety nośnej CZ-4C z kosmodromu Xichang o godzinie 23:28 CEST.

Nazwa pochodzi z chińskiej legendy, w której stado srok raz na rok tworzy most wzdłuż Drogi Mlecznej, który pozwala spotkać się kochankom, Pasterzowi oraz Tkaczce.

Będzie to już drugie użycie satelity telekomunikacyjnego w badaniach księżycowych. W 2007 roku japońska sonda Kaguya prowadziła część pomiarów grawitacyjnych przy pomocy dodatkowego satelity przekaźnikowego.

Chang’e 4R zostanie umieszczony na punkcie libracyjnym L2 układu Ziemia-Księżyc, z którego możliwa będzie bezpośrednia komunikacja zarówno z Ziemią, jak i sondą po drugiej stronie Księżyca. Punkt L2 znajduje się około 450 tysięcy km od Ziemi i około 60 tysięcy km od planowanego miejsca lądowania Chang’e 4. Do celu satelita powinien dotrzeć w ciągu ośmiu lub dziewięciu dni.

Orbita Chang’e 4R / CAST

Queqiao został zbudowany przez China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). Waży 425 kg i ma służyć jako przekaźnik przez następne 5 lat. Zasilany jest panelami słonecznymi i wyposażony jest w dużą antenę o szerokości 4,2 metra. Komunikacja z lądownikiem i łazikiem Chang’e 4 będzie odbywać się w pasmach X, zaś ze stacjami naziemnymi w pasmach S.

Schemat komunikacji misji Chang’e 4R / CAST

Na pokładzie satelity znajdują się dwa eksperymenty naukowe: NCLE (Netherlands-China Low-Frequency Explorer, prowadzący nasłuch radioastronomiczny w częstotliwościach od 80kHz do 80mHz oraz laserowy miernik odległości.

Wraz Queqiao wyniesione zostały również satelity Longjiang 1 i 2, które zostaną umieszczone na orbicie o parametrach 300 x 3000 km wokół Księżyca i będą służyły do pomiarów radiowych oraz interferometrycznych.

W przyszłym roku zaplanowane jest wyniesienie kolejnej chińskiej misji księżycowej. Chang’e 5 będzie miała na celu sprowadzenie próbek księżycowych na Ziemię.


China launches relay satellite to explore Moon's far side
Source: Xinhua| 2018-05-21 10:40:50|Editor: Yurou

XICHANG, Sichuan Province, May 21 (Xinhua) -- China launched a relay satellite early Monday to set up a communication link between Earth and the planned Chang'e-4 lunar probe that will explore the Moon's mysterious far side.

The satellite, named Queqiao (Magpie Bridge), was carried by a Long March-4C rocket that blasted off at 5:28 a.m. from southwest China's Xichang Satellite Launch Center, according to the China National Space Administration (CNSA).

"The launch is a key step for China to realize its goal of being the first country to send a probe to soft-land on and rove the far side of the Moon," said Zhang Lihua, manager of the relay satellite project.

About 25 minutes after liftoff, the satellite separated from the rocket and entered an Earth-Moon transfer orbit with the perigee at 200 km and the apogee at about 400,000 km. The solar panels and the communication antennas were unfolded.

Queqiao is expected to enter a halo orbit around the second Lagrangian (L2) point of the Earth-Moon system, about 455,000 km from the Earth. It will be the world's first communication satellite operating in that orbit.

But the mission must overcome many challenges, including multiple adjustments to its orbit and braking near the Moon and taking advantage of the lunar gravity, Zhang said.

In a Chinese folktale, magpies form a bridge on the seventh night of the seventh month of the lunar calendar to enable Zhi Nyu, a weavergirl who is the seventh daughter of the Goddess of Heaven, to meet her beloved husband, cowherd Niu Lang. The couple were separated by the Milky Way.

Chinese scientists and engineers hope the Queqiao satellite will form a communication bridge between controllers on Earth and the far side of the Moon where the Chang'e-4 lunar probe is expected to touch down later this year.

Monday's launch was the 275th mission of the Long March rocket series.

Tidal forces of the Earth have slowed the Moon's rotation to the point where the same side always faces the Earth, a phenomenon called tidal locking. The other face, most of which is never visible from Earth, is the far side or dark side of the Moon, not because it's dark, but because most of it remains unknown.

With its special environment and complex geological history, the far side is a hot spot for scientific and space exploration. The Aitken Basin of the lunar south pole region on the far side has been chosen as the landing site for Chang'e-4. The region is believed to have great research potential.

However, landing and roving require a relay satellite to transmit signals. The Chang'e-4 mission will be more complicated than Chang'e-3, China's first soft landing on the Moon in 2013.

"We designed an orbit around the Earth-Moon L2 point where the relay satellite will be able to 'see' both the Earth and the far side of the Moon," said Bao Weimin, director of the Science and Technology Commission of the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation.

Establishing a communication link is essential for the success of the Chang'e-4 mission, said Bao.

The satellite, weighing about 400 kg and with a designed life of three years, carries several antennas. One, shaped like an umbrella with a diameter of 5 meters, is the largest communication antenna ever used in deep space exploration, said Chen Lan, deputy chief engineer of the Xi'an Branch of the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST).

The satellite could stay in the halo orbit around the L2 point of the Earth-Moon system for a long time by using relatively little fuel, thanks to the gravitational equilibrium at that point.

Queqiao relay satellite launched ahead of Chang’e-4 lunar mission
written by Rui C. Barbosa And Chris Bergin May 20, 2018

A rare diagram of the relay satellite in the Chinese media

(...)The spacecraft is based on the CAST100 small satellite platform, with commonality to the often used DFHSat system that finds its way on to a number of Chinese spacecraft. It has a mass of 425kg and uses a hydrazine propulsion system. (...)

Queqiao (Chang'e 4 Relay, CE 4 Relay)
DSLWP A1, A2 (Longjiang 1, 2)
Agencje i organizacje kosmiczne / Odp: Ariane 6
« Ostatnia wiadomość wysłana przez Orionid dnia Maj 21, 2018, 04:55 »
Do Ariane 5 to ESA zdaje się dopłaca. Nie wiem jak będzie z Ariane 6.

ESA ma klientów na kilka startów rocznie. Niedużo, a biorąc pod uwagę dumpingowe ceny, straty finansowej z ich odejścia raczej nie będzie. Problem w tym, że upadek Ariane 5 i 6, to koniec europejskiego przemysłu rakietowego, a w dużym stopniu w ogóle przemysłu kosmicznego.

ESA czy Arianespace ?

Dlaczego od razu upadek?
Przecież ESA pratycznie co roku wybuduje jakiegoś satelite czy innego orbitera, którego będzie trzeba wynieść w przestrzeń kosmiczną, więc te rakiety Ariane 6 będą miały jakieś zajęcie.

Nawet ESA korzysta z operatora rosyjskiego przy wynoszeniu satelitów lub sond międzyplanetarnych, bo tak taniej wychodzi.
Ariane 6 może być używana , tylko kto będzie dopłacał do interesu w przypadku zbyt małej ilości klientów ?
Mars / Odp: Załogowa wyprawa na Marsa
« Ostatnia wiadomość wysłana przez Robek dnia Maj 21, 2018, 01:10 »
Jak tu wyszło 180 osób na hektar, skoro mnie uczyli w szkole rolniczej, że do wyżywienia jednej krowy przez rok, trzeba 1 hektar pola, a 1 krowa waży 500kg, więc w przeliczeniu to jest 6 może 7 ludzi.

Najwyraźniej szklarnia jest wydajniejsza od pola.

Też trzeba pamiętać o tym że mówię tu o hektarze pola, które jest 3 czy nawet 4 klasy.
A w tych szklarniach to pewnie będzie ziemia 1 klasy, a więc dużo wydajniejsza.
Natomiast i tak te wyliczenia które przedstawiają Rosjanie, są zbyt optymistyczne.
Chyba że ci ludzie którzy będą żyć w tych koloniach, będą trzymani na bardzo ubogiej roślinno ważywnej diecie, i wtedy to faktycznie tego jedzenia nie trzeba aż tak dużych ilości.
Ziemia - załogowe / Odp: ISS - Międzynarodowa Stacja Kosmiczna (2018)
« Ostatnia wiadomość wysłana przez Robek dnia Maj 21, 2018, 01:03 »
Z tego co mi się wydaje to kilka minut temu, bezpośrednio nad moją głową  ;D widziałem przelot ISS.
A dzisiaj widoczność na Niebie jest bardzo dobra, więc nawet mi się trafiło jak nigdy  8)
Mars / Odp: Załogowa wyprawa na Marsa
« Ostatnia wiadomość wysłana przez Borys dnia Maj 21, 2018, 01:00 »
Jak tu wyszło 180 osób na hektar, skoro mnie uczyli w szkole rolniczej, że do wyżywienia jednej krowy przez rok, trzeba 1 hektar pola, a 1 krowa waży 500kg, więc w przeliczeniu to jest 6 może 7 ludzi.

Najwyraźniej szklarnia jest wydajniejsza od pola.
Agencje i organizacje kosmiczne / Odp: Ariane 6
« Ostatnia wiadomość wysłana przez Robek dnia Maj 21, 2018, 00:26 »
Do Ariane 5 to ESA zdaje się dopłaca. Nie wiem jak będzie z Ariane 6.

ESA ma klientów na kilka startów rocznie. Niedużo, a biorąc pod uwagę dumpingowe ceny, straty finansowej z ich odejścia raczej nie będzie. Problem w tym, że upadek Ariane 5 i 6, to koniec europejskiego przemysłu rakietowego, a w dużym stopniu w ogóle przemysłu kosmicznego.

Dlaczego od razu upadek?
Przecież ESA pratycznie co roku wybuduje jakiegoś satelite czy innego orbitera, którego będzie trzeba wynieść w przestrzeń kosmiczną, więc te rakiety Ariane 6 będą miały jakieś zajęcie.
Ziemia - załogowe / Odp: Sojuz MS-09
« Ostatnia wiadomość wysłana przez velo dnia Maj 21, 2018, 00:07 »
Ja również słyszałem o dosyć długim etapie produkowania Sojuza. Coś między 1,5 roku a dwa lata. Przy czym źródło pewnie było na SpaceNews albo u kogoś kumatego z NSF
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