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The Space Review
« dnia: Czerwiec 06, 2020, 07:24 »
The Space Review jest tygodnikiem kosmicznym założonym przez Jeffa Fousta po katastrofie Columbii. Od tamtego czasu ukazało się już 3957 artykułów i recenzji. Co tydzień publikowanych jest 5 tekstów. Założyciel internetowego tygodnika swoje credo przedstawił we wstępnym artykule.
Crew Dragon jest jedną z odpowiedzi na utratę załogi 17 lat temu i pierwszy jego lot załogowy zbiega się z zainicjowaniem cyklicznego zaistnienia TSR na Forum.
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001 02.2003 (2)
002 03.2003






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204 01.2020 (4)
205 02.2020 (4)
206 03.2020 (5)
207 04.2020 (4)

208 05.2020 (4)
209 06.2020 (5)
210 07.2020 (4)
211 08.2020 (4)
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213 10.2020 (4)
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215 12.2020 (3)
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« Odpowiedź #3 dnia: Czerwiec 06, 2020, 07:28 »
Time to ask the big questions
Is Columbia the most tragic example of the failure of the space exploration paradigm?
by Jeff Foust Tuesday, February 11, 2003

Anyone with more than a passing knowledge of the history of space has a few dates etched into their brains: October 4, 1957; April 12, 1961; July 20, 1969. Also there, sadly, are January 27, 1967; January 28, 1986, and now, February 1, 2003. The Space Age has given us its share of triumphs and tragedies, and while the tragedies are relatively modest when put into a global perspective — 21 deaths in just under 42 years of human spaceflight — it makes them no less painful.

Despite these tragedies, the US space program has forged ahead. After Apollo 1 NASA quickly worked to determine the cause of the accident, fix that and other problems with the Apollo spacecraft, and was flying again in time land on the Moon before 1970, as President Kennedy had asked. The interregnum after Challenger was longer — there was no space race with the Soviets then — but in time a revamped shuttle fleet was flying again. In both cases there was broad public support for maintaining a slightly modified status quo.

Today, there has been a desire expressed by many people inside and outside of NASA to quickly determine what happened to Columbia, fix the problem, and start flying again. Even if there wasn’t pressure to get the shuttle flying again so that it can support the International Space Station, this desire is an understandable one, even a noble one: a refusal to give up in the face of adversity, just as in the case with past tragedies. As the saying goes, if you get thrown off a horse, you need to get right back on it — presumably, after figuring out why you got thrown off in the first place.

The danger in this approach is that this gives NASA, or the space community in general, little time to reflect on the current state of space exploration and development. The situation in 2003 is different than 1967, when the space program’s goals were clear cut, or even 1986. Even before the Columbia tragedy, it was clear that the space activities in general worldwide — commercial, civil government, and military — were dysfunctional, if not downright broken. Space access, both manned and unmanned, is still too expensive to support more than a few applications. The reliability of space transportation is also a problem, from numerous launch delays to catastrophic failures, such as the recent failures of a Proton/Block DM and an Ariane 5 ECA. There are too many launch vehicles chasing too few payloads, with, paradoxically, even more expendable vehicles under development. Human space flight relies today on only two vehicles: the Space Shuttle, an expensive vehicle that has now suffered two catastrophic failures in 113 flights; and Russia’s Soyuz, which is chronically underfunded. This puts at risk the tens of billions of dollars invested to date in the International Space Station, a project years behind schedule that has yet to live up to even basic expectations.

Space transportation is not the only focus of problems. The commercial space industry is suffering from an overall glut of supply: from launch vehicles to satellite manufacturers to on-orbit communications capacity. The remote sensing business has failed to materialize, and many of the existing companies are now heavily reliant on government business for their survival. The failures of several satellite communications ventures garnered enough publicity that “Iridium” became synonymous in the business world for any hugely expensive failure.

Government space programs are no better than their commercial brethren. While much has been said about NASA’s continual battles for more funding, it is in far better shape than other programs around the world, which must either beg for a tiny fraction of NASA’s budget or, particularly in ESA’s case, endure internecine battles among its member nations regarding even modest programs. While these agencies are pursuing a number of excellent projects, none of them have the goals or the vision to capture the interest and enthusiasm of the general public. Those proposals that seem to have the best prospects of resonating with the general public — notably, human exploration of Mars — are considered either too expensive or too far in the future to be officially adopted by these agencies.

All of these issues are symptoms of fundamental problems with how we approach space today. Many of these problems are rooted in decisions made years, if not decades, ago. Exploring these decisions can be useful, if only to best understand the process that led to those decisions. However, we are forced to cope with the consequences of those past decisions today. If this is the best we can do to explore and develop the final frontier, we may be stuck on Earth for the foreseeable future.

As stated above, there is a temptation to quickly patch the problem that caused the loss of Columbia and press on. Yet it’s clear that the way we approach space today is filled with problems and pitfalls; Columbia is not the only evidence of this, merely the most visible and the most unfortunate. Rather than get right back on that horse, perhaps its time to ask some more fundamental questions. How fast should we be riding? Where should we be going? And should we even be riding a horse?

That is what The Space Review is about: exploring the fundamental issues and the fundamental problems related to the exploration and development of space. The Space Review is not another news publication — there are already plenty of those available online — but instead an online magazine devoted to the past, present, and future of space exploration. In particular, there will be an emphasis on where we should go from here: the goals organizations should set in space, the destinations we should explore, the technologies we need to make it happen, the policies that help or hinder us, and so on.

What should you do, gentle reader? First of all, please come by every week and check out our latest articles: we plan to publish from one to three articles a week, ranging from in-depth studies of specific topics to short essays and book reviews. Give us feedback, about both the articles and the site: everything here is currently “in beta”, to borrow the jargon of the software industry, so your suggestions can be easily incorporated into the site in the coming weeks. If you have an article or essay you’d like to contribute to the site, please send an email to jeff@thespacereview.com. Oh, yes: be sure to tell your friends and colleagues about us too.

It is my hope that The Space Review can become an effective forum for discussing and debating our future in space. Recent events have made it as clear as ever that if we are truly interested in exploring and developing space, we need to reexamine why and how to best do it. We owe that to the crew of the Columbia and the others who have paid the ultimate price in the exploration of the final frontier.

https://www.thespacereview.com/article/1/1
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/1/2
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« Odpowiedź #4 dnia: Czerwiec 06, 2020, 07:29 »
2/II 2003 [2-3]

2) Columbia lost, but not a nation
by S. Alan Stern Monday, February 17, 2003


The Earth and crescent moon photographed during the STS-107 shuttle mission. (credit: NASA)

The sudden and sad demise of the space shuttle Columbia and her crew on the frontier of space this month provided a sharp reminder of the risks of spaceflight. Simultaneously, the heartfelt national reaction to the accident reminded us of the intimate connection that Americans have with frontiers in general, and space exploration in particular.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/2/1

3) Main engine cutoff
by Jeff Foust Monday, February 17, 2003

Is the American rocket propulsion industry in danger of extinction?


A Rocketdyne XRS-2200 engine, developed for the X-33, runs during a test firing at NASA’s Stennis Space Center in mid-2001. (credit: NASA)

It has been commonplace in recent years to talk about the problems facing the launch industry as if the industry was a monolithic entity. While the launch industry in general does face serious problems, it is not monolithic. Launch vehicles are made of a variety of components, which in many cases are provided by subcontractors. The health of each of those segments of the industry is critical to the future of the overall launch industry. Some segments of the industry, as it turns out, may be hurting more than others.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3/1

3/II 2003 [4-5]

4) A “Grand Challenge” for NASA
by Jeff Foust Monday, February 24, 2003


As NASA moves beyond spacecraft like Mars Exploration Rover (above), the agency will need to invest in autonomous navigation and other technologies. (credit: NASA)

It’s unusual for a story about a road race from Los Angeles to Las Vegas to make the front page of the Los Angeles Times, unless there’s great tragedy—and/or famous celebrities—involved. Yet there it was, in the bottom-left corner of the front page of the Times’ Friday, February 21 issue: a story about a vehicle race between the two cities that is not scheduled to take place for over a year.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4/1

5) The Mars train wreck
by Donald F. Robertson Monday, February 24, 2003


In their search for evidence of life, could future astronauts on Mars do more harm than good? (credit: Pat Rawlings/SAIC for NASA)

Before it even gets underway, human Mars exploration is headed for a political train wreck. The likelihood of trouble is so great that advocates for human exploration of the Solar System probably should look elsewhere—toward a return to Earth’s Moon or asteroid mining expeditions. The problem is life, especially if we find it, but even if we don’t.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/5/1
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« Odpowiedź #5 dnia: Czerwiec 06, 2020, 07:29 »
4/III 2003 [6-7]

6) The silver lining that is the Space Age
by Larry Klaes Monday, March 3, 2003


The SPACEHAB research module in Columbia’s cargo bay was home to dozens of experiments. (credit: NASA)

When one contemplates the tragic loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia and its crew of seven astronauts, it is often hard for many of us to separate our emotions from the reasons why we send human beings into space and why those people willingly accept these daring and dangerous missions into a realm that can quickly end life from only a few missteps.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/6/1

7) Columbia and the media: a one-month report card
by Jeff Foust Monday, March 3, 2003

How have the print and electronic media handled the Columbia tragedy?


NASA administrator Sean O’Keefe has been at the center of the media coverage surrounding the Columbia investigation. (credit: NASA)

The month of February 2003 will not be remembered fondly by most people. A plane crash in Iran killed over 270 people. A subway fire in South Korea killed more than 130. In Chicago, 21 people died trying to escape a nightclub, while a few days later nearly 100 perished in a Rhode Island nightclub blaze. A powerful winter storm dumped over half a meter of snow from Washington DC to Boston, while another deposited a glaze of ice in the south-central US. Terrorist alerts prompted runs on plastic sheeting and duct tape throughout America, as the drums of war beat ever louder in Iraq and North Korea became an increasingly-worrisome nuclear wild card.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/7/1
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/7/2

5/III 2003 [8]

8 ) Space entrepreneurship, buy the book
by Jeff Foust Monday, March 10, 2003


The rollout of Rotary Rocket's Roton ATV prototype in March 1999. (credit: Rotary Rocket Company)

They All Laughed at Christopher Columbus: An Incurable Dreamer Builds the First Civilian Spaceship
By Elizabeth Weil
Bantam Books, 2002
Hardcover, 230 pp.
ISBN 0-553-10886-7
US$24.95/C$37.95
https://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0553108867/spaceviews

Making Space Happen: Private Space Ventures and the Visionaries Behind Them
By Paula Berinstein
Medford Press, 2002
Softcover, 490pp.
ISBN 0-9666748-3-9
US$24.95/C$37.95
https://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0966674839/spaceviews

The late 1990s have become synonymous with the “dot-com” era, when many tens of billions of dollars in venture capital were poured into thousands of startup companies, each promising to use the Internet in general, and the Web in particular, to generate bounties of riches in vast assortment of ways. What most of these companies lacked, though, were valid business plans that showed how those investments would generate revenues and, eventually, profits. Instead, dot-com startups used bizarre currencies of mindshare, eyeballs, and stickiness. When the stream of VC funding tried up at the turn of the century, the startups realized how worthless their currencies were; most are now defunct.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/8/1

6/III 2003 [9-10]

9) The dangers of “creeping determinism”
by Jeff Foust Monday, March 17, 2003


Debris recovered from the space shuttle Columbia is stored in a hangar at the Kennedy Space Center for analysis. (credit: NASA/KSC)

It seems so obvious now, many people observing the Columbia investigation are saying. Foam from the external tank hit the leading edge of the left wing during launch, causing one of the reinforced carbon-carbon tiles there to either fall off or become so damaged it could not prevent hot plasma from getting through 16 days later during reentry. That damage eventually led to the structural failure of the wing and the loss of the orbiter. The images, the paper trail of memos and emails, all seem to show concern among engineers that such an incident during the launch could have caused an accident just like the one that befell Columbia on February 1.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/9/1

10) The launch industry depression: when will it end?
by Jeff Foust Monday, March 17, 2003


A Boeing Delta 4 Medium lifts off from Cape Canaveral on March 10. (credit: Boeing)

Unless you’ve been living in blissful ignorance the last few years, you’re probably painfully aware of the problems the commercial launch industry has been facing. The boom in launch demand in the late 1990s, primarily by geosynchronous (GSO) and nongeosynchronous (NGSO) communications satellites, has gone bust, undone by overcapacity from existing GSO satellites and the stunning business failures of companies like Iridium and Globalstar. The launch vehicle companies, trapped in a cycle of price wars in an effort to capture the few customers available today, are losing money and looking to governments to keep them alive.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/10/1
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« Odpowiedź #6 dnia: Czerwiec 06, 2020, 07:29 »
The search for water: picking landing sites for NASA’s Mars rovers
by Henry Bortman Monday, April 7, 2003
[Editor’s Note: This article originally appeared as a pair of articles published last month by Astrobiology Magazine, and is reprinted here with the kind permission of Astrobiology Magazine.]


Illustration of a Mars Exploration Rover on the surface of Mars. (credit: NASA/JPL)

“Follow the water” is the mantra for NASA’s Mars exploration program. But present-day Mars is so cold, and its atmosphere so thin, that liquid water cannot exist on the planet’s surface. What NASA can look for, though, is evidence that water was present and active on Mars in the distant past. There are strong indications, in images taken by cameras aboard orbiting spacecraft, that features of the Martian landscape have been carved by water. But some scientists argue that these features could have been caused by short-lived torrents of water—flash floods.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/14/1
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« Odpowiedź #7 dnia: Czerwiec 09, 2020, 00:26 »
Review: After LM
by Jeff Foust Monday, June 8, 2020


After LM: NASA Lunar Lander Concepts Beyond Apollo
by John Connolly
NASA, 2020
ebook, 277 pp.
ISBN 978-0-578-62272-9
Free
https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20190031985

When NASA announced the winners of Human Landing System (HLS) awards at the end of April (see “Can NASA land humans on the Moon by 2024?”, The Space Review, May 18, 2020), one thing that was immediately obvious was the diversity of designs. SpaceX proposed a version of its Starship reusable launch vehicle, offering a lander far larger than its counterparts, and one so tall that astronauts would descend to the lunar surface not using a ladder but instead on an elevator. Dynetics, by contrast, proposed a lander with a low-slung crew cabin ringed by drop tanks. Only the “national team” led by Blue Origin offered a lander that looked like a descendent of the Apollo program’s Lunar Module, with an ascent stage mounted on top of a descent stage. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3958/1

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« Odpowiedź #8 dnia: Czerwiec 09, 2020, 00:26 »
Space alternate history before For All Mankind: Stephen Baxter’s NASA trilogy
by Simon Bradshaw Monday, June 8, 2020


Stephen Baxter’s “NASA trilogy” novels offered different looks at alternative histories, or futures, for NASA. (credit: NASA)

For All Mankind, one of the flagship shows of Apple’s original-content Apple TV+ service (see “Wasn’t the future wonderful?”, The Space Review, March 9, 2020), is far from being the first alternate history to reach our screens. Amazon’s adaptation of Philip K. Dick’s The Man in the High Castle is the leading recent example, although the premise has been explored before in series such as Sliders (1995–2000). It is the first such production to specifically take and focus on as its premise an alternate history of human space exploration, overtly diverging from ours in June 1969 when Alexei Leonov becomes the first man on the Moon.[1] (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3959/1

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« Odpowiedź #9 dnia: Czerwiec 09, 2020, 00:26 »
Be careful what you wish for
by Jeff Foust Monday, June 8, 2020


President Donald Trump speaks at the Kennedy Space Center Vehicle Assembly Building after the successful Demo-2 commercial crew launch May 30. (credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

For decades, space advocates have sought presidential leadership in space: a commitment by a president and broader administration to make space a priority and take actions accordingly. That belief was rooted in President John F. Kennedy’s public advocacy for NASA and the goal he set of landing humans on the Moon by the end of the 1960s. NASA’s success in achieving that goal cemented that belief, even if, as historical records revealed decades later, that Kennedy personally was not that interested in space. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3960/1

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« Odpowiedź #10 dnia: Czerwiec 09, 2020, 00:27 »
How has traffic been managed in the sky, on waterways, and on the road? Comparisons for space situational awareness (part 1)
by Stephen Garber and Marissa Herron Monday, June 8, 2020


The growth of both debris in Earth orbit from collisions and explosions as well as active satellites is raising awareness about the need for revised approaches to space traffic management. (credit: ESA)

Disclaimer: the views expressed in this article are solely those of the authors, not of NASA or of the Federal Government.

Most casual observers likely would agree that as the complex space operating environment becomes more crowded with more operating satellites and debris, the topics of space situational awareness (SSA) and space traffic management (STM) deserve more concerted attention. While we’ve had over 60 years of satellites in the large expanse of near-Earth space with only a handful of collisions, this likely will change as space becomes more crowded. To understand what kind of overall STM framework might be both useful and practical, we will examine some of the complexities of current SSA operations. For historical points of comparison, we then will look at literal and figurative “rules of the road” paradigms for traveling on land, sea, and in the air. Curiously, norms and procedures for managing the flights of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), aka “drones”, are evolving faster than those for STM, even though modern drones have flown effectively for fewer years than spacecraft. Some aeronautics researchers have looked at UAS traffic management (UTM) as a possible model for STM.[1] By assessing similarities and differences among how traffic is managed on roads, waterways, and in the air for diverse groups of drivers/pilots, we hope to stimulate careful thought on how inherently global space operations might best be managed in this rapidly evolving era of international capabilities in space, technological change, and commercialization. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3961/1

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« Odpowiedź #11 dnia: Czerwiec 09, 2020, 00:27 »
Imagining safety zones: Implications and open questions
by Jessy Kate Schingler Monday, June 8, 2020


The scarcity of lunar resources like volatiles illustrates the need to deconflict activities on the Moon in a way that is acceptable by all participants. (credit: NASA)

In May, NASA announced its intent to “establish a common set of principles to govern the civil exploration and use of outer space” referred to as the Artemis Accords.[1,2] The Accords were released initially as draft principles, to be developed and implemented through a series of bilateral agreements with international partners. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3962/1

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« Odpowiedź #12 dnia: Czerwiec 16, 2020, 09:13 »
Review: Chasing the Dream
by Jeff Foust Monday, June 15, 2020



Chasing the Dream
by Dana Andrews
Classic Day Publishing, 2020
paperback, 350 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-59849-281-1
US$28.95
https://www.retiredrocketdoc.com/shop

The history of spaceflight is littered with concepts that never, literally or figuratively, got off the ground. The recent NASA book After LM described dozens of designs for lunar landers proposed after the Apollo program, up through the cancellation of the Constellation program a decade ago, none of which got even to the hardware production phase of development (see “Review: After LM”, The Space Review, June 8, 2020). The same is true, of course, for many other proposed launch vehicles and spacecraft. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3963/1

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« Odpowiedź #13 dnia: Czerwiec 16, 2020, 09:13 »
How has traffic been managed in the sky, on waterways, and on the road? Comparisons for space situational awareness (part 2)
by Stephen Garber and Marissa Herron Monday, June 15, 2020


The growth of both debris in Earth orbit from collisions and explosions as well as active satellites is raising awareness about the need for revised approaches to space traffic management. (credit: ESA)

Disclaimer: the views expressed in this article are solely those of the authors, not of NASA or of the Federal Government.

Other traditional “rules of the road”

Taking a step back from the complexities of STM and looking at how traffic historically has been managed in other domains may provide some useful insights. One issue that cuts across land, air, and sea is vehicle worthiness. That is, cars, planes, and boats all need to be registered to ensure their safety, and this may be analogous to the satellite licensing process. Cars go through safety inspections to ensure road worthiness and minimum pollution standards, as well as to ensure we have functioning headlights to see and be seen at night, avoiding collisions. Just as cars, planes, and boats should be visible unless bad weather precludes this, so too should satellites be trackable. The technology for each domain is different, but the goal for all these vehicles is to be identifiable to foster communication and coordination of intended maneuvers. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3964/1
Part 1 https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3961/1

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« Odpowiedź #14 dnia: Czerwiec 16, 2020, 09:13 »
Hugging Hubble longer
by Jeff Foust Monday, June 15, 2020


The Hubble Space Telescope seen by the last servicing mission, STS-125 in 2009. (credit: NASA)

The future of space-based astronomy is delayed. Again.

Last week, Thomas Zurbuchen, NASA associate administrator, confirmed the inevitable: the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) won’t launch next March, as had been the schedule for the last two years. This time, a slowdown in work on the telescope that started this past March because of the pandemic will delay a launch, something that appeared increasingly obvious given the limited work that could be done and the available schedule reserves. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3965/1

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