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Człowiek i Astronautyka => Media => Wątek zaczęty przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 06, 2020, 07:24

Tytuł: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 06, 2020, 07:24
The Space Review jest tygodnikiem kosmicznym założonym przez Jeffa Fousta po katastrofie Columbii. Od tamtego czasu ukazało się już 3957 artykułów i recenzji. Co tydzień publikowanych jest 5 tekstów. Założyciel internetowego tygodnika swoje credo przedstawił we wstępnym artykule.
Crew Dragon jest jedną z odpowiedzi na utratę załogi 17 lat temu i pierwszy jego lot załogowy zbiega się z zainicjowaniem cyklicznego zaistnienia TSR na Forum.

Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 06, 2020, 07:24
Time to ask the big questions
Is Columbia the most tragic example of the failure of the space exploration paradigm?
by Jeff Foust Tuesday, February 11, 2003

Anyone with more than a passing knowledge of the history of space has a few dates etched into their brains: October 4, 1957; April 12, 1961; July 20, 1969. Also there, sadly, are January 27, 1967; January 28, 1986, and now, February 1, 2003. The Space Age has given us its share of triumphs and tragedies, and while the tragedies are relatively modest when put into a global perspective — 21 deaths in just under 42 years of human spaceflight — it makes them no less painful.

Despite these tragedies, the US space program has forged ahead. After Apollo 1 NASA quickly worked to determine the cause of the accident, fix that and other problems with the Apollo spacecraft, and was flying again in time land on the Moon before 1970, as President Kennedy had asked. The interregnum after Challenger was longer — there was no space race with the Soviets then — but in time a revamped shuttle fleet was flying again. In both cases there was broad public support for maintaining a slightly modified status quo.

Today, there has been a desire expressed by many people inside and outside of NASA to quickly determine what happened to Columbia, fix the problem, and start flying again. Even if there wasn’t pressure to get the shuttle flying again so that it can support the International Space Station, this desire is an understandable one, even a noble one: a refusal to give up in the face of adversity, just as in the case with past tragedies. As the saying goes, if you get thrown off a horse, you need to get right back on it — presumably, after figuring out why you got thrown off in the first place.

The danger in this approach is that this gives NASA, or the space community in general, little time to reflect on the current state of space exploration and development. The situation in 2003 is different than 1967, when the space program’s goals were clear cut, or even 1986. Even before the Columbia tragedy, it was clear that the space activities in general worldwide — commercial, civil government, and military — were dysfunctional, if not downright broken. Space access, both manned and unmanned, is still too expensive to support more than a few applications. The reliability of space transportation is also a problem, from numerous launch delays to catastrophic failures, such as the recent failures of a Proton/Block DM and an Ariane 5 ECA. There are too many launch vehicles chasing too few payloads, with, paradoxically, even more expendable vehicles under development. Human space flight relies today on only two vehicles: the Space Shuttle, an expensive vehicle that has now suffered two catastrophic failures in 113 flights; and Russia’s Soyuz, which is chronically underfunded. This puts at risk the tens of billions of dollars invested to date in the International Space Station, a project years behind schedule that has yet to live up to even basic expectations.

Space transportation is not the only focus of problems. The commercial space industry is suffering from an overall glut of supply: from launch vehicles to satellite manufacturers to on-orbit communications capacity. The remote sensing business has failed to materialize, and many of the existing companies are now heavily reliant on government business for their survival. The failures of several satellite communications ventures garnered enough publicity that “Iridium” became synonymous in the business world for any hugely expensive failure.

Government space programs are no better than their commercial brethren. While much has been said about NASA’s continual battles for more funding, it is in far better shape than other programs around the world, which must either beg for a tiny fraction of NASA’s budget or, particularly in ESA’s case, endure internecine battles among its member nations regarding even modest programs. While these agencies are pursuing a number of excellent projects, none of them have the goals or the vision to capture the interest and enthusiasm of the general public. Those proposals that seem to have the best prospects of resonating with the general public — notably, human exploration of Mars — are considered either too expensive or too far in the future to be officially adopted by these agencies.

All of these issues are symptoms of fundamental problems with how we approach space today. Many of these problems are rooted in decisions made years, if not decades, ago. Exploring these decisions can be useful, if only to best understand the process that led to those decisions. However, we are forced to cope with the consequences of those past decisions today. If this is the best we can do to explore and develop the final frontier, we may be stuck on Earth for the foreseeable future.

As stated above, there is a temptation to quickly patch the problem that caused the loss of Columbia and press on. Yet it’s clear that the way we approach space today is filled with problems and pitfalls; Columbia is not the only evidence of this, merely the most visible and the most unfortunate. Rather than get right back on that horse, perhaps its time to ask some more fundamental questions. How fast should we be riding? Where should we be going? And should we even be riding a horse?

That is what The Space Review is about: exploring the fundamental issues and the fundamental problems related to the exploration and development of space. The Space Review is not another news publication — there are already plenty of those available online — but instead an online magazine devoted to the past, present, and future of space exploration. In particular, there will be an emphasis on where we should go from here: the goals organizations should set in space, the destinations we should explore, the technologies we need to make it happen, the policies that help or hinder us, and so on.

What should you do, gentle reader? First of all, please come by every week and check out our latest articles: we plan to publish from one to three articles a week, ranging from in-depth studies of specific topics to short essays and book reviews. Give us feedback, about both the articles and the site: everything here is currently “in beta”, to borrow the jargon of the software industry, so your suggestions can be easily incorporated into the site in the coming weeks. If you have an article or essay you’d like to contribute to the site, please send an email to jeff@thespacereview.com. Oh, yes: be sure to tell your friends and colleagues about us too.

It is my hope that The Space Review can become an effective forum for discussing and debating our future in space. Recent events have made it as clear as ever that if we are truly interested in exploring and developing space, we need to reexamine why and how to best do it. We owe that to the crew of the Columbia and the others who have paid the ultimate price in the exploration of the final frontier.

Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 06, 2020, 07:28
Review: Alien Oceans
by Jeff Foust Monday, May 4, 2020


Alien Oceans: The Search for Life in the Depths of Space
by Kevin Peter Hand
Princeton Univ. Press, 2020
hardcover, 304 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-0-691-17951-3

Last week, the Government Accountability Office published its annual assessment of cost and schedule major NASA programs. Much of the interest in the report focused on NASA’s exploration programs, which are years behind schedule and billions over budget, but the GAO also cited an issue of a different kind with a planetary science mission, Europa Clipper. That mission is facing a $250 million cost increase because the spacecraft may be ready too soon: because of a congressional mandate to launch the mission on the Space Launch System, Europa Clipper isn’t expected to launch until 2025, even though the spacecraft itself will be ready in 2023. The additional money will be needed to cover spacecraft storage, workforce costs, and other impacts to the mission while it waits for an SLS rocket. (...)

SPICA: an infrared telescope to look back into the early universe
by Arwen Rimmer Monday, May 4, 2020

The SPICA mission would fly a telescope operating in the far infrared to perform studies supporting everything from solar system science to cosmology. (credit: JAXA/SPICA team)

The ESA’s fifth call for medium-class missions (M5) is in its full study phase. Three finalists, EnVision, SPICA (https://spica-mission.org/), and THESEUS, remain from more than two dozen proposals. A selection will be made in the summer of 2021, with a launch date tentatively set for 2032. In February, the author attended the EnVision conference in Paris, and reported on the progress of that consortium. The THESEUS meeting is meant to be in Malaga, Spain, in May, and the SPICA collaboration was scheduled for March 9–11 in Leiden, The Netherlands. Unfortunately, the COVID-19 pandemic intervened and the physical meeting was cancelled. Instead, the group met via Zoom teleconference. (...)

In the recession, space firms should focus on Earth imagery
by Nicholas Borroz Monday, May 4, 2020

Analysis of satellite imagery can play a major role in the response to the pandemic, such as tracking the number of airliners placed in storage at a California airport. (credit: Planet)

The COVID-19 pandemic will disrupt the space sector. The world is about to enter the worst recession since the Great Depression. More than 30 million Americans have filed for unemployment. China reports its economy contracted by 6.8% in the first three months of 2020. The International Monetary Fund predicts that global growth in 2020 will fall by 3% (https://blogs.imf.org/2020/04/14/the-great-lockdown-worst-economic-downturn-since-the-great-depression/).

Commercial crew safety, in space and on the ground
by Jeff Foust Monday, May 4, 2020

NASA astronauts Bob Behnken (background) and Doug Hurley training for their Demo-2 commercial crew mission, now scheduled for launch May 27. (credit: SpaceX)

The last time NASA launched astronauts from the Kennedy Space Center, hundreds of thousands of people showed up to watch the final flight of the space shuttle in July 2011. The expectation, by NASA and others, was that similar crowds would show up when commercial crew flights finally began. The large crowds that showed up for launches like the first Falcon Heavy mission in 2018 or even relatively routine cargo launches appeared to confirm that belief, and NASA was planning for big crowds, not just of the public outside the gates of KSC but also official guests and working media inside, for a historic mission. (...)

Working in the shadow space program
A General Electric engineer’s work on MOL and other space programs
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, May 4, 2020

Richard Passman, right, during a demonstration of a new spacewalking tether developed by General Electric in the 1960s. (credit: Bill Passman)

Richard Passman, an engineer for General Electric, spent over a decade working on many missile and space programs, including as a senior manager of the Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) program. Passman passed away April 1 at the age of 94 (https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/16/obituaries/richard-passman-dead-coronavirus.html?referringSource=articleShare) due to complications from the coronavirus. This article is based on an interview conducted with him by the author in January. We had planned to do a follow-up interview, but did not get the chance. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 06, 2020, 07:28
Toward a brighter future: Continuity of the Artemis program
by Jamil Castillo Monday, May 11, 2020

The Orion spacecraft built for the Artemis 1 mission after the completion of environmental testing at NASA’s Plum Brook Station in Ohio in March. (credit: NASA/Marvin Smith)

As we navigate through the COVID-19 pandemic, overcoming the immediate crisis is the top priority. Recovery will require thoughtful planning, investment, and patience. At the same time, it is important that we look beyond the crisis toward grand efforts that push boundaries and fuel humanity’s aspirations. That is why we continue to work on Artemis, our nation’s program to send humans forward to the Moon and on to Mars. (...)

Reinvigorating NASA’s lunar exploration plans after the pandemic
by Ajay P. Kothari Monday, May 11, 2020

A revamped exploration program might preserve NASA’s plans to return to the Moon despite the economic impact of the pandemic, but it will have to forego development of the lunar Gateway. (credit: NASA)

In a recent Washington Post op-ed (https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2020/04/08/coronavirus-crisis-is-turning-americans-both-parties-against-china/), Josh Rogin argued for the need for a strong American response to China’s perceived mishandling of the coronavirus pandemic: “Americans in both parties increasingly agree that the United States needs a tougher, more realistic China strategy that depends less on the honesty and goodwill of the Chinese government.” Such a strategy should include space, too. (...)

The launch showdown
by Jeff Foust Monday, May 11, 2020

Blue Origin CEO Bob Smith speaks at a ceremony marking the completion of the company’s rocket engine factory in Huntsville, Alabama, February 17. The factory will build engines for both the company’s own New Glenn rocket, a model of which is on the right, but also ULA’s Vulcan (left). (credit: J. Foust)

On President’s Day back in February—less than three months ago, but feeling like a previous era—a couple hundred people gathered at a new Blue Origin building in Huntsville, Alabama. The attendees, ranging from local business leaders to members of Congress, were there for the formal dedication of the 32,500-square-meter factory, which the company will use to produce rocket engines. (...)

Astronauts, guns, and butter: Charles Schultze and paying for Apollo in a time of turmoil
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, May 11, 2020

“Maybe you were put here to be the answer”
Religious overtones in the new Space Force recruitment video
by Deana L. Weibel Monday, May 11, 2020

The end of the first US Space Force ad, whose imagery and messages had religious overtones. (credit: US Space Force)

The American space program has had remarkable religious components from its very beginnings. In its first few decades, the American space program was seen as a challenge to Soviet supremacy in outer space. The Soviet Union was known for its communism and officially atheistic stance, which made the American space program more explicitly religious by default. NASA, for instance, collected the religious affiliations of its astronauts, probably in order to know a person’s preferences in the case of a serious or fatal accident. The crew of Apollo 8 famously read from the book of Genesis while looking back at the Earth from lunar orbit and, in an act not publicized at the time, Buzz Aldrin took communion while he waited to exit the lunar module on July 20, 1969. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 06, 2020, 07:29
Review: The Cosmic Revolutionary’s Handbook
by Jeff Foust Monday, May 18, 2020

The Cosmic Revolutionary’s Handbook: (Or: How to Beat the Big Bang)
by Luke A. Barnes and Geraint F. Lewis
Cambridge Univ. Press, 2020
hardcover, 286 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-108-48670-5

Every astronomer has received a missive like this, not to mention those working in adjacent fields as well as science journalists. The email arrives from an unfamiliar account, and is often written in a… creative choice of fonts, and with various attachments. The gist of the message is along the lines of “The Big Bang is wrong!” (or, often, “THE BIG BANG IS WRONG!” in the belief that the emphasis that capitalization offers will somehow make it more convincing.) The author then provides his or her own alternative cosmology and a plea to review or publish that alternative approach. (...)

Explaining China’s space ambitions and goals through the lens of strategic culture
by Namrata Goswami Monday, May 18, 2020

A Long March 5B successfully lifts off May 5 on its first flight, clearing the way for future launches of Chinese space station modules. (credit: Xinhua)

We all need conceptual tools for analysis. Strategic culture is one of them. I define strategic culture as a sum of a nation’s assumptions about its reality (threats, opportunities) based on which certain policy choices are preferred over others. These policy choices are informed by the state’s political culture reflecting both continuity and change over time. Political culture is defined as “a short-hand expression for a ‘mindset’ which has the effect of limiting attention to less than the full range of alternative behaviors, problems (https://support.jstor.org/hc/en-us/articles/360000313328-Need-Help-Logging-in-to-JSTOR) [emphasis added], and solutions which are logically possible.” Strategic culture flows from political culture, and is mostly applicable to the political and military leaders, whose assumptions, preferences, and choices inform their proclivity to adopt a particular military strategy over others: offense/defense, compellence/deterrence. History, myths and metaphor, and state capacity play a critical role in informing these assumptions. Colin Gray captures strategic culture well in his definition, “the persisting (though not eternal) socially transmitted ideas, attitudes, traditions, habits of mind, and preferred methods of operation that are more or less specific to a particularly geographically based security community (https://www.jstor.org/stable/20097575?seq=1) that has had a necessarily unique historical experience. (...)

When Washington went to the Moon: An interview with Glen Wilson
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, May 18, 2020

Can NASA land humans on the Moon by 2024?
by Jeff Foust Monday, May 18, 2020

The lunar lander concept by the “national team” led by Blue Origin. (credit: Blue Origin)

Nearly 14 months ago, Vice President Mike Pence spoke at a meeting of the National Space Council in Huntsville, Alabama, and changed the trajectory of NASA’s human spaceflight program. Pence directed NASA to accelerate its schedule for returning humans to the Moon, which at the time called for a landing by 2028. The new goal: land American astronauts on the Moon “within the next five years,” a goal subsequently interpreted to mean by the end of 2024 (see “Lunar whiplash (https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3687/1)”, The Space Review, April 1, 2019.) (...)

Worms and wings, meatballs and swooshes: NASA insignias in popular culture
by Glen E. Swanson Monday, May 18, 2020

NASA insignias in popular culture. Kids and adults are shown sporting NASA apparel. The late comedian Bob Hope is pictured ready to kick off his 1983–84 season of NBC specials wearing the NASA worm during a gala salute to NASA in honor of their 25th anniversary. SpaceX’s Falcon 9 launch vehicle, adorning the NASA worm, is shown ready on the pad at KSC for its upcoming launch that will carry two astronauts to the ISS, the first crewed launch from US soil since the last flight of the space shuttle Atlantis in 2011. (credit: G. Swanson/NBC-TV/NASA/SpaceX)

If all goes well, SpaceX will launch a Dragon spacecraft atop one of its Falcon 9 launch vehicles next week. The spacecraft will carry two humans, the first to be launched from the US since the last shuttle lifted off from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in 2011. Emblazoned on the side of the rocket will appear a NASA insignia that was all but retired from the agency nearly 30 years ago. Dubbed the “NASA worm,” the retro, then-ultramodern interpretation of the agency’s logo was first created in 1975 as part of the Federal Graphic Improvement Program of the National Endowment for the Arts. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 06, 2020, 07:29
Review: The View from Space
by Jeff Foust Tuesday, May 26, 2020

The View from Space: NASA’s Evolving Struggle to Understand Our Home Planet
by Richard B. Leshner and Thor Hogan
University Press of Kansas, 2019
paperback, 256 pp.
ISBN 978-0-7006-2832-2

Human spaceflight has always attracted an overwhelming share of interest in NASA programs. The attention this week to the Demo-2 commercial crew test flight has been understandable, but what NASA does, or proposes to do, with humans in space captures headlines and public imagination, from last year’s announcement of returning to the Moon by 2024 to the first all-woman NASA spacewalk last October. Space science missions also garner attention, from the latest Hubble Space Telescope images to current and future Mars rover missions. (...)

A new use for InSight’s robotic arm
by Philip Horzempa Tuesday, May 26, 2020

The robotic arm, known as the Instrument Deployment Arm, on the Mars InSight lander as seen during the lander’s development. (credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lockheed Martin)

The InSight Mars Lander comes equipped with a very capable robot arm and scoop. After a year of being used to assist the “mole” of the lander’s Heat flow and Physical Properties Package (HP3) instrument burrow into the surface, this hardware could be used to produce additional science data. Specifically, the InSight team should consider a program to dig a deep trench to allow direct examination of the subsurface layers near the lander. This excavation may also provide clues regarding why the mole has had problems getting below the surface. (...)

Cyber security and space security
What are the challenges at the junction of cybersecurity and space security?
by Nayef Al-Rodhan Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Communications links between ground stations and satellites are in some cases vulnerable to cyberattacks, linking cybersecurity with space security. (credit: Wikimapia)

In 2014, the network of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) was hacked by China (https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/chinese-hack-us-weather-systems-satellite-network/2014/11/12/bef1206a-68e9-11e4-b053-65cea7903f2e_story.html). This event disrupted weather information and impacted stakeholders worldwide. Satellites are often highly vulnerable to cybersecurity breaches (https://uk.pcmag.com/news/119996/want-to-hack-a-satellite-it-might-be-easier-than-you-think) as some telemetry links are not even encrypted. (...)

Space resources: the broader aspect
by Kamil Muzyka Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Space resources are not just a potential source of profit for space companies, but essential to survival for settlements beyond Earth. (credit: Anna Nesterova/Alliance for Space Development)

Space mining is back on the table. Yes, mining. Putting bucket-wheel excavators on the Moon and bringing back ores with rocket-propelled haulers and thousands of space-suited truckers, miners, and other people living and working in space. Some of them would be possibly brewing “Earthshine.” And the Americans are going to strip mine the whole Moon, hollow it out, and then move to someplace else. Americans will be ruining the Moon for their own profit, like they ruined the Earth. We have to stop them! Or if we can’t block their launch or landing sites, we must force them to share the benefits of space mining, and comply with regulations that would be beneficial for the whole world. We cannot allow their greed to ruin other celestial bodies, right? (...)

Commercial crew’s day finally arrives
by Jeff Foust Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Doug Hurley (left) and Bob Behnken pose in front of the Tesla May 23 that will transport them to Launch Complex 39A for a final dress rehearsal before the Demo-2 launch scheduled for May 27. (credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

The commercial crew program has forced NASA to adapt to new ways of doing things as it partners with SpaceX. Ride to the launch pad in a Tesla? Sure, no problem. Adorn that Tesla, along with the Falcon 9 rocket, with both the NASA “worm” and “meatball” logos, contrary to past policy? The more the better. (See “Worms and wings, meatballs and swooshes: NASA insignias in popular culture (https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3947/1)”, The Space Review, May 18, 2020). Ditch the old orange pressure suit shuttle astronauts wore in favor a new, sleek, primarily white suit? Okay, as long as it meets NASA safety standards. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 06, 2020, 07:29
Astrobiotechnology: molecular steps towards the boundaries of space exploration
by Andrea Camera, Ana Sofia Mota, and Christos Tsagkaris Monday, June 1, 2020

The International Space Station’s Columbus module supports astrobiotech research, particularly for European scientists. (credit: ESA)

The Apollo 11 landing was reported as a small step by a man and a great step for mankind. Since then, there have been many steps in space research and exploration, or SRE. Astrobiotechnology, a relatively new branch of biotechnology developed in the frame and for the sake of SRE, is a field where molecular steps mark new endeavours and pave the way to new paths. (NASA, 2018; NASA, 2019) (...)

Is open sourcing the next frontier in space exploration?
by Dylan Taylor Monday, June 1, 2020

Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE) flew a supercomputer on the ISS to test how terrestrial computing systems could operate in the space environment. (credit: HPE)

Humans are naturally curious. For centuries, we have used that curiosity to collaborate to achieve great things. You only have to look at ancient wonders like the Great Pyramids as well as modern-day engineering marvels like launch vehicles. Such traits help us advance technologically and learn more about the world around and above us. (...)

The genre-defining astronaut/ex-astronaut autobiographies
by Emily Carney Monday, June 1, 2020

Brian O’Leary wrote about his short tenure as a NASA astronaut 50 years ago.

Books still matter. Throughout the last sixty-plus years of spaceflight, literature chronicling spaceflight history and heritage, which runs the gamut from detailing hardware and rocketry to describing the features of the Moon and various solar system objects, have dazzled and awed readers, often introducing audiences to the subject. However, frequently the books that draw the most interest from readers are about the people: the astronauts, the flight controllers, and the workers. First-person accounts of a particular period can function as a “time machine,” pulling the reader closer into a project’s or program’s orbit (pardon the pun.)


NASA will not save 2020
by A.J. Mackenzie Monday, June 1, 2020

While the Demo-2 launch was a major milestone for NASA, it’s not going to “save” 2020 any more than Apollo 8 saved 1968. (credit: NASA/Joel Kowsky)

There is a bit a mythology popular among space aficionados about how NASA “saved” 1968. That year was, arguably, one of the worst for the United States in the 20th century. The Vietnam War raged on with no end in sight, civil rights protests turned violent, and leaders like Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy were assassinated. But, around Christmastime that year, NASA launched Apollo 8, the first human mission to orbit the Moon. The success of that daring, unprecedented mission salvaged 1968, just in the nick of time—or, at least, that’s what many space enthusiasts believe. (...)

A shaky ride to a smooth launch
by Jeff Foust Monday, June 1, 2020

The SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, named Endeavour by the two astronauts on board, approaches the ISS May 31. (credit: NASA)

Ordinarily, planning a mid-afternoon launch from Florida during the summer would be inadvisable, especially if there’s no margin for error. The heat and humidity can make for “dynamic” weather conditions (to use a word that came up frequently in forecasts last week) that make it difficult to predict if a launch can proceed. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 09, 2020, 00:26
Review: After LM
by Jeff Foust Monday, June 8, 2020

After LM: NASA Lunar Lander Concepts Beyond Apollo
by John Connolly
NASA, 2020
ebook, 277 pp.
ISBN 978-0-578-62272-9

When NASA announced the winners of Human Landing System (HLS) awards at the end of April (see “Can NASA land humans on the Moon by 2024? (https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3946/1)”, The Space Review, May 18, 2020), one thing that was immediately obvious was the diversity of designs. SpaceX proposed a version of its Starship reusable launch vehicle, offering a lander far larger than its counterparts, and one so tall that astronauts would descend to the lunar surface not using a ladder but instead on an elevator. Dynetics, by contrast, proposed a lander with a low-slung crew cabin ringed by drop tanks. Only the “national team” led by Blue Origin offered a lander that looked like a descendent of the Apollo program’s Lunar Module, with an ascent stage mounted on top of a descent stage. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 09, 2020, 00:26
Space alternate history before For All Mankind: Stephen Baxter’s NASA trilogy
by Simon Bradshaw Monday, June 8, 2020

Stephen Baxter’s “NASA trilogy” novels offered different looks at alternative histories, or futures, for NASA. (credit: NASA)

For All Mankind, one of the flagship shows of Apple’s original-content Apple TV+ service (see “Wasn’t the future wonderful? (https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3895/1)”, The Space Review, March 9, 2020), is far from being the first alternate history to reach our screens. Amazon’s adaptation of Philip K. Dick’s The Man in the High Castle is the leading recent example, although the premise has been explored before in series such as Sliders (1995–2000). It is the first such production to specifically take and focus on as its premise an alternate history of human space exploration, overtly diverging from ours in June 1969 when Alexei Leonov becomes the first man on the Moon.[1] (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 09, 2020, 00:26
Be careful what you wish for
by Jeff Foust Monday, June 8, 2020

President Donald Trump speaks at the Kennedy Space Center Vehicle Assembly Building after the successful Demo-2 commercial crew launch May 30. (credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

For decades, space advocates have sought presidential leadership in space: a commitment by a president and broader administration to make space a priority and take actions accordingly. That belief was rooted in President John F. Kennedy’s public advocacy for NASA and the goal he set of landing humans on the Moon by the end of the 1960s. NASA’s success in achieving that goal cemented that belief, even if, as historical records revealed decades later, that Kennedy personally was not that interested in space. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 09, 2020, 00:27
How has traffic been managed in the sky, on waterways, and on the road? Comparisons for space situational awareness (part 1)
by Stephen Garber and Marissa Herron Monday, June 8, 2020

The growth of both debris in Earth orbit from collisions and explosions as well as active satellites is raising awareness about the need for revised approaches to space traffic management. (credit: ESA)

Disclaimer: the views expressed in this article are solely those of the authors, not of NASA or of the Federal Government.

Most casual observers likely would agree that as the complex space operating environment becomes more crowded with more operating satellites and debris, the topics of space situational awareness (SSA) and space traffic management (STM) deserve more concerted attention. While we’ve had over 60 years of satellites in the large expanse of near-Earth space with only a handful of collisions, this likely will change as space becomes more crowded. To understand what kind of overall STM framework might be both useful and practical, we will examine some of the complexities of current SSA operations. For historical points of comparison, we then will look at literal and figurative “rules of the road” paradigms for traveling on land, sea, and in the air. Curiously, norms and procedures for managing the flights of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), aka “drones”, are evolving faster than those for STM, even though modern drones have flown effectively for fewer years than spacecraft. Some aeronautics researchers have looked at UAS traffic management (UTM) as a possible model for STM.[1] By assessing similarities and differences among how traffic is managed on roads, waterways, and in the air for diverse groups of drivers/pilots, we hope to stimulate careful thought on how inherently global space operations might best be managed in this rapidly evolving era of international capabilities in space, technological change, and commercialization. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 09, 2020, 00:27
Imagining safety zones: Implications and open questions
by Jessy Kate Schingler Monday, June 8, 2020

The scarcity of lunar resources like volatiles illustrates the need to deconflict activities on the Moon in a way that is acceptable by all participants. (credit: NASA)

In May, NASA announced its intent to “establish a common set of principles to govern the civil exploration and use of outer space” referred to as the Artemis Accords.[1,2] The Accords were released initially as draft principles, to be developed and implemented through a series of bilateral agreements with international partners. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 16, 2020, 09:13
Review: Chasing the Dream
by Jeff Foust Monday, June 15, 2020


Chasing the Dream
by Dana Andrews
Classic Day Publishing, 2020
paperback, 350 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-59849-281-1

The history of spaceflight is littered with concepts that never, literally or figuratively, got off the ground. The recent NASA book After LM described dozens of designs for lunar landers proposed after the Apollo program, up through the cancellation of the Constellation program a decade ago, none of which got even to the hardware production phase of development (see “Review: After LM (https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3958/1)”, The Space Review, June 8, 2020). The same is true, of course, for many other proposed launch vehicles and spacecraft. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 16, 2020, 09:13
How has traffic been managed in the sky, on waterways, and on the road? Comparisons for space situational awareness (part 2)
by Stephen Garber and Marissa Herron Monday, June 15, 2020

The growth of both debris in Earth orbit from collisions and explosions as well as active satellites is raising awareness about the need for revised approaches to space traffic management. (credit: ESA)

Disclaimer: the views expressed in this article are solely those of the authors, not of NASA or of the Federal Government.

Other traditional “rules of the road”

Taking a step back from the complexities of STM and looking at how traffic historically has been managed in other domains may provide some useful insights. One issue that cuts across land, air, and sea is vehicle worthiness. That is, cars, planes, and boats all need to be registered to ensure their safety, and this may be analogous to the satellite licensing process. Cars go through safety inspections to ensure road worthiness and minimum pollution standards, as well as to ensure we have functioning headlights to see and be seen at night, avoiding collisions. Just as cars, planes, and boats should be visible unless bad weather precludes this, so too should satellites be trackable. The technology for each domain is different, but the goal for all these vehicles is to be identifiable to foster communication and coordination of intended maneuvers. (...)
Part 1 https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3961/1
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 16, 2020, 09:13
Hugging Hubble longer
by Jeff Foust Monday, June 15, 2020

The Hubble Space Telescope seen by the last servicing mission, STS-125 in 2009. (credit: NASA)

The future of space-based astronomy is delayed. Again.

Last week, Thomas Zurbuchen, NASA associate administrator, confirmed the inevitable: the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) won’t launch next March, as had been the schedule for the last two years. This time, a slowdown in work on the telescope that started this past March because of the pandemic will delay a launch, something that appeared increasingly obvious given the limited work that could be done and the available schedule reserves. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 16, 2020, 09:13
The Eagle, the Bear, and the (other) Dragon: US-Russian relations in the SpaceX Era
by Gregory D. Miller Monday, June 15, 2020

A sucecssful SpaceX Crew Dragon mission will allow NASA to end its dependence on Russia for accessing the International Space Station, which brings with it geopolitical implications. (credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

The May 30 launch of two US astronauts aboard SpaceX’s Crew Dragon spacecraft, the first human launch into orbit from US soil in nearly nine years, raises several questions about the future of US-Russian cooperation in space (Snyder and Kramer; O’Callaghan), but also about US-Russian relations more generally. US astronauts have been launching aboard Russian spacecraft since 1995 (Uri), but with NASA’s retirement of the Space Shuttle in 2011, the US human spaceflight program became reliant on Russian launch capabilities. Now that SpaceX showed its ability to perform this task, and plans more launches in the future, one must ask whether this development will help or hinder relations between the U. and Russia. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 16, 2020, 09:14
Peresvet: a Russian mobile laser system to dazzle enemy satellites
by Bart Hendrickx Monday, June 15, 2020

The trailer-mounted Peresvet laser system as seen in a Russian Ministry of Defense video.

On March 1, 2018 Russian President Vladimir Putin delivered a saber-rattling State of the Union speech that harkened back to the darkest days of the Cold War. He used the occasion to put on a display of new armaments such as nuclear-powered cruise missiles and hypersonic glide vehicles capable of penetrating US missile defenses, underlining they had been developed as a result of the US pulling out of the Anti-Ballistic Missile treaty in 2002. Putin also boasted that Russia was “one step ahead” in what he called “weapons with new physical properties”, adding:

“We have achieved significant progress in laser weapons. It is not just a concept or a plan anymore. It is not even in the early production stages. Since last year, our troops have been armed with laser weapons. I do not want to reveal more details. It is not the time yet. But experts will understand that with such weaponry, Russia’s defense capacity has multiplied.” (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 23, 2020, 01:15
Review: Cosmic Clouds 3-D
by Jeff Foust Monday, June 22, 2020

Cosmic Clouds 3-D: Where Stars Are Born
by David J. Eicher and Brian May
MIT Press, 2020
hardcover, 192 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-0-262-04402-8

Earlier this month, the New Horizons mission released the results of a unique experiment. The spacecraft, about seven billion kilometers from Earth, took pictures of two nearby stars, Proxima Centauri and Wolf 359. Project scientists compared them to images of the stars as seen from Earth. The result was a simple but powerful demonstration of parallax: the positions of the two stars were clearly shifted in the spacecraft images compared to the Earth. (Parallax is routinely used to measure distances to nearby stars, by using the Earth’s orbit as the baseline, but the shifts are never as prominent as in these images.) (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 23, 2020, 01:15
Distributors should unplug the Earth imagery bottleneck
by Nicholas Borroz Monday, June 22, 2020

An image of Lower Manhattan take by Maxar’s WorldView-3 satellite in April. While there is plenty of satellite imagery and related data, getting the right data into the hands of analytics firms remains an obstacle. (credit: ©2020 Maxar Technologies)

In the midst of the pandemic-induced recession, the Earth imagery industry is a bright point in the space sector. Unlike other areas of the space sector, such as those dealing with satellite constellations or new launch vehicles, there is the potential to make relatively quick profits. This is significant because the recession will likely dampen investment in infrastructure projects that require large investments of time and capital to make returns. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 23, 2020, 01:15
Spaceflight after the pandemic
by Eric R. Hedman Monday, June 22, 2020

The pandemic has created crowing demand for broadband that could be an opportunity for constellations like SpaceX’s Starlink, if they can afford to build and launch their satellites. (credit: SpaceX)

A crisis as big as the coronavirus pandemic can’t help but change the world. The space industry will change. We have already seen changes, like OneWeb filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in March. There will be many more changes as this crisis plays out and long afterwards. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 23, 2020, 01:15
Orbital use fees won’t solve the space debris problem
by Ruth Stilwell Monday, June 22, 2020

Orbital use fees are paid by operators of new satellites, but the collision risk largely comes from debris and inactive satellites. (credit: ESA)

When it comes to space debris, the numbers are repeated often: more than 21,000 objects ten centimeters across or larger, approximately half a million objects between one and ten centimeters in diameter. Across the space community, there is general agreement that space debris is an existing, and worsening, problem. Many point to the free and open access to space, while others argue that proposed “megaconstellations” will take low Earth orbit to the breaking point. In response, some argue that economic disincentives, like orbit fees or taxes, could be used to reduce demand by increasing the cost of a satellite in orbit. Some argue that additional satellites create additional debris risk solely based on the increase in the satellite population. But is this the problem we are trying to solve? (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 23, 2020, 01:15
Stability and certainty for NASA’s exploration efforts
by Jeff Foust Monday, June 22, 2020

Kathy Lueders, NASA commercial crew program manager, monitors the approach of the Crew Dragon spacecraft to the International Space Station May 31. NASA named Lueders as associate administrator for human exploration and operations June 12. (credit: NASA/Joel Kowsky)

For most of the last decade, NASA’s human spaceflight program had stable leadership. Since the establishment of the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) in 2011, when NASA merged its space operations and exploration directorates, that part of NASA had been led by Bill Gerstenmaier, a veteran of NASA’s shuttle and space station programs. Over the next eight years, Gerstenmaier gained almost universal admiration and respect in the industry for his leadership and expertise during an often-tumultuous time for human spaceflight at the agency. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 30, 2020, 02:15
Review: The Search for Life on Mars
by Jeff Foust Monday, June 29, 2020

The Search for Life on Mars: The Greatest Scientific Detective Story of All Time
by Elizabeth Howell and Nicholas Booth
Arcade Publishing, 2020
hardcover, 424 pp.
ISBN 978-1-950691-39-5

Over the next month the newest flotilla of Mars missions will set sail. Around the middle of July, a Japanese rocket will launch Hope, an orbiter that is the first Mars mission developed by the United Arab Emirates. Sometime in July, or perhaps early August, China will launch Tianwen-1, an ambitious mission that includes an orbiter, lander, and rover, but about which the Chinese space program has said little. Most of the attention, though, will go towards NASA’s Mars 2020 mission, carrying a rover called Perseverance and currently scheduled for launch on July 22. Perseverance will land on March next February and soon start caching samples of Martian rocks, part of an overarching Mars Sample Return effort that will take at least a decade to complete. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 30, 2020, 02:15
Enhancing space deterrence thought for nuclear threshold threats (part 1)
by Christopher M. Stone Monday, June 29, 2020

Military planners need to consider threats not just from conventional anti-satellite weapons but also alternatives once dismissed as “unthinkable.” (credit: DRDO)

Most governments when asked to choose between war and peace are likely to choose peace because it looks safer. These same governments if asked to choose between getting the first or second strike will very likely choose the first strike…once they feel war is inevitable, or even very probable.
- Herman Kahn, On Thermonuclear War (1960)

Space fighting is not far off. National security has already exceeded territory and territorial waters and airspace and territorial space should also be added. The modes of defense will no longer be to fight on our own territory and fight for marine rights and interests. We must also engage in space defense as well as air defense.
- Teng Jinqun, People’s Liberation Army Analyst (2001) (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 30, 2020, 02:15
The Artemis Accords: repeating the mistakes of the Age of Exploration
by Dennis O’Brien Monday, June 29, 2020

NASA’s approach to international cooperation, the Artemis Accords, rejects alternatives like the Moon Treaty, and an implementing agreement for it, that could be more viable in the long term. (credit: NASA)

“Space is a warfighting domain… It is not enough to have an American presence in space; we must have American dominance in space.”
- US Vice President Mike Pence, 2018[1]

In the spring of 1493, the King and Queen of Spain sent an envoy to the Pope in Rome. Along with Portugal, Spain had just used its advanced sailing and navigation technology to reach “new worlds,” areas of the Earth that had not been previously discovered by Europeans. But they had a problem: they wanted to establish sovereign property rights in the lands they had discovered, but they weren’t sure they could do so under their own authority. So, they turned to the only international authority in Europe at that time, the Catholic Church, which held sway over governments from Portugal to Poland, from the Arctic to the Mediterranean. If the Church would establish a legal framework that granted them sovereignty, then those nations would be bound to recognize it.[2] (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 30, 2020, 02:16
THESEUS: a high-energy proposal for a medium-sized mission
by Arwen Rimmer Monday, June 29, 2020

An illustration of THESEUS, a proposed medium-class ESA missions to detect and precisely locate gamma-ray bursts. (credit: ESA)

THESEUS (https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.04638.pdf) (Transient High-Energy Sky and Early and Universe Surveyor) is a space mission project aimed at detecting and characterizing gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) so as to investigate the early universe and advance multi-messenger and time-domain astrophysics. It is one of three finalists in the ESA’s latest call for medium-sized missions, along with EnVision and SPICA (see “EnVision and the Cosmic Vision decision”, The Space Review, March 2, 2020; and “SPICA: an infrared telescope to look back into the early universe”, The Space Review, May 4, 2020). (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 30, 2020, 02:16
Sausage making in space: the quest to reform commercial space regulations
by Jeff Foust Monday, June 29, 2020

The new commercial remote sensing regulations should make it easier for synthetic aperture radar satellite companies like Capella Space get licenses for their systems. (credit: Capella Space)

There’s long been a tension between government and industry involving regulations. Companies traditionally want to minimize regulations in order to reduce the cost and other burdens they place on them. Governments, on the other hand, seek regulations in order to support broader priorities, like national security, workplace safety, and the environment. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 07, 2020, 00:44
Review: The Little Book of Cosmology
by Jeff Foust Monday, July 6, 2020


The Little Book of Cosmology
by Lyman Page
Princeton Univ. Press, 2020
hardcover, 152 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-0-691-19578-0

Physics and associated subjects, like cosmology, have plenty of canonical, and massive, books. Many physics students are acquainted with Gravitation, a classic textbook about general relativity whose authors include Nobel laurate Kip Thorne. Weighing in at more than 1,000 pages, the book seems massive enough to warp spacetime on its own. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 07, 2020, 00:44
Enhancing space deterrence thought for nuclear threshold threats (part 2)
Assessing North Korean nuclear spacepower
by Christopher M. Stone Monday, July 6, 2020

A North Korean rocket launch in December 2012. The rocket successfully placed a satellite into orbit, but that satellite appeared to be dead on arrival.

Strategic cultures are not like strategic plans. They are the result of political and cultural history and tend to be relatively stable over time. The study of these cultures would be inexpensive and could reduce our uncertainties about how these countries could use their new power.
   - Stephen Rosen: Winning the Next War
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 07, 2020, 00:44
“Artemis 8” using Dragon
by Robert Zubrin Monday, July 6, 2020

A SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, like the one approaching the ISS in May on the Demo-2 mission, could be sent around the Moon using a combination of Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy rockets. (credit: NASA)

The following memo was sent by the author to NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine and Scott Pace, executive secretary of the National Space Council, on June 30, 2020.

A mission equivalent to Apollo 8—call it “Artemis 8”—could be done, potentially as soon as this year, using Dragon, Falcon Heavy, and Falcon 9. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 07, 2020, 00:44
It’s (small) rocket science, after all
by Jeff Foust Monday, July 6, 2020

A Rocket Lab Electron rocket lifts off Saturday on its ill-fated launch. (credit: Rocket Lab webcast)

Maybe companies should think twice about launching on US holidays.

To be fair, it was the morning of Sunday, July 5, in New Zealand when an Electron rocket lifted off from Rocket Lab’s Launch Complex 1 there. However, back in the United States, where Rocket Lab is headquartered, it was still the afternoon of July 4 when the Electron lifted off on a launch licensed by the FAA’s Office of Commercial Space Transportation. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 07, 2020, 00:44
National spaceports: the past
by Wayne Eleazer Monday, July 6, 2020

An Atlas V launch in August 2019, seen from the author’s home.

The US Air Force, long the operator of the nation’s primary space launch bases, is giving some thought to what “National Spaceports” should be. This analysis should be aided by certain facts.

The launch bases at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS) and Vandenberg Air Force Base (AFB) originally were conceived as test facilities for Air Force Systems Command programs. Systems Command’s main focus was its product centers, the procurement organizations for new Air Force systems. They conducted development and acquisition of new military hardware. Under Systems Command’s highly programmatic focus, the launch centers and all other test ranges were entirely driven by the various procurement program requirements. Program offices almost always greatly dislike even the idea that they could be impacted by the requirements and actions of other programs, and as a result this produced a huge proliferation of range systems and facilities designed to meet specific program requirements, largely without regards to overall efficiency. Tracking systems, communications systems, utilities, and brick-and-mortar support facilities required by programs were installed at the launch bases largely without regard to long-term costs or efficiency. This had the effect of increasing test center capacity: dozens or even hundreds of test support operations were common every day, and even multiple rocket launches in one day were common. On the other hand, no doubt many opportunities were lost that could have reduced costs, or at least been better for future activities. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 14, 2020, 11:31
Review: The Sirens of Mars
by Jeff Foust Monday, July 13, 2020


The Sirens of Mars: Searching for Life on Another World
by Sarah Stewart Johnson
Crown, 2020
hardcover, 264 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-101-90481-7

Move over, Shark Week: it’s Mars Month. From now through (hopefully) the end of the month, three missions are set to launch to go to Mars. The United Arab Emirates’ first Mars mission, an orbiter called Hope, is set to launch Wednesday morning (Tuesday afternoon US time) on an H-2A rocket in Japan. Next week is the likely launch date for Tainwen-1, China’s first full-scale Mars mission that includes an orbiter, lander, and rover. NASA’s Mars 2020 mission, carrying the rover Perseverance, is now scheduled for launch July 30 after some launch vehicle and spacecraft processing issues delayed the launch from July 17. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 14, 2020, 11:31
Enhancing space deterrence thought for nuclear threshold threats (part 3)
A future defense space strategy for the Second Nuclear Age
by Christopher M. Stone Monday, July 13, 2020

The defense space strategy of the future must acknowledge the connection of space as a “forward region” of homeland defense similar to that of the emergent Asian nuclear-space powers in the second nuclear age environment.

Deterrence theory favors status quo powers, not powers unhappy with the limitations put on them by the existing distribution of power and superior weapons in the hands of others.
— Therese Delpech: Nuclear Deterrence in the 21st Century
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 14, 2020, 11:32
Not so dark skies
by Al Globus Monday, July 13, 2020


In the book Dark Skies (https://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0190903341/spaceviews), Daniel Deudney examines space settlement[1] in detail and comes to the conclusion that it is so likely to exterminate humanity or have other serious consequences that it should not be undertaken at all, or at least not for several centuries, giving time to improve homo sapiens’ habits. Deudney comes to his surprising conclusion by applying geopolitics, a part of political science that studies “the practice of states controlling and competing for territory,”[2] among other things, to space settlement, which Deudney describes as “habitat expansionism.” Deudney uses a version of geopolitical theory to generate 12 propositions and then applies them to predict the future, coming to the conclusion that space settlement is an existential threat to humanity and should be viewed in the same category as nuclear war. Dark Skies is a difficult read but it is also a detailed and extensive critique of space settlement that deserves a thoughtful response. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 14, 2020, 11:32
CSI: Rocket Science
by Jeffrey L. Smith Monday, July 13, 2020

The Castor 600 rocket motor’s nozzle disintegrated during its inaugural test in May 2019, setting off an intense investigation. (credit: Northrop Grumman)

In the failure review process, engineers and technicians work together to perform two separate but equally important tasks: the Investigation to determine the accident’s Root Cause, and the Recovery to implement the Corrective Action.

These are their stories.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 14, 2020, 11:32
What’s in a name when it comes to an “accord”?
by Jeff Foust Monday, July 13, 2020

While development of the lunar Gateway (above) will be done through an extension of the intergovernmental agreement for the International Space Station, NASA envisions a new approach for further international cooperation in the Artemis program. (credit: NASA)

The cooperation among the nations involved in the International Space Station is governed by what’s known as the Intergovernmental Agreement (IGA), a legal framework that handles the rights and responsibilities of the United States, Russia, Japan, Canada, and various European nations involved in the station. That framework will be extended to cover the lunar Gateway, the facility NASA is developing in lunar orbit as part of the Artemis program with future contributions by Canada, Europe, Japan, and perhaps Russia. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 21, 2020, 05:47
Review: Once Upon a Time I Lived on Mars
by Jeff Foust Monday, July 20, 2020


Once Upon a Time I Lived on Mars: Space, Exploration, and Life on Earth
by Kate Greene
St. Martin’s Press, 2020
hardcover, 240 pp.
ISBN 978-1-250-15947-2

While the robotic missions launching to Mars this year have a wide range of science goals, they are widely seen as precursors for eventual human missions to the Red Planet. NASA’s Mars 2020 mission includes an experiment called MOXIE that will demonstrate a way to produce oxygen from the carbon dioxide in the Martian atmosphere, a capability that will be essential for future human expeditions. NASA’s fiscal year 2021 budget proposal included a request to start work on a Mars Ice Mapper mission, an orbiter that would search for subsurface ice deposits that could be resources for future human expeditions. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 21, 2020, 05:47
Tracking off-the-books satellites with low perigees
by Charles Phillips Monday, July 20, 2020

A printout of a computer prediction of the reentry of Skylab in 1979, illustrating the hazards of low-perigee objects.

One fascinating study is objects that reenter the atmosphere: watching to see how low an orbit various objects can have and still survive, and where they reenter. My first professional job was in the US Air Force as an orbital analyst and one of the first things I worked on was the reentry of Skylab. It was a lot of fun for a young person. The image above is a plot from our 427M computer that showed predicted reentry time and location; there are probably not many surviving prints from that system. Skylab was an example that large objects that fall from the sky can cause damage and alarm to people below them. I was glad that the US Air Force had taken upon itself the responsibility of alerting the world. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 21, 2020, 05:47
The pandemic’s effect on NASA science
by Jeff Foust Monday, July 20, 2020

The coronavirus pandemic is partly to blame for the latest James Webb Space Telescope launch slip, a seven-month delay to October 31, 2021. (credit: NASA/Chris Gunn)

When the coronavirus pandemic started affecting NASA operations in March, forcing the agency to close centers (see “Space in uncertain times”, The Space Review March 23, 2020), NASA leadership prioritized some activities, like operation of the International Space Station and other spacecraft missions. NASA also elevated the priority of the SpaceX Demo-2 commercial crew test flight and the launch of the Mars 2020 mission. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 21, 2020, 05:47
Handshakes and histories: The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, 45 years later
by Asif Siddiqi and Dwayne A. Day Monday, July 20, 2020

The Apollo-Soyuz mission was in many ways intended to be the most visible symbol of a new era of détente between the United States and the Soviet Union. (credit: NASA)

On July 15, 1975, two rockets lifted off their launch pads on other sides of the world. One was a Soyuz spacecraft launching out of the Baikonur Cosmodrome, carrying cosmonauts Alexei Leonov and Valeri Kubasov. The other was an Apollo spacecraft atop the last of the Saturn IB rockets, carrying Thomas Stafford, Vance Brand, and Deke Slayton. Two days later the spacecraft linked up, their space travelers opened their hatches, and they engaged in a symbolic handshake in orbit that was intended to symbolize a thawing of Cold War tensions between two superpowers equipped to annihilate each other in nuclear war. Now, 45 years later, the Russian space agency Roscosmos has released a large trove of declassified documents about the Soviet side of this event which at the time seemed incredibly historic, but in retrospect now looks like a minor footnote in a long and continuing rivalry. Hindsight, it turns out, can be blurrier than we think. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 28, 2020, 05:21
Review: Promise Denied
by Jeff Foust Monday, July 27, 2020


Promise Denied: NASA’s X-34 and the Quest for Cheap, Reusable Access to Space
by Bruce I. Larrimer
NASA, 2020
ebook, 410 pp., illus.
ISBN 9781626830516

If, in 1995, you told people in the space industry that in a quarter-century there would be partially reusable launch vehicles in operation commercially, the news might have been a little bit of a disappointment. The mid-1990s were the heyday for reusable launch vehicle concepts, particularly single stage to orbit (SSTO). The DC-X Delta Clipper, developed by the Pentagon and later transferred to NASA and renamed the DC-XA Clipper Graham, was making test flights in New Mexico, demonstrating vertical takeoff and landing. NASA had ambitions for an even more capable RLV demonstrator, the X-33, that Lockheed Martin won the contract to develop with plans to turn it into a commercial SSTO vehicle, VentureStar. Certainly by 2020 RLVs would be commonplace, flying daily! (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 28, 2020, 05:22
What you should learn from Comet NEOWISE
by Hariharan Karthikeyan Monday, July 27, 2020

Comet NEOWISE as photographed by the author recently. (credit: Hariharan Karthikeyan)

This was nothing short of a hasty search for the highest point in the city. As the sky dimmed, we drove in separate cars for miles and miles unsuccessfully, finally settling for a rugged trail that branched off of Beatty Drive in El Dorado Hills, California. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 28, 2020, 05:22
Highway to the Danger Zone: The National Reconnaissance Office and a downed F-14 Tomcat in Iraq
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, July 27, 2020

An F-14 Tomcat from fighter squadron VF-154 “the Black Knights” like the one lost over Iraq in April 2003. (credit: seaforces.org)

It was April 1, 2003, in the opening days of the American invasion of Iraq, known as Operation Iraqi Freedom, when it still seemed like the United States and its coalition partners were going to liberate the country from a brutal dictator, and before the occupation turned into a long, brutal, messy conflict. Lieutenant Chad Vincelette and Lieutenant Commander Scotty “Gordo” McDonald were assigned to squadron VF-154, “the Black Knights,” flying the squadron’s last deployment of the F-14A Tomcat. Their call-sign was “JUNKER 14.” The squadron had been split in two, with most aircraft staying on the USS Kitty Hawk, while five were based ashore, at Al Udeid Air Base, in Qatar. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 28, 2020, 05:22
National spaceports: the future
by Wayne Eleazer Monday, July 27, 2020

The Space Force offers an opportunity to stop repeating the mistakes of the past when it comes to operating launch sites. (credit: US Navy)

“National spaceports: the past” explained how different organizational inclinations, as well as both Command and Air Force priorities and specific experiences, impacted the way different Air Force commands regarded and managed the Air Force test ranges that have become national spaceports. These attitudes and priorities had significant impacts on the way the spaceports were operated and planned. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 28, 2020, 05:23
Irregular disorder and the NASA budget
by Jeff Foust Monday, July 27, 2020

The lunar lander concept by the “national team” led by Blue Origin, one of three that NASA is currently supporting through the Human Landing System program. The House version of a fiscal year 2021 spending bill provides NASA with only a fraction of the funding the agency requested for that program. (credit: Blue Origin)

It’s been a long time since there’s been anything like “regular order” in the congressional appropriations process: individual bills passed by the House and Senate, their differences resolved in conference to produce a final version that’s signed into law before the beginning of the fiscal year October 1. Instead, there are usually stopgap funding bills, called continuing resolutions, that extend for weeks or months before a massive omnibus bill, combining up to a dozen different bills, is eventually passed. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 04, 2020, 02:15
Sending Washington to the Moon: an interview with Richard Paul
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, August 3, 2020

A celebration of the 50th anniversary of Apollo 11 last year in Washington. A radio show two decades earlier examined the political issues behind the program. (credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

Recently, the BBC World Service podcast “13 Minutes to the Moon” finished its second season, focusing on the Apollo 13 mission during seven episodes. It has been an outstanding series so far. But this was not the first time that radio has addressed the Apollo program in an interesting and substantive way. Two decades ago there was a two-part radio broadcast that also told a complicated space story involving multiple actors. In 1999, in honor of the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing, radio station WAMU in Washington, DC, aired a program about the role of Washington politics in the lunar landing. “Washington Goes to the Moon” (WGTTM) was written and produced by Richard Paul and featured interviews with a number of key figures in the story, from historians to NASA and congressional officials to famed newsman Walter Cronkite. After the radio program aired Paul, the author of We Could Not Fail: The First African Americans in the Space Program, turned transcripts of the interviews over to NASA as historical documents. These transcripts included unaired portions of the interviews. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 04, 2020, 02:15
Mars race rhetoric
by Ajey Lele Monday, August 3, 2020

NASA launched the Mars 2020 mission, featuring the Perseverance rover, last week, bound for a landing on Mars next February. (credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

Science gets viewed as the search for truth. It helps to remove bias and bring in objectivity. But the intimacy of science and politics is also well-known. Depending upon the purpose, science could have societal, political, economic, and strategic backdrops. Science requires political patronage, mainly for funding. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 04, 2020, 02:15
Propelling Perseverance: The legacy of Viking is helping NASA get to Mars
by Joe Cassady Monday, August 3, 2020

The same thruster design used for the Viking landers was resurrected for the Curiosity landing (above) and will be used on the Perseverance landing next year. (credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

Much has been written in the past few weeks about the NASA Mars 2020 mission that will carry the rover Perseverance and the helicopter Ingenuity to Mars. But did you know that the transportation system that will deliver these phenomenal machines to the surface of the Red Planet actually owes much to the original Viking landers back in the 1970s? It’s true. This is a tale of tried and true engines and a little bit of perseverance to accomplish the task that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) liked to proclaim as “Dare Mighty Things!” (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 04, 2020, 02:15
How the “Department of Exploration” supports Mars 2020 and more
by Paul Dabbar Monday, August 3, 2020

An Atlas V rocket carrying the Mars 2020 Perseverance rover lifts off July 30 from Cape Canaveral, Florida. (credit: NASA/Joel Kowsky)

Rovers can’t rove without persistent sources of power. That’s especially true when it comes to space exploration. And when NASA’s Perseverance rover begins exploring the Red Planet next February after its launch last Thursday, it will do so thanks to power supplied by the Department of Energy (DOE), which may be better dubbed the “Department of Exploration.” (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 04, 2020, 02:15
Captured flag
by Jeff Foust Monday, August 3, 2020

The Crew Dragon spacecraft Endeavour moments before splashdown August 2 that ended the Demo-2 mission. (credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

During a ceremony on the final space shuttle mission, STS-135 in July 2011, astronauts on the International Space Station spoke with then-President Barack Obama. During the call, the astronauts showed off a small American flag, 10 by 15 centimeters, that has also flown on the first shuttle mission three decades earlier. That flag, they said, would remain on the station until the next crewed American spacecraft arrived at the station. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 11, 2020, 08:27
Review: War in Space
by Jeff Foust Monday, August 10, 2020

War in Space: Strategy, Spacepower, Geopolitics
by Bleddyn E. Bowen
Edinburgh University Press, 2020
hardcover, 288 pp.
ISBN 978-1-4744-5048-5

The latest salvo, if you will, in the debate about a space arms race came last month. US Space Command announced that Russia conducted what it considered an anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons test in orbit when the Kosmos 2543 satellite deployed an object in the vicinity of another Russian satellite. The speed of the deployed object led the US government to conclude this was a test of a kinetic projectile. “This is further evidence of Russia’s continuing efforts to develop and test space-based systems, and consistent with the Kremlin’s published military doctrine to employ weapons that hold US and allied space assets at risk,” said Gen. Jay Raymond, head of both Space Command and the US Space Force, in a statement. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 11, 2020, 08:27
Orbital space tourism set for rebirth in 2021
by Tony Quine Monday, August 10, 2020

Both Axiom Space and Space Adventures have announced contracts for Crew Dragon missions, either to the International Space Station or a free-flyer mission to a higher orbit. (credit: SpaceX)

Orbital space tourism has been in a holding pattern since 2009, a decade-long hiatus caused, indirectly, by the end of the space shuttle in 2011. However, orbital space tourism is finally due to return in 2021, perhaps on a scale unimaginable back in 2009.

According to media releases from the two main protagonists in the sector, Space Adventures and Axiom Space, up to nine seats to orbit will be available for purchase, by either individuals or organizations, during the final quarter of 2021. These will be spread across three spaceflights, using both the tried and tested Russian Soyuz, and SpaceX’s Dragon, two of which will dock at the International Space Station. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 11, 2020, 08:27
Virgin Galactic, still awaiting liftoff, spreads its wings
by Jeff Foust Monday, August 10, 2020

The interior of SpaceShipTwo features reclining seats, lots of cameras, and a mirror in the back. (credit: Virgin Galactic)

For the last 15 years, Virgin Galactic has been very clear about its plans: develop a suborbital vehicle, SpaceShipTwo, that will fly customers and payloads to the edge of space on a regular basis. It’s kept a focus on that goal despite extensive delays, testing setbacks, and a fatal test flight accident nearly six years ago. When the company did develop a side business, a small launch vehicle called LauncherOne, it spun that out into Virgin Orbit, a separate business that now shares little with Virgin Galactic other than founder Richard Branson and the “Virgin” in their names. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 11, 2020, 08:27
After the fire: a long-lost transcript from the Apollo 1 fire investigation
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, August 10, 2020

The crew of Apollo 1 crosses the gantry to the spacecraft on the day of the fire, January 27, 1967. (credit: NASA)

As long as there has been spaceflight, there have been conspiracy theories. There were conspiracy theories about Sputnik in the late 1950s (“their Germans are better than our Germans”) and dead cosmonauts in the early 1960s. Even before some people claimed—on the very day that it happened—that the Moon landing was faked, Apollo had its own conspiracy theories. In those days it was difficult for them to propagate and reach a wide audience, unlike today, when they can spread around the world at the speed of light. One of those Apollo conspiracy theories was about a whistleblower named Thomas Baron, who later died under mysterious circumstances. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 11, 2020, 08:27
Upgrading Russia’s fleet of optical reconnaissance satellites
by Bart Hendrickx Monday, August 10, 2020

Early concept for a 2.4 m primary mirror scheduled to fly on Russia’s next-generation Razdan reconnaissance satellites. (credit: Kontenant magazine)

Russia currently has only two operational optical reconnaissance satellites in orbit, both of which may already have exceeded their design lifetime. They are to be replaced by more capable satellites carrying a primary mirror about the same size as of those believed to be flown aboard American reconnaissance satellites, but it is unclear when these will be ready to fly. An experimental satellite launched in 2018 likely is the precursor of a constellation of much smaller spy satellites that will augment the imagery provided by the big satellites. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 25, 2020, 03:44
Review: Shuttle, Houston
by Jeff Foust Monday, August 24, 2020


Shuttle, Houston: My Life in the Center Seat of Mission Control
by Paul Dye
Hachette Books, 2020
Hardcover, 320 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-0-316-45457-5

The recent SpaceX commercial crew mission offered a look at the future of mission control, or at least the concept of mission control. There was the traditional NASA Mission Control at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, overseeing the operations of the International Space Station. There was also, though, SpaceX’s own mission control center at its Hawthorne, California, headquarters, which handled the Crew Dragon itself. During their trip to the station in May, and back home in August, the NASA astronauts on the spacecraft communicated directly with the SpaceX mission control rather than with JSC. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 25, 2020, 03:44
Reaching for the stars: structural reform in the private space sector in India
by Anirudh Rastogi and Varun Baliga Monday, August 24, 2020

New privatization initiatives by the Indian government may help space startups in the country, like small launch vehicle developer Skyroot Aerospace. (credit: Skyroot Aerospace)

India has taken steps in quick succession to liberalize its private space industry. In May, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced the opening up of the Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO’s) facilities to the country’s private sector as part of its COVID-19 special economic stimulus. More recently, the Indian Cabinet approved the setting up of the Indian National Space Promotion and Authorisation Centre (IN-SPACe) to facilitate private sector participation “through encouraging policies and a friendly regulatory environment.” These are early but laudable steps. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 25, 2020, 03:44
NASA’s Artemis Accords: the path to a united space law or a divided one?
by Guoyu Wang Monday, August 24, 2020

The Artemis Accords are intended to ensure partners in NASA’s Artemis program agree to a set of principles, but some of those principles may raise international space law issues. (credit: NASA)

On May 15, NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine presented the critical points of The Artemis Accords Principles for a Safe, Peaceful, and Prosperous Future (the Artemis Accords) publicly (see “What’s in a name when it comes to an ‘accord’?”, The Space Review, July 13, 2020). The Artemis Accords attempt to clarify basic principles and rule frameworks in international law for the sake of lunar activities which are led by the US, and then to influence and promote the international community to reach a consensus on the legality of space resources activities. It shows that the US carries on the rationale of the Space Resource Exploration and Utilization Act of 2015, along with the Presidential Decree No.13914, and continues to promote the construction of legal and political certainties on space resource activities. In this way, more countries will be attracted to participate in not just the Artemis program, but also future space resources activities on other celestial bodies, such as extracting and utilizing resources on Mars or asteroids. This will have a certain impact not just on the nature of space activities and the relations between spacefaring countries, but also on the discussion of relevant international rules. The main question to be discussed here is whether it will bring to a united space law or a divided one. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 25, 2020, 03:44
The National Aeronautics and Space and Arms Control Administration (NASACA)?
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, August 24, 2020

A missile during a May Day Parade in Red Square. In 1969, NASA sought a role in arms control negotiations between the US and USSR.

Nineteen sixty-nine was a key turning point for NASA. In July, the agency landed Apollo 11 on the Moon, a stunning achievement that culminated more than eight years of frantic effort. But by that time the agency’s future was already in question. The Nixon administration had begun questioning the agency’s budget and looking for ways to cut it. Advisers had indicated that there were major policy issues to address about what would happen after Apollo landed on the Moon, and soon some in the administration would question if NASA was even necessary. It was in the midst of this uncertain environment that NASA Administrator Thomas Paine made a surprising suggestion that has been classified for 50 years: NASA could become the key US government agency for monitoring arms control agreements. Newly declassified documents are now shedding some light on this previously unknown proposal, but they raise many questions requiring further study. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 25, 2020, 03:45
Losers and (sore) winners
by Jeff Foust Monday, August 24, 2020

While SpaceX won the Air Force launch competition using its existing Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy rockets, it will have to build a mobile servicing tower (right) at LC-39A to allow for vertical processing of payloads, as well as a stretched payload fairing for the Falcon Heavy. (credit: SpaceX)

In April 2014, Elon Musk declared war on the US Air Force. At a press conference in Washington, he announced that he was filing suit against the service, arguing that it had locked SpaceX out of future military launch contracts with a block buy of launches from rival United Launch Alliance. “Essentially, what we feel is that this is not right,” he said at that event. “National security launches should be put up for competition, and they should not be awarded on a sole-source, uncompeted basis.” (See “SpaceX escalates the EELV debate”, The Space Review, April 28, 2014.) (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 01, 2020, 17:40
Review: The End of Everything (Astrophysically Speaking)
by Jeff Foust Monday, August 31, 2020


The End of Everything (Astrophysically Speaking)
by Katie Mack
Scribner, 2020
hardcover, 240 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-9821-0354-5

The end of the universe is probably one of the last things on everyone’s minds these days, given all the problems that make you wonder how we’ll get through just this year. It’s something that is (presumably) very far in the future, and also something we have absolutely no control over. But, perhaps, you are a little curious about how it will all come to an end—whether or not you want to accelerate the process. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 01, 2020, 17:41
From SSA to space recon: Setting the conditions to prevail in astrodynamic combat
by Maj. James Kirby, US Army Monday, August 31, 2020

The growing concerns about threats to military space assets requires a new mindset, adapted from terrestrial military reconnaissance, to help identify those threats in a timely fashion. (credit: DOD)

Traditional orbital analysis in support of the concept of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) has been historically focused upon the concepts of executing orbit determinations, state vector updates, and close approach analysis to support safety of flight. While these functions will remain foundational, the mindset and culture that has developed these procedures must change in the face of existential threats to our space capabilities. No longer may we be content with a solely a passive awareness of the domain, focused on collision avoidance and safety of flight; rather we must transform our perspective to merge the physics of Newton, Kepler, Lambert, Clohessy, Wiltshire, and Hill, and the reconnaissance principals and culture of Tzu, Buford, and Wellesley into concepts that shape maneuver warfare in this emerging warfighting Area Of Responsibility (AOR). (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 01, 2020, 17:41
Collaboration is the cornerstone of space exploration
by Dylan Taylor Monday, August 31, 2020

NASA’s Mars Perseverance rover, launched in late July, carried instruments from several companies and is just one example of the importance of international collaboration in space exploration. (credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

When Neil Armstrong proclaimed that landing on the Moon was “one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind,” the resonance of its message not only alluded to the incredible undertaking that a moon landing entailed, but it also ignited the human imagination and the spirit of invention for what could now be possible. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 01, 2020, 17:41
Outer space needs private law
by Alexander William Salter Monday, August 31, 2020

NASA’s Artremis program and its proposed Artemis Accords has triggered debate about space governance. (credit: Dynetics)

The Cold War is back, and it’s headed into orbit. American tensions with China and Russia are escalating, especially since Russia’s suspected anti-satellite weapons test. The stakes are nothing less than a peaceful future in space. Operations in orbit and beyond require extraordinary precision and certainty. Any conflict can seriously hinder operational efficiency for both governments and businesses. Fortunately, there’s a solution that can benefit all parties: Giving private law a major role in ordering the cosmos. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 01, 2020, 17:41
Pick an agency, any agency
by Jeff Foust Monday, August 31, 2020

A report commissioned by Congress affirmed the administration’s choice of the Office of Space Commerce within the Department of Commerce as the lead agency for civil space traffic management. (credit: ESA)

When President Trump appeared at a meeting of the National Space Council at the White House in June 2018, the highlight was his announcement that the administration would seek to establish a Space Force as a separate military branch. It overshadowed his signing of Space Policy Directive (SPD) 3, which focused on space traffic management and assigned responsibilities to the Commerce Department (see “Managing space traffic expectations”, The Space Review, June 25, 2018). (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 09, 2020, 02:36
Review: The Smallest Lights in the Universe
by Jeff Foust Tuesday, September 8, 2020


The Smallest Lights in the Universe: A Memoir
by Sara Seager
Crown, 2020
hardcover, 320 pp.
ISBN 978-0-525-57625-9

Science is done by scientists. That may seem like an obvious statement, but it’s something often forgotten in the announcements of discoveries, including in astronomy and related space sciences. Discoveries are often attributed—particularly in news headlines—to the spacecraft or observatories used to make them. But those discoveries are made not by spacecraft and instruments, but by people who operate them and analyze the data they produce. Those researchers, like the rest of us, are people with their own motivations to do such work, and struggles to overcome to achieve those discoveries. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 09, 2020, 02:36
Walking through the doors of history: unlocking a space tradition
by Kirby Kahler Tuesday, September 8, 2020

The shuttle mission stickers above the double doors at the O&C. (credit: K. Kahler)
In July 2019, I had the unique opportunity to revisit the astronaut walkout doors at the Neil Armstrong Operations & Checkout Building (O&C) at the Kennedy Space Center for the 50th anniversary of Apollo 11. Fifty years ago, I was one of more than 3,500 journalists trying to get the “money shot” of the Apollo 11 astronaut walkout. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 09, 2020, 02:36
The Artemis Accords: a shared framework for space exploration
by Paul Stimers and Abby Dinegar Tuesday, September 8, 2020

NASA plans to seek international partners for the Artemis lunar exploration program, making an agreement like the Artemis Accords critical. (credit: NASA)

President Trump has made quite a mark on US space policy by announcing the Artemis program to send the first woman and the next man to the Moon in 2024 and creating the Space Force. The recent developments continue the role America has always played in space: a leader and partner in peaceful, cooperative international efforts. This is the spirit that has led to 20 years of continuous human presence in space aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and that sent American astronauts to the Moon a half century ago, not to claim territory, but “in peace for all mankind.” President Trump’s initiatives build carefully and squarely atop a foundation of policy that stretches across decades of bipartisan leadership. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 09, 2020, 02:36
Making the transition from the ISS
by Jeff Foust Tuesday, September 8, 2020

Axiom Space won a NASA award early this year to add commercial modules to the International Space Station, but NASA has put on hold a similar competition to support a free-flyer commercial station. (credit: Axiom Space)

In less than two months, the International Space Station will reach a milestone. On November 2, 2000, the Soyuz TM-31 spacecraft carrying Russian cosmonauts Yuri Gidzenko and Sergei Krikalev, and American astronaut Bill Shepherd, docked with the Zvezda module of the International Space Station. Since that day the station has been continuously occupied, meaning that, barring a calamity of some kind in the coming weeks, the station will soon surpass 20 years with people on board. That is a major accomplishment for a program that struggled for years to get off the drawing boards and into orbit. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 09, 2020, 02:36
The future on hold: America’s need to redefine its space paradigm
by Stephen Kostes Tuesday, September 8, 2020

Constructing a cislunar infrastructure will drive renewed investment in education and training, and it will re-direct investment back into the historical drivers of job creation and economic growth.

A powerful school of economic thought today, led by economists such as Robert Gordon, suggests that, during the 1970s, the focus of technological innovation changed and, as a result, economic growth started to decline and wealth inequality began to rise. While there are many factors involved, it is interesting to note that this coincides with the end of the Apollo era. Along with severe budget cuts, this limited scope of innovation certainly took its toll on the space program. However, it also seems to have short-circuited our economy as well. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 15, 2020, 02:44
Review: Space Dogs
by Jeff Foust Monday, September 14, 2020


Space Dogs
Directed by Elsa Kremser and Levin Peter
Icarus Films, 2019
91 mins.

Most readers are familiar with the tale of Laika, the first animal in space. A stray picked up off the streets of Moscow, Laika was flown on the second Sputnik satellite in November 1957, claiming yet another first for the Soviet space program. The flight was a one-way mission from the beginning, since Sputnik 2 has no capability to survive reentry. Laika, as later historical research revealed, likely died from overheating just a few hours after launch. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 15, 2020, 02:44
The West needs bold, sustainable, and inclusive space programs and visions, or else
by Giulio Prisco Monday, September 14, 2020

A Chinese concept for a lunar base. China’s long-term vision for space exploration and utilization poses a challenge to the US and its partners. (credit: CAST)

China is planning an International Lunar Research Station (ILRS) (https://spacenews.com/china-is-aiming-to-attract-partners-for-an-international-lunar-research-station/) in the lunar south pole region, and recently revealed that it is seeking international partners.

I hope there’ll be international ILRS partners, but I guess they’ll play only a token role. Since I’m not too optimistic on the US Artemis lunar program (I’ll come to that), going to the Moon as guests of the Chinese may become the only plausible option for aspiring astronauts in the rest of the world. But of course, foreigners will be kept far from the really important things that China wants. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 15, 2020, 02:44
Star children: can humans be fruitful and multiply off-planet?
by Fred Nadis Monday, September 14, 2020

A Dutch startup, SpaceLife Origin, proposed a series of missions leading up to a baby being born in orbit, before backing off last year. (credit: SpaceLife Origin)

From his home in Cape Canaveral, Air Force pilot Alex Layendecker explained how he had been drawn to the study of sex and reproduction in space. “I had been immersed in the space environment in the Air Force, assigned to launch duty, and was simultaneously pursuing an M.A. in public health, and then at the Institute for Advanced Study of Human Sexuality, and I was looking for a dissertation topic,” he recalled. “I decided that sex and reproduction in space had not received the attention they deserved—if we’re serious about discussions of colonization, having babies in microgravity—on Mars or other outposts of the Earth, then more needs to be learned.” His general recommendation was that because of the squeamishness of NASA to study sex in space, a private nonprofit organization, or Astrosexological Research Institute, should be founded for this research critical to human settlement of outer space. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 15, 2020, 02:44
Launch failures: fill ’er up?
by Wayne Eleazer Monday, September 14, 2020

A Proton launch in 2010 failed not because it ran out of propellant but instead because it had too much on board. (credit: Roscosmos)

One of the most common causes of airplane accidents is a pilot sitting there and letting the thing run out of gas. This type of mishap is much less common with space launches, but early propulsion system shutdowns due to the vehicle running out of propellant have occurred in some noteworthy cases.

The majority of liquid propellant space boosters ever launched have lacked a system with even as little sophistication as a bewildered pilot staring at a dropping fuel gauge. The engines were tested, the performance noted, and the required amounts of fuel and oxidizer calculated using simple formulas. For vehicles using liquid oxygen (LOX) as the oxidizer, that tank was topped off: a necessity since it kept boiling off until mere seconds before liftoff, when the vent valve was closed. The fuel was loaded based on the calculations, with a bit extra added to provide some margin. Thor, Titan, and Delta all used this approach, as did most foreign vehicles. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 15, 2020, 02:44
Moon and Mars advocates find peace
by Jeff Foust Monday, September 14, 2020

NASA’s lunar Gateway, part of the agency’s Artemis program, could also be used to support Mars exploration through long-duration crewed missions there. (credit: NASA)

For decades, it seems, space exploration advocates have done battle over the long-term goals of human spaceflight, even as humans remained stuck in low Earth orbit. Some have argued for a return to the Moon, both for its own sake as well as a proving ground for missions beyond. Others, though, have pushed for going to Mars, often as soon as possible, fearing that a lunar return could be a costly, lengthy detour. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 22, 2020, 11:36
Review: The Last Stargazers
by Jeff Foust Monday, September 21, 2020


The Last Stargazers: The Enduring Story of Astronomy’s Vanishing Explorers
by Emily Levesque
Sourcebooks, 2020
hardcover, 336 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-4926-8107-6

Two historic observatories were in the news recently, not because of any new discoveries they made but instead due to threats to their existence. Last month, a wildfire in the early days of California’s horrific fire season approached Lick Observatory, on a mountaintop near San Jose. Last week, another fire encroached on Mount Wilson Observatory near Los Angeles, at one point coming within a couple hundred meters of its major telescopes. Fortunately, in both cases firefighters were able to halt the fires, with only minor damage at each observatory. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 22, 2020, 11:36
Review: Orphans in Space
by Glen E. Swanson Monday, September 21, 2020

Orphans in Space is a two-DVD set with an eclectic collection of little-known space-related films.

Orphans in Space: Forgotten Films from the Final Frontier
2012, The Orphans Film Project

In early April, while doing research for an article (see “‘Space, the final frontier’: Star Trek and the national space rhetoric of Eisenhower, Kennedy and NASA”, The Space Review, April 20, 2020), I interviewed Megan Prelinger. During that interview, she mentioned that both she and her husband Rick helped assemble a collection of space-themed films that appeared in a DVD set called Orphans in Space: Forgotten Films from the Final Frontier. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 22, 2020, 11:36
Venus: science and politics
by Ajey Lele Monday, September 21, 2020

An image of the surface of Venus taken by the Soviet Union’s Venera 13 mission.

For many years, the major focus for space exploration has been Mars and the Moon. Of course, the scientific community has been involved in missions elsewhere in the solar system, but the agendas for major space agencies have been dominated by the missions to the Moon and Mars. Now, there exists a possibility that another world could push its way into those agendas.

The discovery

Venus is known as the hottest planet in the solar system, with surface temperatures as high as 470°C. In fact, Venus is even hotter than Mercury because Venus thick atmosphere filled with carbon dioxide, generating a runaway greenhouse effect. Venus is sometimes called the sister planet of the Earth, since it is very similar to the Earth in terms of size and mass. However, the problem is that the temperature and atmosphere of Venus makes it entirely different than the Earth. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 22, 2020, 11:36
Why the detection of phosphine in the clouds of Venus is a big deal
by Paul K. Byrne Monday, September 21, 2020

The discovery of phosphine in the atmosphere of Venus could be a sign of life, as well as a sign of new life for exploration of thew planet. (credit: European Space Organization/M. Kornmesser & NASA/JPL/Caltech)

[This article was originally published by The Conversation, and is reprinted under a Creative Commons license.]

On September 14, a new planet was added to the list of potentially habitable worlds in the Solar System: Venus.

Phosphine, a toxic gas made up of one phosphorus and three hydrogen atoms (PH3), commonly produced by organic life forms but otherwise difficult to make on rocky planets, was discovered in the middle layer of the atmosphere of Venus. This raises the tantalizing possibility that something is alive on our planetary neighbor. With this discovery, Venus joins the exalted ranks of Mars and the icy moons Enceladus and Europa among planetary bodies where life may once have existed, or perhaps might even still does today. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 22, 2020, 11:37
Where will Artemis 3 land? And when?
by Jeff Foust Monday, September 21, 2020

Comments last week suggested the Artemis 3 lunar landing might not take place near the lunar south pole, but NASA has since reiterated it still plans to go to the south pole. (credit: NASA)

NASA’s Artemis program faces many challenges to overcome to achieve its goal of landing humans on the Moon in 2024. There are the myriad technical problems that have already occurred, and will likely continue to crop up in the coming years as NASA completes development of the Space Launch System, Orion, one or more human lunar landers, and the lunar Gateway. Funding remains a challenge, as evidenced by a House bill that provides NASA with less than a fifth the funding it sought for the Human Landing System (HLS) program (see “Irregular disorder and the NASA budget”, The Space Review, July 27, 2020). And, there’s the possibility that a change of administrations next year will lead to a slowdown, or even abandonment, of the entire program. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 30, 2020, 00:43
Review: China in Space
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, September 28, 2020


China in Space: The Great Leap Forward, 2nd ed.
by Brian Harvey
Springer; 2nd ed. 2019
paperback, 564 pages
ISBN-13: 978-3-030-19587-8

Brian Harvey has long written about China’s space program as well as the space programs of India and Japan. This is a second edition of his book on China’s expanding space program, successor to the edition published in 2013. It provides a good overview of the breadth of Chinese space activities, as well as what has led up to China’s current projects and their future ambitions. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 30, 2020, 00:44
Photons and phosphine
by Jeff Foust Monday, September 28, 2020

Rocket Lab’s Photon satellite bus will be used to support the launch of NASA’s CAPSTONE mission to the Moon next year. (credit: NASA)

On August 31, a Rocket Lab Electron rocket lifted off from the company’s launch pad in New Zealand, placing a radar imaging satellite for startup Capella Space into orbit. The launch represented the return to flight of the Electron, which failed in its previous launch less than two months earlier (see “It’s (small) rocket science, after all”, The Space Review, July 6, 2020). An investigation tracked down the cause of the failure to an “anomalous electrical connection” in the rocket’s second stage that had evaded the company’s acceptance testing processes prior to launch. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 30, 2020, 00:44
Battle of the Titans (part 1)
by Wayne Eleazer Monday, September 28, 2020

What would become the Titan IV faced challenges both before and after the Air Force selected the design for development. (credit: Lockheed Martin)

As has been described in various articles in The Space Review (see “When ‘about time’ equals ‘too late’”, October 11, 2005; “The engine problem”, August 3, 2015; “About those scrapped Atlas ICBMs”, July 6, 2010), the Space Shuttle was developed to be the sole US launch vehicle that would be supported by the US Government. All US government payloads eventually would fly on nothing but the shuttle and that meant American commercial payloads would also. All rocket engine development except that related to the shuttle was stopped in the 1970s and most rocket engine production ended as well. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 30, 2020, 00:44
Reality bites
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, September 28, 2020

The website for the planned “Space Hero” reality TV show has a countdown clock but little else about the show that would send the winner to the ISS. (credit: spacehero.me)

Two weeks ago, the Hollywood publication Deadline reported an exclusive that sounded a lot like déjà vu all over again:

“Space Hero Inc., a U.S.-based production company founded by Thomas Reemer and Deborah Sass and led by former News Corp Europe chief Marty Pompadur, has secured a seat on a 2023 mission to the International Space Station. It will go to a contestant chosen through an unscripted show titled Space Hero. Produced by Ben Silverman and Howard Owens’ Propagate, the series will launch a global search for everyday people from any background who share a deep love for space exploration. They will be vying for the biggest prize ever awarded on TV.” (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 30, 2020, 00:44
India’s Mars orbiter completes six years at the red planet, but where is the science?
by Jatan Mehta Monday, September 28, 2020

India’s Mangalyaan spacecraft arrived at Mars six years ago, but the scientific output of the mission has been a disappointment. (credit: ISRO)

September 24 marked six years since ISRO’s Mars Orbiter Mission, or Mangalyaan, spacecraft entered Mars orbit, making India the first Asian country to do so. What is even more impressive is that Mangalyaan was the country’s first interplanetary mission. Combined with the cost effectiveness for which it is lauded, Mangalyaan is often hailed as India’s most successful space mission. But is it? (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 08, 2020, 07:46
Review: Space Is Open for Business
by Jeff Foust Monday, October 5, 2020

Space Is Open for Business: The Industry That Can Transform Humanity
by Robert C. Jacobson
Robert Jacobson, 2020
paperback, 418 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-7342051-0-7

Despite the economic upheavals in the last year caused by the coronavirus pandemic, interest in space continues largely unabated (see “Commercial space, and space commercialization, weather the pandemic”, The Space Review, this issue). CNBC reported over the weekend on a recent analysis by Bank of America, which projected the global space economy would more than triple over the next decade, to $1.4 trillion in 2030. While the analysis was simplistic—Bank of America simply assumed the average annual growth rate of the last two years, more than 10%, would continue for the next ten—it exemplifies the bullishness the investment community has shown in space in recent years. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 08, 2020, 07:46
Why addressing the environmental crisis should be the space industry’s top priority
by Loïs Miraux Monday, October 5, 2020

Hurricane Florence as seen from the International Space Station. (credit: NASA)

How can we give meaning to space missions in the context of a global environmental crisis? World Space Week 2020 (October 4–10) and its theme “Satellites Improve Life” will remind us of the numerous benefits that space-based assets bring on Earth. However, as climate change has been largely recognized as an existential threat in the 21st century, some space activities, such as space exploration or space tourism, raise important questions. Some projects continue to promise technological solutions to environmental issues in outer space. They won’t help. The environment should be space industry’s top priority. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 08, 2020, 07:46
Commercial space, and space commercialization, weather the pandemic
by Jeff Foust Monday, October 5, 2020

A Northrop Grumman Antares rocket lifts off October 2 carrying a Cygnus cargo spacecraft to the International Space Station. Included in the Cygnus was a commercial payload for Estée Lauder. (credit: NASA Wallops/Patrick Black)

The Northrop Grumman Cygnus spacecraft that launched Friday night from Wallops Island, Virginia, bound for the International Space Station, carried a diverse array of cargo. There were science and technology demonstration payloads, ranging from testing cancer treatments to growing radishes in microgravity (yes, scientists said at a pre-launch briefing, the astronauts will be able to eat the radishes.) There were also some nitrogen gas bottles for the station’s air supply as the crew worked to trace the source of a small air leak, now thought to be in the Zvezda module. And there was the Universal Waste Management System, a next-generation space toilet that will be tested on the ISS before it’s used on the Orion spacecraft. (“When the astronauts have to go, we want to allow them to boldly go,” said one member of the team that developed it.) (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 08, 2020, 07:46
Battle of the Titans (part 2)
by Wayne Eleazer Monday, October 5, 2020

A converted Titan II ICBM launches the Quickscat mission for NASA. (credit: NASA)

It was a matter of national policy that the Space Shuttle would be the only new US launch system, but not everyone in the US Air Force agreed with that philosophy. The Complementary Expendable Launch Vehicle (CELV) procurement that began in 1984 and became the Titan IV program addressed back up launches for three very important Air Force payloads, all to be launched from Cape Canaveral (see “Battle of the Titans (part 1)”, The Space Review, September 28, 2020). Soon after CELV got underway in 1984, some Air Force officers began thinking about the problem of alternative launch capabilities for payloads using polar orbits launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 08, 2020, 07:46
Mars ain’t the kind of place to take your kid: Netflix’s “Away”
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, October 5, 2020

Netflix’s “Away” is about a crew on a journey to Mars, but much of the story takes place on Earth and feels no different than a typical suburban melodrama on basic cable.

How do we measure what is in the popular culture, what occupies the zeitgeist? Certainly some things are obvious. But what about the subjects that do not overwhelm popular discussion, but nevertheless occasionally rise up above the din? Subjects like Mars. Where is Mars in our popular culture today? (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 13, 2020, 17:59
Review: Neutron Stars
by Jeff Foust Monday, October 12, 2020


Neutron Stars: The Quest to Understand the Zombies of the Cosmos
by Katia Moskvitch
Harvard Univ. Press, 2020
hardcover, 304 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-0-674-91935-8

There’s too much gold in the universe. That’s the conclusion of a recent study that compared the abundances of gold measured in our solar system with the known mechanisms for producing gold. The primary way to create it, astronomers believe, is when two neutron stars collide (supernovae don’t help, since any star massive enough to produce gold through fusion will end up as a black hole, trapping the gold within it.) But, the study’s authors noted, neutron star collisions don’t appear to be frequent enough to produce the gold we do see. Either another process creates gold, or neutron star collisions create more gold than astronomers expect. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 13, 2020, 17:59
Space entrepreneurs need to look to the stars but keep their feet on the ground
by Nicholas Borroz Monday, October 12, 2020

Many get into the space industry seeking to pursue interesting technologies, like reusable rockets; a sustainable business plan is only a secondary concern. (credit: SpaceX)

The space sector is one where technological marvels are widely celebrated. As private firms become more influential in the sector, there has been a veritable explosion of exciting plans for employing next-generation technologies. This creativity is inspiring, but it also has drawbacks. Entrepreneurs should continue pursuing their visions, but they should also make sure to ground their enterprises in reality. They should clearly understand how their activities benefit others. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 13, 2020, 17:59
In the paler moonlight: the future’s past in “For All Mankind”
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, October 12, 2020

Note: This article contains spoilers for the first and second seasons of For All Mankind.

“For All Mankind’s” first season ended with an American base on the Moon. In season 2, set in the 1980s, the base has expanded, and become the focus of the Cold War struggle with the Soviet Union.

The second season of Apple TV+’s “For All Mankind” was filming when reality intervened, halting production after eight episodes had been shot, although production resumed late in the summer. For a show about world events to be derailed by a world event is perhaps overly ironic, but despite the delay, the producers did release a trailer for season two, and it indicates that things are heating up on the Moon. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 13, 2020, 17:59
The three administrators
by Jeff Foust Monday, October 12, 2020

Former NASA administrator Charlie Bolden, seen here at a 2019 conference, joined two of his predecessors in the Aviation Week webinar last week. (credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

NASA administrators get plenty of advice, solicited and unsolicited, while on the job. Politicians, executives, scientists, and others are more than willing to weigh in on what the agency’s leader should do. The best advice, though, might come from the people who previously held the job—if they’re willing to give it. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 13, 2020, 18:00
Semantics in lexicon: Moving away from the term “salvage” in outer space
by Michael J. Listner Monday, October 12, 2020

As more efforts get started to repair and revive derelict satellites, the space industry needs to reconsider its use of “salvage” when describing such operations. (credit: Northrop Grumman)

The idea of salvage in outer space is one that evokes fervent discussions about space debris and recovering defunct satellites for possession. The idea of salvage in outer space is misunderstood and mischaracterized by private space enthusiasts, and is one I’ve discussed here before (see “Taking salvage in outer space from fiction to fact”, The Space Review, March 20, 2017). Moreover, I suggested that a form of salvage, akin to contract salvage in the maritime domain, might be an appropriate model for outer space and that a precedent has already laid the groundwork with the recovery of the Palpa B and Weststar VI satellites by NASA and the Space Shuttle.[1] The successful rendezvous and servicing operation performed on Intelsat 901 by the SpaceLogistics Mission Extension Vehicle 1 (MEV-1) earlier this year and a follow-on mission by MEV-2 with the Intelsat 10-02 next year lays the groundwork for opportunities for more of these activities in outer space. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 20, 2020, 15:53
Review: Canadarm and Collaboration
by Jeff Foust Monday, October 19, 2020


Canadarm and Collaboration: How Canada’s Astronauts and Space Robots Explore New Worlds
by Elizabeth Howell
ECW Press, 2020
paperback, 240 pp.
ISBN 978-1-77041-442-6

For most people in the space field, the first thing that comes to mind when thinking about Canada’s space program is its series of robotic arms (with the possible recent exception of former astronaut/social media personality Chris Hadfield.) Over the last four decades, Canada has become synonymous with those systems, first with the Canadarm on the shuttle and then Canadarm2 and the Dextre manipulator on the space station. The back of the Canadian five-dollar bill includes an illustration of Canadarm2, while a model of a robotic manipulator was visible in the office of new Canadian Space Agency president Lisa Campbell last week when she participated in a virtual signing ceremony for the NASA-led Artemis Accords. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 20, 2020, 15:54
Is the New Zealand commercial space success story a model for other countries?
by Marçal Sanmartí Monday, October 19, 2020

New Zealand’s Cook Strait viewed from the International Space Station. (credit: NASA)

These remotely located group of islands in the South Pacific with a population of just five million people has a tradition of punching above its weight. New Zealand is a primary industries powerhouse; probably hosts the best known and successful rugby team on Earth, the All Blacks; and is seen internationally as a champion in the fight against COVID-19. The space sector is emerging as another such area—ironic, considering that locals refer themselves as kiwis, the name of a local flightless bird! (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 20, 2020, 15:54
Rock-solid (Blue) Cube: Galileo and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake
by Joseph T. Page II Monday, October 19, 2020

The US Air Force Satellite Control Facility circa 1984, located near Sunnyvale, California.

Thirty-one years ago, the United States space program placed a mark in the “win” column amidst a terrible terrestrial tragedy. On October 18, 1989, the shuttle Atlantis lifted off from Cape Canaveral’s Launch Complex 39B, carrying the Jupiter-bound Galileo space probe atop its Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster. While the Galileo saga included many epic twists and turns over the decades since its conception, one of the most inspiring stories came from the unlikeliest of places: a non-descript blue building in Sunnyvale, California less than 24 hours before the launch. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 20, 2020, 15:54
TAG, Bennu, you’re it
by Jeff Foust Monday, October 19, 2020

An illustration of OSIRIS-REx, its sample gathering arm extended, approaching the surface of the asteroid Bennu. (credit: NASA/Goddard/University of Arizona)

Some call it a fist bump. Others, a “boop.” But the formal name is “touch and go,” or TAG, which clearly illustrates what NASA will attempt to do Tuesday.

The Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft—one of the more convoluted acronyms in NASA’s history—has been orbiting the asteroid Bennu since late 2018, studying the asteroid while scouting for a landing site. On Tuesday, the spacecraft will descend towards the selected site, dubbed Nightingale, extending a robotic arm with a sampling mechanism, called TAGSAM, on the end. If all goes well, that mechanism will touch down on the surface, collect at least 60 grams, and perhaps up to two kilograms, of material, in just five to ten seconds, before the spacecraft pulls away: touch and go. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 20, 2020, 15:54
Applied witchcraft: American communications intelligence satellites during the 1960s
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, October 19, 2020

A TOPHAT communications intelligence satellite launched in 1970. This satellite was about the size of a small refrigerator and gathered up Soviet communications from low Earth orbit. (credit: NRO)

During the Battle of Midway in June 1942, Admiral Chester Nimitz, Commander in Chief of the US Pacific Fleet, monitored the battle from his command center in Pearl Harbor, picking up snippets of radio traffic from both American and Japanese forces. After hearing that American planes had spotted the Japanese carriers and started their attack, Nimitz and his officers heard nothing more from the Japanese carriers for a long period, but then intercepted a message from the Japanese force seeking the location of the American fleet. After another long silence, the Americans intercepted a coded Japanese message. The call sign on the message was Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo, whose flagship was the carrier Akagi. But one of the American naval officers present had become an expert at identifying the styles of the Japanese operators who tapped out coded messages. This message was not tapped out by the Akagi’s heavy-handed warrant officer, but instead by the chief radioman in the cruiser Nagara. The Americans concluded from this small bit of evidence that the Akagi had been damaged too heavily to serve as flagship, and Nagumo had shifted his command to the cruiser. In fact, Akagi was in flames, Nagumo had barely escaped alive by climbing down a rope from the ship’s bridge, and the carrier, which had participated in the attack on Pearl Harbor, would sink within the day. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 27, 2020, 14:48
If we are going forward to the Moon, don’t go back to Apollo
by Christopher Cokinos Monday, October 26, 2020

Aristarchus crater might be a better alternative landing site for the first Artemis missions than an Apollo site, if the south pole of the Moon is ruled out. (credit: NASA/GSFC/Arizona State University)

NASA Administrator James Bridenstine recently surprised the space community by suggesting that the first crewed Artemis surface mission to the Moon, slated for 2024, might not land at the south pole as previously discussed but instead could revisit one of the Apollo landing sites in the easier-to-reach lunar equatorial regions. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 27, 2020, 14:48
From the Truman Proclamation to the Artemis Accords: steps toward establishing a bottom-up framework for governance in space
by Alfred B. Anzaldúa and Cristin Finnigan Monday, October 26, 2020

Should lunar governance for future exploration and other activities be done in a bottom-up or top-down way? (credit: NASA)

Humanity stands at the doorway of an astounding societal transformation. While many people worldwide pass time attending to urgent personal matters or frivolous entertainments, nation states and private parties harbor serious plans to launch missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond to establish permanent outposts and communities. Such extraterrestrial activity offers vast potential to unleash “infinite opportunity, boundless freedom, and unfettered creativity.”[1] (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 27, 2020, 14:49
The Artemis Accords take shape
by Jeff Foust Monday, October 26, 2020

Representatives of the US and seven other nations signed the Artemis Accords in a virtual ceremony October 13. (credit: NASA)

It was a signing ceremony for the Zoom era. On the screens of attendees of the virtual International Astronautical Congress October 13, as well as anyone who tuned in to NASA TV, was a three-by-three array of screens, a fancy version of video chats that have become commonplace. In each window, a government official put pen to paper; some matter-of-factly, others proudly showing off the document they signed. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 27, 2020, 14:49
Swords into plowshares: the top secret PERCHERON project
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, October 26, 2020

One of the last KH-7 GAMBIT-1 reconnaissance satellites was launched in early 1967. General Electric proposed using the successful spacecraft for NASA missions, but ran headlong into secrecy issues, angering officials at the National Reconnaissance Office, which procured and operated GAMBIT. (credit: Peter Hunter Collection)

In the 1960s, NASA had the coolest stuff. They had Mars probes and lunar landers, Gemini spacecraft and spacesuits and the coolest of the cool, the Saturn V rocket. But NASA didn’t have everything. The top secret National Reconnaissance Office, with a budget that was probably only 15% as big as NASA’s, had some powerful camera systems, large high-quality optical mirrors inside spacecraft that the NRO routinely launched into low Earth orbit. NASA had fledgling astrophysics and Earth observation programs that could benefit from the NRO’s technology, but there were policy and secrecy requirements that prevented NASA from acquiring them. Nevertheless, companies that built this equipment for the NRO looked at NASA as another potential customer and sought out ways to sell it to them. And sometimes those efforts went badly. PERCHERON is one of those stories. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 27, 2020, 14:49
Russia gears up for electronic warfare in space (part 1)
by Bart Hendrickx Monday, October 26, 2020

The Krasukha-4 electronic warfare system is used among other things to interfere with observations of radar reconnaissance satellites (source).

Russia is building up an impressive capability to conduct electronic warfare against foreign satellites. At the center of this effort is the development of a variety of mobile ground-based systems to interfere with the operations of both communications and radar reconnaissance satellites. There is also evidence for plans to perform electronic warfare from space using nuclear-powered satellites. Aside from that, work is underway at various locations in Russia to construct ground-based infrastructure to obtain signals intelligence on foreign satellites and apparently also to protect Russia’s own fleet of satellites against electronic attack from outside. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Listopad 03, 2020, 03:29
Review: Star Crossed
by Jeff Foust Monday, November 2, 2020


Star Crossed: The Story of Astronaut Lisa Nowak
by Kimberly C. Moore
University Press of Florida, 2020
hardcover, 296 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-0-8130-6654-7

We’ve come a long way from the earliest days of the US space program, where the Mercury 7 astronauts were placed on a pedestal as clean-cut, All-American men. They, and the astronauts who followed, were far from perfect, as we have since learned: some carousing and unfaithful to their spouses, others suffering from alcoholism and depression. Marriages were shattered and careers derailed because these best-of-the-best had human weakness and frailties, like the rest of us. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Listopad 03, 2020, 03:29
The Green New Deal for space
by S. Mike Pavelec Monday, November 2, 2020

Innovations in spaceflight and space markets can help achieve the goals of a Green New Deal. (credit: SpaceX)

As we approach yet another election in the US, a number of incredibly important issues will be decided. One is the future of American space power, the role of the government, military, and civilian sectors, and ongoing and increasing concern for the future health of the planet. There is an argument for why climate activists, political representatives, and anyone who supports radical change to mitigate global climate change needs to embrace US efforts in space now and into the near future. This argument is based on both the Green New Deal platform as well as current and near-future space capabilities. Environmentalists, politicians, and the population in general should support space exploration and access for the future of the planet and humanity. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Listopad 03, 2020, 03:29
US space missions require bipartisan support for optimal long-term success
by Namrata Goswami Monday, November 2, 2020

If elected, a Biden Administration should press forward with many space initiatives, like a return to the Moon, to keep pace with China’s space ambitions. (credit: NASA)

Missions to explore and develop outer space necessitate long-term resource commitment and policy focus. This kind of long-term strategy formulation and identification of “decades out” space policy goals (2020–2049) and resource commitment is evident in China’s space program. Soon after China landed on the far side of the Moon in January 2019, the China National Space Administration (CNSA) announced plans to establish a permanent lunar research base by 2036. In February, China’s Tianwen-1 Mars mission, launched July 23 of this year, will attempt to enter into Martian orbit, and later land on the Martian surface and release a rover to carry out a survey of Mars’ surface to include its soil composition. According to Chinese media, the scientific goals of China’s Mars mission are:

Mapping the morphology and geological structure, investigating surface soil characteristics and water-ice distribution, analyzing the surface material composition, measuring the ionosphere and the characteristics of the Martian climate and environment at the surface, and perceiving the physical fields and internal structure of Mars. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Listopad 03, 2020, 03:29
Russia gears up for electronic warfare in space (part 2)
by Bart Hendrickx Monday, November 2, 2020 [Part 1 was published last week]

A signals intelligence site (code-named 1511/2) under construction near Pionerskiy is intended to intercept signals from foreign satellites (Google Earth image taken on May 22, 2020).

Space-based electronic warfare

Russia may also be working on a capability to perform electronic warfare (EW) from space. Interest in this arose back in the 1980s as part of a large-scale effort to develop countermeasures against America’s Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), which was aimed at forming a space-based shield against incoming Soviet missiles. One of many projects proposed at the time was a space-based EW system called OREST-02 (an unknown acronym), which is seen in a list of space-based systems intended to attack targets on land, in the oceans and in the air.[1] There are no indications that OREST-02 ever went beyond the proposal stage and the plans were likely shelved after the collapse of the Soviet Union. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Listopad 03, 2020, 03:29
A dynamic ISS prepares for its future, and its end
by Jeff Foust Monday, November 2, 2020

The International Space Station will gain a set of commercial modules later this decade, a precursor for both commercial space stations and the end of the ISS itself. (credit: Axiom Space)

Twenty years ago today, the crew of Expedition 1—Bill Shepherd, Yuri Gidzenko, and Sergei Krikalev—arrived at the International Space Station, kicking off occupation of the station that has continued uninterrupted to this day. NASA and its partners have been celebrating this impending milestone for months, regularly remining the public that there is now a whole generation of people who have no memories of a time when there were not people in orbit. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Listopad 10, 2020, 21:09
Review: Luna Cognita
by Joseph T. Page II Monday, November 9, 2020


Luna Cognita: A Comprehensive Observer’s Handbook of the Known Moon 1st ed. 2020 Edition
by Robert A. Garfinkle
Springer Nature, 2020
hardcover, 1680 pp., illus. (three volume set)
ISBN 978-1-4939-1663-4

As the closest celestial object in our skies, the Moon has an amazing body of literature surrounding it. Primitive humans looked up into the sky and saw the mysterious orb appear and disappear in a timely (and predictable) manner. As civilization developed, the Moon became a natural target of attention. For the romantics among us, it invokes poetry and mythological lore about supernatural effects on both human and beasts. For scientists, the Moon is a literal playground for chemical and geologic processes that hold clues to our own Earth’s origins. Over the past few centuries, especially since the human exploration missions, the Moon has had a lot written about it. One might wonder, “Is another book about the Moon really needed?” (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Listopad 10, 2020, 21:10
Russia looks for actress to steal Tom Cruise space movie thunder
by Tony Quine Monday, November 9, 2020

An illustration for the movie Vyzov, which will include scenes filmed on the ISS involving an actress selected as part of a competition. (credit: Roscosmos)

Russia’s not-too-subtle effort to upstage Tom Cruise’s plans to film the first ever feature film in Earth orbit have taken a major step forward, with more details announced jointly by the Russian space agency Roscosmos and Channel One TV, from Moscow.

Vague details released in September have now been fleshed out, with the headline grabbing news being the decision to base the Russian movie plot around a woman, meaning that the filmmakers will need to find an actress willing to fly on a Soyuz rocket in October next year. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Listopad 10, 2020, 21:10
How ISRO handled the pandemic
by Ajey Lele Monday, November 9, 2020

An Indian PSLV lifts off November 7 on the first launch by ISRO since last December. (credit: ISRO)

On November 7, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) successfully undertook a ten-satellite launch. ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, in its 51st flight (PSLV-C49), successfully launched EOS-01 along with nine international customer satellites. This was the first launch for ISRO this year. EOS-01 is an Earth observation satellite, intended for applications in agriculture, forestry and disaster management support, and should become operational in the coming days. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Listopad 10, 2020, 21:10
Closing the business case
by Robert G. Oler Monday, November 9, 2020

President-elect Joe Biden faces tough questions about what NASA’s future direction in human spaceflight should be. (credit: Adam Schultz/Biden for President)

The American people have spoken. At noon on January 20, 2021, the Biden-Harris Administration will end four years of chaos passing for governance. The new administration’s underlying goal must be making government work again.

Key to that goal is to regain social trust with both the citizenry of the United States and other governments of the world. Social trust forms when people and organizations accomplish the things that are proposed. In government it means organizations succeeding in making the lives of the people who pay the bills measurably better. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Listopad 10, 2020, 21:11
Moon 2020-something
by Jeff Foust Monday, November 9, 2020

A 2024 human lunar landing, a goal many in the industry treated skeptically even before the election, may now be out of reach. (credit: NASA)

It can be hard to believe, in this era where the pandemic has warped our sense of time, that the centerpiece of NASA’s human space exploration plans isn’t that new. It was only in March 2019, a little more than 18 months ago, that Vice President Mike Pence announced that he was calling on NASA to return humans to the Moon by 2024. Prior to his speech, NASA was working towards a human landing in 2028, after first assembling the lunar Gateway. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Listopad 18, 2020, 10:08
George Low made the hard choices on Apollo: a review of “The Ultimate Engineer”
by Emily Carney and Dwayne A. Day Monday, November 16, 2020


The Ultimate Engineer: The Remarkable Life of NASA’s Visionary Leader George M. Low
by Richard Jurek
University of Nebraska Press, 2019
hardcover: 344 pages, illus.
ISBN 978-0-8032-9955-9

The Apollo program was an immensely complicated project that some estimates indicate involved nearly 400,000 people working on different aspects of it, spread all across the country. Despite the hundreds of books written about Apollo in the past half century, surprisingly, a number of key officials and aspects of the program have been, if not entirely overlooked, certainly not given the attention they are due. One of these people is George Low, a senior NASA official who made numerous key decisions in the program while based in Houston but frequently traveling to NASA headquarters in Washington, DC. Low has often been relegated to the background in Apollo histories that focus on astronauts and rockets, despite playing a major role in keeping Apollo focused on its goal of beating the Russians to the Moon. Low, for instance, was the main driver of the gutsy decision to send Apollo 8 around the Moon in December 1968. Now, Richard Jurek has written a book focused on Low that gives him his due. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Listopad 18, 2020, 10:08
The need for US leadership in remediating space debris
by Jessica Duronio Monday, November 16, 2020

The US can take the lead in establishing rules for orbital debris remediation, setting a standard for other countries to follow. (credit: ESA)

Some 150 million pieces of debris litter Earth orbit, and outer space is getting more crowded. Discarded rocket bodies, defunct satellites, lost instruments, even chips of paint circle the Earth at up to 25,000 kilometers per hour. They are capable of causing incredible damage.

So far, the international community has failed to address the problem of space junk. There are no rules for the remediation, or removal, of orbital debris, thereby leaving vital US space assets vulnerable to potential accident. The US should promote and uphold the safety and sustainability of outer space by establishing regulatory rules for the remediation of space debris. Those rules should be modeled after the United States Government Orbital Debris Mitigation Standard Practices. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Listopad 18, 2020, 10:08
Lunar commerce: a question of semantics?
by Derek Webber Monday, November 16, 2020

Can some lunar development activities, such as resource extraction, ever be considered a true commercial venture? And if so, when? (credit: Caterpillar)

Many planning professionals are working all over the globe on aspects of returning to the Moon, with an expressed focus this time on sustainability and commercial developments. Most are carrying out the design and development work for the necessary science and engineering technologies. Others are investing considerable thought to the issues of governance and international regulatory protocols. I want to consider here the commercial element, move toward some way of characterizing it, and thereby seek to provide a firm and stable basis for attempting to quantify the elements. We need to reach an understanding of the likely combination, scale, and timing of commercial contributions in developing the Moon. Such an understanding is important in coming to decisions about design, sizing, and costs of various infrastructure elements. There is a direct link between demand forecasts, design architectures, and overall costs. So, even though at present it is difficult to quantify, we must attempt to provide at least a basis for forecasting and budgeting. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Listopad 18, 2020, 10:08
Spooks and satellites: the role of intelligence in Cold War American space policy
by Aaron Bateman Monday, November 16, 2020

A 1985 test of an anti-satellite missile released from an F-15 fighter. Intelligence on Soviet ASAT activities played a role in policy decisions in the 1970s and 1980s that led to the development of this ASAT weapon as well as support for SDI. (credit: USAF)

In 1978, Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) Admiral Stansfield Turner declared that the “Russians can kill us in space.” Shortly thereafter, President Carter approved the Pentagon’s request to test an anti-satellite (ASAT) weapon to place greater pressure on the USSR over ASAT arms control. Reagan Administration officials regularly invoked intelligence on Soviet space activities to justify both the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and the Miniature Homing Vehicle (MHV) ASAT program. The declassified intelligence record reveals that the US Intelligence Community was less alarmist in its assessments of Soviet military space capabilities than some public statements suggested. Intelligence did, nevertheless, play a direct role in the decisions to develop US ASATs, and later to justify space-based missile defense. Perhaps most interestingly, the Reagan administration systematically released sanitized intelligence on Soviet military capabilities in the publication Soviet Military Power to garner greater support for SDI. Now, with the declassification of relevant national security documents on Soviet space activity, it is possible to better understand the role of intelligence in shaping American space policy during the Cold War. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Listopad 18, 2020, 10:09
From development to operations, at long last
by Jeff Foust Monday, November 16, 2020

A Falcon 9 carrying a Crew Dragon spacecraft with four astronauts on board lifts off November 15 from the Kennedy Space Center. (credit: NASA/Joel Kowsky)

Launches are the aspect of space activities that often attract the most attention, and understandably so: they are dramatic spectacles, controlled explosions that on occasion become uncontrolled. But while important, their glare can blind us to more important issues. The launch industry, for example, is just a small fraction of the overall space industry, with communications and other services provided by satellites generating far more revenue. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Listopad 24, 2020, 03:36
Review: Spacepower Ascendant
by Jeff Foust Monday, November 23, 2020


Spacepower Ascendant: Space Development Theory and a New Space Strategy
By Joshua P. Carlson
independently published, 2020
paperback, 257 pp., illus.
ISBN 979-8655659230

This week’s launch of China’s Chang’e-5 lunar sample return mission will doubtless reinvigorate claims of a space race between the US and China, including those who believe the US is falling behind China in such a competition. The Chinese effort will likely be depicted as part of a grand strategy by China to harness the resources of the Moon (water, rare earth elements, helium-3, etc.), if not seize the Moon itself, to become the dominant power in space and therefore on Earth. If America does not respond, they argue, it risks ultimately being subservient to China.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Listopad 24, 2020, 03:37
In the new spectrum of space law, will Biden favor the Moon Treaty?
by Dennis O’Brien Monday, November 23, 2020

President-elect Joe Biden has said little about space, but his views on the Convention on the Law of the Seas from his time in the Senate could shape plans for the Artemis Accords and space resources. (credit: Adam Schultz/Biden for President)

The full spectrum of space law, from nationalist to internationalist, was on display at the Moon Village Association’s annual symposium earlier this month. But the question on everyone’s mind was, what will be the effect of Joe Biden’s election as the next President of the United States? He has already declared his intent to rejoin the Paris Climate Accords and the World Health Organization. A look at his Senate record gives us a hint concerning his space policy.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Listopad 24, 2020, 03:37
The space resources debate pivots from asteroids to the Moon
by Jeff Foust Monday, November 23, 2020

Over the last five years, the issue of using space resources has shifted from asteroid mining to lunar exploration. (credit: ESA)

Five years ago this week, President Obama signed into law the Commercial Space Launch Competitiveness Act (CSLCA) of 2015. The bill, as its name suggests, primarily dealt with commercial launch issues, such as extending the indemnification regime for commercial launch liability and establishing a class of spaceflight participants known as “government astronauts” who would be treated differently than their commercial counterparts.

The CSLCA, though, is best known for a section that was once a standalone bill, the Space Resource Exploration and Utilization Act of 2015. That section stated that any US company that extracted resources from asteroids or other celestial bodies beyond Earth would be entitled to them, “including to possess, own, transport, use, and sell the asteroid resource or space resource obtained in accordance with applicable law.”
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Listopad 24, 2020, 03:37
An iconic observatory faces its demise
by Jeff Foust Monday, November 23, 2020

A satellite image of Arecibo taken November 17, showing the damage to the giant dish caused by two broken cables that support the platform suspended over it. (credit: Satellite image ©2020 Maxar Technologies)

A few astronomical observatories are iconic, in the sense they are distinctive enough to be recognized in the broader culture. The Arecibo Observatory certainly qualifies, with its 305-meter main dish nestled in the terrain of Puerto Rico and a platform hosting receivers suspended above it, connected by cables to three towers. Few people might know much about the astronomy done at Arecibo (beyond, perhaps, its supporting role in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence), but it became famous in movies like Contact and GoldenEye.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Listopad 24, 2020, 03:37
We were heroes once: National Geographic’s “The Right Stuff” and the deflation of the astronaut
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, November 23, 2020

Actor Sam Shepard as Chuck Yeager in the 1983 movie The Right Stuff, an exploration of themes of American masculinity and heroism.

Several years ago, National Geographic ventured out beyond documentaries to start producing scripted dramas. So far none of them have hit a high mark—nothing on the order of “Mad Men,” “Breaking Bad,” “Fargo,” or other prestige television. Most recently they produced “The Right Stuff,” based on Tom Wolfe’s famous book and currently streaming on Disney+. But whereas Wolfe’s book was an exploration of the qualities required of men in a new and highly dangerous job, exploring space, the series is focused on depicting the Mercury astronauts as a bunch of back-biting, egotistical, insecure, argumentative jerks. The differences may be explained by the needs of a multi-episode series, and our changing cultural views of heroism, but the result is unfortunately mediocre.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Grudzień 02, 2020, 00:42
Review: Black Hole Survival Guide
by Jeff Foust Monday, November 30, 2020


Black Hole Survival Guide
by Janna Levin
Knopf, 2020
hardcover, 160 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-0-525-65822-1

So, how did you survive Black Hole Friday? That’s right, Black Hole Friday. A few years ago, NASA tried to coopt the post-Thanksgiving shopping “holiday” of Black Friday into an educational event online about black holes, complete with a hashtag: #BlackHoleFriday. It did so again this year, with various social media posts offering facts about black holes. It’s not clear many people paid attention, though, as they negotiated the Black Friday sales online or feasted on Thanksgiving leftovers.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Grudzień 02, 2020, 00:42
Chesley Bonestell and his vision of the future
by Jeff Foust Monday, November 30, 2020


Chesley Bonestell: A Brush with the Future
directed by Douglass M. Stewart Jr.
2018, 96 minutes

Most people with even a fleeting familiarity of the early Space Age are familiar with the work of artist Chesley Bonestell, even if they don’t recognize the name. Long before the launch of Sputnik and Explorer 1, let alone the flights of Yuri Gagarin and John Glenn or the footsteps of Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, Bonestell painted dramatic landscapes of the Moon and other worlds in our solar system, as well as the rockets and spacecraft that would take people to them. His artwork, along with the words of Willy Ley and the visions of Wernher von Braun, televised by Walt Disney, would shape American perceptions of space at the dawn of the Space Age.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Grudzień 02, 2020, 00:42
A 4G network on the Moon is bad news for radio astronomy
by Emma Alexander Monday, November 30, 2020

Radio telescopes like the Lovell Telescope at Jodrell Bank Observatory face threats of radiofrequency interference on Earth, and now from space. (credit: Jodrell Bank Obs./Anthony Holloway)

As you drive down the road leading to Jodrell Bank Observatory, a sign asks visitors to turn off their mobile phones, stating that the Lovell telescope is so powerful it could detect a phone signal on Mars.

Radio telescopes are designed to be incredibly sensitive. To quote the legendary astronomer Carl Sagan, “The total amount of energy from outside the solar system ever received by all the radio telescopes on the planet Earth is less than the energy of a single snowflake striking the ground.”
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Grudzień 02, 2020, 00:42
The case for Apophis
by Jeff Foust Monday, November 30, 2020

NASA’s OSIRIS-REx spacecraft, depicted here at the asteroid Bennu, could have an extended mission visiting another near Earth asteroid, Apophis, when it flies by Earth in 2029. (credit: NASA/GSFC)

On April 13, 2029—a Friday the 13th—the asteroid Apophis will pass remarkably close to the Earth, coming within 31,000 kilometers of the Earth’s surface, or closer than satellites in geostationary orbit. In late 2004, shortly after its discovery, astronomers projected at one point a 1-in-37 chance of a collision in 2029, but additional observations soon ruled out any impact. A small risk of an impact in April 2036 lingered for a few years, particularly if the asteroid passed through a narrow “keyhole” of space near Earth during its 2029 flyby (see “Sounding an alarm, cautiously”, The Space Review, May 31, 2005), but that, too, has since been ruled out.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Grudzień 02, 2020, 00:42
Rolling the dice on Apollo: Prospects for US-Soviet cooperation in the Moon program
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, November 30, 2020

President John F. Kennedy viewing the Saturn I launch pad in 1963. NASA Administrator James Webb is at center. (credit: Cecil Stoughton, White House photographer)

On September 20, 1963, President John F. Kennedy gave a speech in front of the United Nations in New York City where he proposed a joint mission to the Moon with the Soviet Union. One year after the two countries had been to the brink of nuclear war, Kennedy wanted to cooperate with the Soviet Union on a major space project. The proposal was a surprise to many, seeming to come out of nowhere, and prompted backlash among Kennedy’s supporters in Congress, who worried that Apollo’s goals were being undermined.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Grudzień 08, 2020, 07:20
Review: Operation Moonglow
by Jeff Foust Monday, December 7, 2020


Operation Moonglow: A Political History of Project Apollo
by Teasel Muir-Harmony
Basic Books, 2020
hardcover, 384 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-5416-9987-8

In July 1962, huge crowds converged on a Tokyo department store for a special event. Over the course of four days, more than 500,000 people stood in long lines—going up nine flights of stairs, zigzagging across the store’s roof, and then going back down nine flights of stairs. What attracted so many people? Not a sale, or a celebrity, but a spacecraft: Friendship 7, the Mercury capsule that John Glenn flew in the first American orbital spaceflight five months earlier, and now on a round-the-world tour.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Grudzień 08, 2020, 07:20
Review: The Art of NASA
by Christopher Cokinos Monday, December 7, 2020


The Art of NASA: The Illustrations that Sold the Missions
by Piers Bizony
Motorbooks, 2020
hardcover, 192 pages, illus.
ISBN 978-0-7603-6807-7

Piers Bizony’s The Art of NASA: The Illustrations that Sold the Missions is an eye-popping, sumptuous coffee table book of full-color art—mostly vintage government and corporate work—that spans the early days of the American crewed space program all the way to present conceptions of orbital and planetary futures. The Art of NASA is a gorgeous, well-designed ode to visions of space flight, focusing on graphic illustrative art that appeared in brochures, newspapers, magazines, and, of late, on the web.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Grudzień 08, 2020, 07:21
Learning from Chandrayaan 2 for India
by Ajay P. Kothari Monday, December 7, 2020

An illustration of India’s Vikram lander making its descent to the lunar surface. The spacecraft crashed attempting a landing in September 2019. (credit: ISRO)

Given the recent astounding success (so far) of Chang’e-5, as well as other missions by China and Japan, it might seem harsh to compare them to India’s Chandryaan 2 lunar mission launched last year. But this is not meant as a criticism, only a constructive conjecture. Yes, many aspects of Chandrayaan 2 were successful, for which India and its space agency, ISRO, should be proud. However, it is also apt to learn from what did not work, admit it and improve.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Grudzień 08, 2020, 07:21
The cloth of doom: The weird, doomed ride of Ariane Flight 36
by Francis Castanos Monday, December 7, 2020

A version of the Ariane 4 rocket similar to the one lost in a 1990 launch failure caused by a “cloth of doom”. (credit: ESA)

This is a companion piece of sorts to Wayne Eleazer’s excellent series on rocket launch failures, and why they happened. It is a story involving rockets, satellites, an earthquake, and a couple of kitchen accessories. And a lot of bad luck. It all started with a natural disaster, which led to two further disasters, man-made this time.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Grudzień 08, 2020, 07:21
The future of Mars exploration, from sample return to human missions
by Jeff Foust Monday, December 7, 2020

An illustration of a Mars Ascent Vehicle, containing samples collected by the Mars 2020 mission, launching into Martian orbit for later return to Earth. (credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

When an Atlas V lifted off from Cape Canaveral July 30, NASA heralded it as the beginning of a new era of Mars exploration. The rocket was launching NASA’s Mars 2020 mission, which will land the rover Perseverance on the surface of Mars in February. That rover will collect samples for later return to Earth, a long-running goal of scientists.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Grudzień 15, 2020, 19:37
Review: How to Astronaut
by Jeff Foust Monday, December 14, 2020


How to Astronaut: An Insider’s Guide to Leaving Planet Earth
by Terry Virts
Workman Publishing Co., 2020
hardcover, 320 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-5235-0961-4

Most astronaut memoirs describe an unconventional career in a conventional way. They often follow a chronological approach—sometimes flashing back or forward—to describe the career path that person took to becoming an astronaut, the experience of training for and flying missions, and finally how the experience changed them. A few diverge from that path, like Chris Hadfield’s An Astronaut’s Guide to Life on Earth, which used his experience to offer lessons on, as he put it, “how to live better and more happily here on Earth.” (See “Review: An Astronaut's Guide to Life on Earth”, November 18, 2013.)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Grudzień 15, 2020, 19:37
More space on the ground: trendy analogues vs. an unpleasant reality
by Ilaria Cinelli Monday, December 14, 2020

Analogue missions are intended to prepare for future human missions to places like the Moon and Mars, but depending on how they are designed may not be that useful.

The astronaut job is probably the only one that is at the same time both the most wanted job in the space sector and one of the silliest expectations someone may have as a career goal. Still, it is a job! There are high hopes for upcoming human spaceflights, and the commercial astronaut job is slowly opening the door to new types of astronauts. However, such a “silly expectation” drives people to find new opportunities to become astronauts no matter what. Thus, the boom of analogue astronauts has started!
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Grudzień 15, 2020, 19:37
Beyond Apollo: guiding the next Moon landing
by Alan Campbell Monday, December 14, 2020

The lunar lander under development by the Blue Origin-led “National Team” that includes Draper, Lockheed Martin and Northrop Grumman. (credit: Blue Origin)

The Apollo Moon landing is familiar to many. Neil Armstrong looks out the window of the lunar module, adjusts his descent to avoid craters and boulders while keeping an eye on his dwindling fuel supply, and maneuvers to the surface for the first time. While the scene is destined to be repeated, experts agree the next Moon landing will be far different affair.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Grudzień 15, 2020, 19:37
Starship contradictions
by Jeff Foust Monday, December 14, 2020

SpaceX’s Starship SN8 vehicle lifts off from the company’s South Texas test site December 9. (credit: SpaceX)

Can a launch that ends in a spectacular explosion be considered a success? Can a company be hailed for being open when it is also far from transparent about its work? Can a development program be described as proceeding at breakneck speed while also being well behind schedule?
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Grudzień 15, 2020, 19:37
Big bird, little bird: chasing Soviet anti-ballistic missile radars in the 1960s
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, December 14, 2020

Declassified image of the MABELI signals intelligence satellite launched in January 1972 to search for and characterize Soviet anti-ballistic missile radars. MABELI was the latest in a sequence of satellites and special payloads used by the United States to try to determine the extent of the Soviet ABM program. (credit: NRO)

The second bus-sized HEXAGON photo-reconnaissance satellite roared off its California launch pad in January 1972. Inside of its payload shroud atop the Titan III rocket, the HEXAGON looked somewhat like a train locomotive, and tucked along one of its slab sides was a small rectangular box about the size of a suitcase. After the HEXAGON reached its proper orbit and stabilized itself, circling the Earth over its poles, the box detached, pushed off by springs. It started spinning, and then fired a small rocket motor that boosted its orbit a bit higher than the big bird that had delivered it into space. The small satellite began unfolding like an origami crane spreading out, deploying solar panels and numerous antennas, most of them pointed down at the Earth.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Grudzień 23, 2020, 00:47
Review: Cosmic Odyssey by Jeff Foust
Monday, December 21, 2020


Cosmic Odyssey: How Intrepid Astronomers at Palomar Observatory Changed our View of the Universe
by Linda Schweizer
MIT Press, 2020
hardcover, 312 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-0-262-04429-5

Asked today what is the most influential astronomical observatory, many might say the Hubble Space Telescope, or perhaps the Keck Observatory in Hawaii or the Very Large Telescope in Chile. For most of the latter half of the 20th century, though, the likely response would have been the Palomar Observatory, home to the 200-inch (five-meter) telescope that for decades was the largest in the world. It allowed astronomers to peer deeper into the universe than ever before.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Grudzień 23, 2020, 00:47
Creating an inspector “mascot” satellite for JWST
by Philip Horzempa Monday, December 21, 2020

The James Webb Space Telescope recently completed the last deployment test of its sunshield before its October 2021 launch. (credit: NASA/Chris Gunn)

The James Webb Space Telescope has a heritage that stretches back at least half a century. It is a very complex spacecraft that will require numerous deployments to achieve its operational configuration. These will be monitored by instrumentation on the spacecraft, but given that each operation must proceed without error, it would be prudent to send a “Mascot” to monitor them. This would take the form of a cubesat that would ride with JWST after being launched as a secondary payload on the Ariane 5 that launches JWST. (...)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Grudzień 23, 2020, 00:47
Candy CORN: analyzing the CORONA concrete crosses myth
by Joseph T. Page II Monday, December 21, 2020

Present-day Concrete Cross. Courtesy of Google Maps.

A few years ago, NPR Morning Edition released a story about spy satellites that caught my attention during a morning commute to work. Reporter Danny Hajek covered a story about mysterious 60-foot-long (18-meter-long) concrete crosses found in the Arizona desert titled, “Decades-Old Mystery Put to Rest: Why Are There X’s in the Desert?” The NPR story details how two adventurers, Chuck Penson and Pez Owen, spotted mysterious crosses while flying cross-country in Owen’s Cessna. The crosses spotted by Penson and Owen were just a handful of targets laid out over a 16-by-16-mile (26-by-26-kilometer) grid across the desert near Casa Grande, Arizona. Wondering what the crosses were for, the pair reached out to the US Army Corps of Engineers, since one of the bronze positioning markers at the center of one crosses stated “Army Map Service” with a date of 1966. According to the story, the US Army Corps of Engineers response made the connection between the concrete crosses and the CORONA program. [1]
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Grudzień 23, 2020, 00:47
Twilight for Trump space policy
by Jeff Foust Monday, December 21, 2020

Vice President Mike Pence speaking at the December 9 National Space Council meeting. (credit: White House)

On December 9, the National Space Council met for the eighth and last time in the Trump Administration at the Kennedy Space Center. The event, held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center there, with that rocket above attendees’ heads, was something of a season finale for the council. Cabinet secretaries and other officials spent about an hour recounting the work they had done in space policy in the last four years, from the establishment of the Space Force to commercial space regulatory reforms.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Grudzień 23, 2020, 00:47
From TACSAT to JUMPSEAT: Hughes and the top secret Gyrostat satellite gamble
by Dwayne A. Day and Nicholas W. Watkins Monday, December 21, 2020

Photo of Hughes’ HS-308 TACSAT (left) in May 1968 next to their proposal for Intelsat IV based on the HS 312 bus. These are mockups. Intelsat IV had a different antenna farm at top. This basic design led to the JUMPSEAT and Satellite Data System satellites for the National Reconnaissance Office. (credit: Hughes)

Starting in August 1968, the secretive National Reconnaissance Office began launching new intelligence satellites into much higher orbits to accomplish their missions. The first was the CANYON series of communications intelligence satellites, followed in 1970 by the first of the RHYOLITE telemetry interception satellites. In spring 1971, the NRO launched a new and enigmatic satellite named JUMPSEAT, which has remained perhaps the most mysterious of these high-orbit satellites. Each of these satellites pushed the state of the art in terms of payloads, antennas, and satellite design. But JUMPSEAT represented a concerted effort by a civil and commercial satellite designer to break into the top-secret world of satellite intelligence by leveraging a new technology and a military contract to demonstrate that it could perform the mission of both detecting signals from the ground, and spotting missile launches with an infrared telescope.

(Editor’s Note: The Space Review will not publish the week of December 28. Our next issue will be January 4, 2021. Happy holidays!)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Styczeń 07, 2021, 03:51
Review: Stephen Hawking: A Memoir of Friendship and Physics
by Jeff Foust Monday, January 4, 2021


Stephen Hawking: A Memoir of Friendship and Physics
by Leonard Mlodinow
Pantheon, 2020
hardcover, 240 pp.
ISBN 978-1-5247-4868-5

It’s been nearly three years since Stephen Hawking passed away. At the time of his death in 2018, Hawking had been for decades one of the most famous scientists in the world, even though few people understood his research in topics such as black holes and cosmology. He was, in many respects, a cultural figure, revered for his intelligence and his achievements in spite of the physical limitations imposed by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Styczeń 07, 2021, 03:51
Why I’m flying to space to do research aboard Virgin Galactic
by Alan Stern Monday, January 4, 2021

SpaceShipTwo ascends to the edge of space during a December 2018 test flight. (credit: MarsScientific.com and Trumbull Studios)

[Editor’s Note: A version of this essay was first published last month by The Hill, and is republished here with permission.]

Unlike researchers in virtually every other field of science, space researchers have long been limited to operating their experiments by remote control. Why? Because for many decades it was simply not possible or not practical to send themselves into space to do their work. This forced us to routinely have to incorporate expensive and often failure-prone automation into our experiments to replace the human operator.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Styczeń 07, 2021, 03:52
Catalonia’s space ambitions
by Marçal Sanmartí Monday, January 4, 2021

A few weeks after announcing the plans to launch satellites and create a space agency, Jordi Puigneró, Catalan minister of digital policies, announced the creation of a spaceport in Lleida-Alguaire Airport.

In October, the British newspaper The Guardian published an article titled “Catalonia to invest in ‘Catalan NASA’ space agency and satellites.” Many people were surprised as Catalonia is an autonomous nationality inside the kingdom of Spain, not an independent state. And it’s quite small. It measures around 32,000 square kilometres, approximately the size of the state of Maine in the US or slightly bigger than Wales in the UK. If we visit the Catalan government website and check the information provided there, we might conclude that the term “Catalan NASA” is a big exaggeration.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Styczeń 07, 2021, 03:52
Can space bridge a widening partisan divide?
by Jeff Foust Monday, January 4, 2021

Congress has been able to work on space issues in a bipartisan manner in the past, but will that be possible this year? (credit: J. Foust)

Sunday marked the start of the 117th Congress, with the swearing in of members, a vote for the Speaker of the House (won, as expected, by Nancy Pelosi), and other introductory matters. A new Congress represents a clean slate, clearing out all the legislation that didn’t become law in the previous Congress.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Styczeń 12, 2021, 18:13
Review: Extraterrestrial
by Jeff Foust Monday, January 11, 2021


Extraterrestrial: The First Sign of Intelligent Life Beyond Earth
by Avi Loeb
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2021
hardcover, 240 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-0-358-27814-6

Last month, the British newspaper The Guardian reported that astronomers involved in the Breakthrough Listen SETI project had detected a signal emanating from the direction of Proxima Centauri, the star closest to our Sun. Initial analysis failed to turn up an obvious source of terrestrial or satellite interference. Yet, even those involved with Breakthrough Listen, like former NASA Ames director Pete Worden, warned that the signals “are likely interference that we cannot fully explain.”
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Styczeń 12, 2021, 18:13
Arecibo telescope’s fall is indicative of global divide around funding science infrastructure
by Raquel Velho Monday, January 11, 2021

A satellite image of Arecibo Observatory taken days after the observing platform crashed into the dish below December 1. (credit: satellite image ©2020 Maxar Technologies)

A mere two weeks after the National Science Foundation declared it would close the Arecibo single-dish radio telescope—once the largest in the world—the observatory took a dramatic dying breath and collapsed on December 1, 2020.

While drone footage captured the moment in excruciating detail, in truth, the disintegration of the telescope in Arecibo, Puerto Rico began far before this cinematic end.

Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Styczeń 12, 2021, 18:13
What will space security look like in 2021?
by Nayef Al-Rodhan Monday, January 11, 2021

Secretary of the Air Force Barbara Barrett and Chief of Space Operations Gen. John Raymond participate in a ceremony last month to formally transfer NASA astronaut Mike Hopkins, currently on the ISS, from the Air Force to the Space Force. (credit: NASA/Joel Kowsky)

The US Space Force has only been in operation for little more than a year, and it is already heading into a bold and unpredictable horizon. As the new administration takes over in January, how will the terrestrial and space landscape be viewed and what priorities will be undertaken?
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Styczeń 12, 2021, 18:13
European space in a time of transition
by Jeff Foust Monday, January 11, 2021

Europe’s next-generation launch vehicles, the Ariane 6 (left) and Vega C, will enter service this year and next, even as launch operator Arianespace calls in European governments to provide more support to match what the US government offers rivals like SpaceX. (credit: ESA)

After ten months of conferences and meetings that have moved online because of the pandemic, it’s understandable that some want to try to do things a little differently. However, being a little too different can have its problems.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Styczeń 19, 2021, 03:15
A possible Biden space agenda
by Roger Handberg Monday, January 18, 2021

One issue facing the new administration is the future of the International Space Station and its possible replacement by one or more commercial stations. (credit: NASA)

President Joseph Biden enters office this week with a minimalist position regarding future US space policy. His campaign made no explicit space policy declarations. The Democratic Party platform was generally supportive, but articulated no specific new items regarding space policy. Here, several proposals are put forth as priorities for the new administration. After recent events in Washington, space policy is likely not a priority unless something weird or disastrous happens in that realm; other priorities, such as the pandemic, economy, and security threats, will dominate discussion and focus.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Styczeń 19, 2021, 03:15
A review of space strategy worldviews (part 1): 2011 National Security Space Strategy
by Christopher M. Stone Monday, January 18, 2021

A policy intended to deter hostile acts in space, like antisatellite weapons tests, may not have had the desired effect. (credit: ESA)

In 2011, the National Security Space Strategy (NSSS) was released. Its objective, in response to the destructive testing of kinetic energy anti-satellite interceptors by China in 2007, was to “deter the development, testing, and employment of counterspace” weapons by any potential adversary seeking to degrade or destroy American freedom of access and use of space.[1] This document, like other strategies developed by US policymakers since the 1990s, was grounded in a perception of the international political environment. This perception is found within a combined international relations theory of a liberal, constructivist, utopian worldview. This specific worldview believes that rule-making, norm-building, and international institutions are what shapes, preserves, and propagates security and peace within the international system. While this document has been superseded by the 2020 Defense Space Strategy, the undercurrents of the original ideas and worldviews are still active and influential in national security space debates. This paper argues that the NSSS’s view of the international environment, with China as the case study, does not fully explain the international politics surrounding Chinese spacepower development and ultimately meant the NSSS failed to deter China and others from development, testing, and employment of counterspace systems.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Styczeń 19, 2021, 03:15
Comparing the 2010 and 2020 National Space Policies
by Laura Brady and Charles Ellsey Monday, January 18, 2021

Vice President Mike Pence at the December 9 meeting of the National Space Council, where the new national space policy was announced. (credit: White House)

The US National Space Policy, issued by the White House, is an enunciation of the principles and goals by which the US will engage in space activities. On December 9, the Trump White House issued a National Space Policy (the 2020 policy) to replace the National Space Policy issued by the Obama White House in 2010 (the 2010 policy). A careful analysis of the two policies reveals that the 2020 policy builds upon and expands many of the 2010 policy’s objectives in a natural evolutionary arc, demonstrating that the exploration and utilization of space is truly nonpartisan.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Styczeń 19, 2021, 03:15
Green Run, yellow light
by Jeff Foust Monday, January 18, 2021

The four RS-25 engines of the SLS core stage fire up at the start of the Green Run static-fire test January 16 at the Stennis Space Center in Mississippi. (credit: J. Foust)

For a decade, one of the tentpoles of NASA’s human space exploration program has been the Space Launch System, even as what was inside the tent changed: supporting the Asteroid Redirect Mission, returning humans to the Moon in the late 2020s, and now a human return to the Moon as early as 2024. But also for that decade, the SLS has yet to fly, its first launch slipping by several years. (Orion, the other tentpole of that program, is even older, dating back to the Constellation program of the latter half of the ’00s, but at least it has flown once, on a brief orbital test flight in late 2014.)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Styczeń 26, 2021, 02:00
Review: Envisioning Exoplanets
by Jeff Foust Monday, January 25, 2021


Envisioning Exoplanets: Searching for Life in the Galaxy
by Michael Carroll
Smithsonian Books, 2020
hardcover, 224 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-58834-691-9

More than a quarter of a century after the modern era of exoplanet discovery began, scientists can still only guess what those worlds look like. The tremendous distances and differences in brightness mean that most exoplanets are discovered by indirect means, such as the periodic Doppler shifts in spectral lines of stars caused by the gravitational tug of orbiting planets, or the miniscule drops in brightness of those stars as planets pass in front of them. Those and other techniques have allowed astronomers to measure the sizes and orbits of these planets, and spectroscopy has helped identify the composition of some. But they can only hypothesize what those planets look like.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Styczeń 26, 2021, 02:00
In memoriam: Kellam de Forest, who gave us Stardates and the Gorn
by Glen E. Swanson Monday, January 25, 2021

Kellam de Forest is shown in his library at CBS with two of his assistants, Rona Kornblum (right) and Charlotte Worth. Photo was taken during the 1963–1964 timeframe. (Photo courtesy the author and CBS Films.)

One of the unsung heroes of the original Star Trek television series passed away. Kellam de Forest (1926–2021) died from complications due to COVID-19 on Tuesday, January 19. He was 94.

In December 2019, I had the good fortune to meet with de Forest and interview him about his work with Star Trek while researching a feature article for the Smithsonian. De Forest was one of two technical advisors that Gene Roddenberry employed during the production of the original Star Trek television series. The other was Harvey Lynn, a physicist that worked for the Research And Development (RAND) Corporation, a privately held think tank based in Santa Monica, California.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Styczeń 26, 2021, 02:00
Terrain analysis for space warfare
by D. Grant Greffey Monday, January 25, 2021

What lessons can doctrines developed for land warfare offer for space operations? (Michigan National Guard photo by Sgt. 1st Class Jim Downen Jr.)

After reading a recent essay at The Space Review on space reconnaissance (see “From SSA to space recon: Setting the conditions to prevail in astrodynamic combat”, The Space Review, August 31, 2010), I found myself inspired to think about the challenges of intelligence preparation of the battlespace for space warfare. As a young cadet and then Infantry officer, I was taught the mnemonic OCOKA, which apparently was changed in Army field manuals some years ago to OAKOC. OAKOC stands for Observation and Fields of Fire, Avenues of Approach, Key and Decisive Terrain, Obstacles, and Cover and Concealment. Additionally, Weather is also a consideration for assessing the battlespace. This essay will attempt to apply the “OAKOC plus Weather” methodology in the space warfare domain, particularly for combat operations in Earth orbit.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Styczeń 26, 2021, 02:01
Soyuz plans unclear as the 60th anniversary of Gagarin’s flight approaches
by Tony Quine Monday, January 25, 2021

The presence of NASA astronaut Mark Vande Hei (right) alongside Russian cosmonauts training for the next Soyuz mission to the ISS raised questions if NASA might find a way to include Vande Hei on the crew.

This April will mark 60 years since Yuri Gagarin took humankind’s first tentative step into space on board Vostok. This presents a golden opportunity for Russia to celebrate this occasion by not only reflecting on past achievements and influence in human spaceflight, but also to showcase new milestones and to reignite public interest, and enthusiasm, for cosmonautics.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Styczeń 26, 2021, 02:01
Smallsat launch: big versus small
by Jeff Foust Monday, January 25, 2021

Virgin Orbit’s LauncherOne ignites its engine on its successful orbital launch attempt January 17. (credit: Virgin Orbit)

Two competing visions for the future of launching smallsats played out on consecutive Sundays this month.

On January 17, Virgin Orbit’s LauncherOne took to the skies on its second test flight, appropriately called Launch Demo 2. The company’s first launch, in May 2019, failed seconds after the company’s LauncherOne rocket released from its Boeing 747 carrier aircraft and ignited its NewtonThree engine. A liquid oxygen propellant line ruptured, depriving the engine of propellant and causing it to shut down (see “It’s (small) rocket science, after all”, The Space Review, July 6, 2020)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Luty 02, 2021, 03:40
What to do with that olde space station
by Eric Choi Monday, February 1, 2021

The International Space Station may continue to evolve over the next decade, such as with the addition of commercial modules by Axiom Space, but eventually the station will reach the end of its life and need to be retied in some way. (credit: Axiom Space)

In the final episode of the 1990s TV series Babylon 5, the titular space station is decommissioned by deliberately overloading its fusion reactors and blowing the place to smithereens. “We can’t just leave it here, it would be a menace to navigation,” an Earthforce commander tells former president John Sheridan, saying the station had “become sort of redundant” and citing recent budget cutbacks. This is a peculiar action because one would think a massive cloud of debris in the Epsilon Eridani system would be an even greater menace to navigation. A more logical decommissioning would have been to crash the station onto Epsilon 3, the planet about which it had orbited, although I suppose Draal and the Great Machine might have taken offense.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Luty 02, 2021, 03:40
A long journey but a short stay on Mars
by Jeff Foust Monday, February 1, 2021

Under a plan for the first human Mars mission that NASA is currently studying, astronauts would spend only 30 days on the Red Planet, with the overall mission lasting two years. (credit: NASA)

On one hand, it seems premature for NASA to start planning for the first human mission to Mars. After all, its much nearer-term plans to return humans to the Moon are facing delays, as the 2024 goal of a human landing fades because of a shortfall of funding and a change of presidential administrations. On the other hand, NASA has for decades developed all kinds of architectures for human Mars missions, although for missions that themselves were decades in the future.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Luty 02, 2021, 03:40
The secret history of Britain’s involvement in the Strategic Defense Initiative
by Aaron Bateman Monday, February 1, 2021

Long before Ronald Reagan offered Margaret Thatcher hundreds of millions of R&D funding associated with SDI, she supported the program, often over the objections of others in the British government. (credit: Reagan Library)

In March 1983, President Ronald Reagan surprised the world when he called upon American scientists to use their talents to render ballistic missiles “impotent and obsolete.” His speech would lead to the establishment of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), derisively called “Star Wars.” It grew into a $30 billion effort to explore the technologies required for a multi-layered missile defense system with land, sea, air, and space-based interceptors. While SDI looms large in Cold War political histories, very little has been actually written about the system itself and how it evolved over time. Even less has been written about the involvement of foreign countries in SDI research and development.[1] Of all the foreign participants, the United Kingdom was the most significant in terms of its political value for the Untied States and its access to highly classified areas of SDI research.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Luty 02, 2021, 03:40
“Space ethics” according to space ethicists
by James S.J. Schwartz and Tony Milligan Monday, February 1, 2021

Discussions of “space ethics” date back to at least the 1980s, as part of analyses of the feasibility of terraforming Mars. (credit: Daein Ballard CC BY-SA 3.0)

Late in 2020 two unexpected space ethics op-eds appeared. Unexpected, because space ethics does not usually command that sort of attention; it is more of a background discourse than a regular part of the political battleground. In one of the op-eds, “Wokeists Assault Space Exploration”, Robert Zubrin argued that the authors of a white paper from NASA’s Equality, Diversity and Inclusion Working Group (EDIWG) were threatening to “abort space exploration.” Not long after, Joel Sercel (of TransAstra Corporation) and Steve Kwast (a retired Air Force lieutenant general) wrote a more thoughtful piece arguing that “someone needs to create a carefully crafted new field of space ethics.” The former threw shade on space ethics, the latter looked more positively toward its constructive role as an enabling asset for spaceflight—as something that might allow us to do things better by, for instance, avoiding the kind of disasters that have periodically undermined public confidence in the US space program.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Luty 09, 2021, 18:35
Review: The Mission
by Jeff Foust Monday, February 8, 2021

The Mission: A True Story
by David W. Brown
Custom House, 2021
hardcover, 480 pp.
ISBN 978-0-06-265442-7

NASA’s Europa Clipper mission is likely getting a new ride. The agency announced last week that it will issue, around the beginning of March, a formal request for proposals for launching the mission in October 2024. Congress had for years dictated that the mission launch on the Space Launch System, ensuring a speedy transit to Jupiter. NASA had objected, arguing it needed those SLS vehicles for the Artemis program and that a commercial launch option could save the agency as much as $1.5 billion. Congress relented in a spending bill passed in December after engineering analyses found potential issues with the vibrational environment the spacecraft will be exposed to during launch. That opens the door to using SpaceX’s existing Falcon Heavy, or potentially Blue Origin’s New Glenn and United Launch Alliance’s Vulcan Centaur vehicles yet to make their first launch.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Luty 09, 2021, 18:35
It is very cold in space: Season 2 of “For All Mankind”
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, February 8, 2021

The second season of the AppleTV+ series “For All Mankind” picks up the story in 1983, depicting a thriving lunar outpost, and increasing tensions in the Cold War. (credit: AppleTV+)

Early in the first episode of the second season of AppleTV+’s series “For All Mankind,” a group of astronauts assembles on the lunar surface to watch the sunrise accompanied by a bit of music that is clearly an homage to Brian Eno’s 1983 album “Apollo: Atmospheres and Soundtracks.” Eno recorded that music as the soundtrack to Al Reinert’s documentary “Apollo,” re-released under the title “For All Mankind.” Reinert’s documentary was a masterpiece, beautifully edited and composed, and the fact that it is referenced in the new series—reappearing in the final episode—is an indication of just how fluent the show’s makers are with the language and the culture of the American space program.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Luty 09, 2021, 18:35
How can you improve the Outer Space Treaty?
by Jeff Foust Monday, February 8, 2021

While some think the Outer Space Treaty could use some “vitality” to bring it up to date with current space issues, there’s less consensus on how to do so. (credit: United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs)

The Outer Space Treaty of 1967 has long been hailed as the foundation of international space law, the basis for both a series of subsequent treaties and for other agreements. Last year, the US-led Artemis Accords sought to incorporate or “operationalize” many of the principles of that treaty in its agreements with other countries who wish to cooperation of the Artemis program of lunar exploration (see “The Artemis Accords take shape”, The Space Review, October 26, 2020).
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Luty 09, 2021, 18:35
EKS: Russia’s space-based missile early warning system
by Bart Hendrickx Monday, February 8, 2021

The Tundra missile early warning satellite. Source

In May of last year, Russia launched the fourth of its new-generation missile early warning satellites called Tundra. Flying in highly elliptical orbits, they continuously monitor regions from which missile attacks could potentially be launched against Russian territory. The Tundra satellites are part of the Integrated Space System (EKS), which will also include several satellites in geostationary orbit. With the fourth Tundra launch, EKS is reported to have reached its minimum baseline configuration. This article attempts to shed new light on the system’s technical features and capabilities using a variety of openly available sources.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Luty 16, 2021, 00:05
Review: Cosmic Careers
by Jeff Foust Monday, February 15, 2021


Cosmic Careers: Exploring the Universe of Opportunities in the Space Industries
by Alastair Storm Browne and Maryann Karinch
HarperCollins Leadership, 2021
paperback, 256 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-400-22093-9

This may be the best job market in decades for people looking into get into the space industry. Many well-funded startups are hiring engineers and others needed to get their businesses off the ground—figuratively and literally—from launch vehicle companies to satellite manufacturers to those developing services based on data from space systems. SpaceX alone has several hundred job openings on its website; many are engineers and technicians, as you’d expect, but others range from finance managers and customer support staff for its Starlink satellite system to cooks and a barista.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Luty 16, 2021, 00:05
Global navigation satellite systems: a Symbiotic Realist paradigm
by Nayef Al-Rodhan Monday, February 15, 2021

The UK’s departure from the EU means it will no longer participate in the Galileo satellite navigation system, an example of the geopolitical issues involved with such networks. (credit: ESA)

The UK space sector has been forced to face up to issues of sovereignty, particularly regarding its satellite activity, as Chris Skidmore, the government’s former science minister, highlighted during a Parliamentary debate on the future of the space industry earlier this month. The UK also recently made its final significant industrial contribution to the EU’s Galileo satnav system, as it bid the multi-billion-pound project farewell in another nod to the country’s departure from the European Union.

While space quite literally appears to know no bounds, geopolitical developments on the ground have increasingly brought its geopolitical limitations, as well as questions of sovereignty, regulation, and multilateral relations, into the picture. Despite the UK’s close involvement, the EU ensured that key features of Galileo would only be accessible for bloc members. This raises questions about the exclusive framework that some of these systems operate in, their “global” ubiquitous nature, and how this feeds into the balance between competition and cooperation: what I call a Symbiotic Realist coexistence.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Luty 16, 2021, 00:06
Reflecting core American values in the competition for the final economic frontier
by Josh Carlson Monday, February 15, 2021

A “Second Space Race” may be emerging between the US and China regarding economic benefits derived from space. (credit: SpaceX)

One motif of space futurism, from some of the earliest examples in the 1860s to the modern day, is the expected timeline for the developments and blossoming space culture that is envisioned. Virtually every one of those predictions has been, in retrospect, too aggressive and unrealized. Bruce Cahan and Dr. Mir Sadat, in “U.S. Space Policy for the New Space Age: Competing on the Final Frontier”, address the missing element that threw those predictions off: economics. While we may have the technology to do most, if not all, of the things described, it is the economic impetus drives civilizations to act and achieve.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Luty 16, 2021, 00:06
Space investors head to the exits, at last
by Jeff Foust Monday, February 15, 2021

Astra, which nearly reached orbit with its Rocket 3.2 launch in December (above), announced this month it will merge with a special-purpose acquisition company, allowing it to raise nearly $500 million and go public. (credit: Astra/John Kraus)

For the last several years, the space startup ecosphere has looked a little like a roach motel: money comes in but it doesn’t come out. Billions of dollars of funding have flowed into launch vehicle, remote sensing, broadband megaconstellation, and other companies, but there have been few exits: opportunities for those investors to collect their return on that investment through either a sale of the company or a public offering of its stock.

That is starting to change. Investors are continuing to put money into space companies, and at an increasing rate. After a brief period of uncertainly last spring because of the pandemic, investors doubled down on the field.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Luty 23, 2021, 02:26
In memoriam: Taylor Dinerman
by Christopher M. Stone Monday, February 22, 2021

Taylor Dinerman. (credit: Christopher Stone)

Recently, The Space Review lost one of its longtime contributors, Taylor Dinerman. The son of a World War II veteran who was educated in Geneva one of the United Nations’ hubs in Europe, and himself a wounded combat veteran who defended the Jewish home state, Taylor was no stranger to the ways of the world, its diverse cultures and languages, and the many differences of opinion and perspectives that ranged the gambit of his interests in the overlapping studies influencing national and international dynamics. Because of this experience in the political, military, and academic realms, he was motivated to put these observations to pen in various newspapers, journals, and studies through such publications and think tanks as National Review, Gatestone Institute, Hudson Institute, Wall Street Journal, among many others.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Luty 23, 2021, 02:26
The promise of return on investment does not disappear in cislunar space and beyond
by Vidvuds Beldavs Monday, February 22, 2021

Alternative financing mechanisms may be needed to support development of lunar infrastructure without relying on uncertain government programs. (credit: Anna Nesterova/Alliance for Space Development)

In a recent essay, Josh Carlson discusses the importance of the United States taking a leadership role in commercial space activities (see “Reflecting core American values in the competition for the final economic frontier”, The Space Review, February 15, 2021). The premise of the article that “the economic impetus drives civilizations to act and achieve” can be debated, but political imperatives cannot motivate sustainable space development. Sustainable presence in outer space demands that the large investments required generate returns that are competitive with other investments and that promote further growth.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Luty 23, 2021, 02:26
NASA tests the perseverance of some space enthusiasts
by Svetoslav Alexandrov Monday, February 22, 2021

An image from the surface of Mars taken by Perseverance and released by NASA the day after landing. The lack of more such images from the mission, a break with past Mars missions, has been a source of frustration for some people. (credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

In 2016, I wrote an article about the lack of rapid image releases when certain space missions reach their destination (see “Rethinking image release policies in the age of instant gratification”, The Space Review, August 29, 2016.) My article focused on projects such as Rosetta and New Horizons, which adopted more conservative approaches by offering monthly or weekly batches of imagery, in contrast to missions like Cassini, the Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) Spirit and Opportunity, Phoenix, Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity), and InSight, whose science teams published photos as soon as they were received on Earth. Back then, I never imagined that the next Mars rover would find itself in the midst of a similar controversy. After all, it was mostly Mars surface missions that had their photos available on the web immediately after downlinking.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Luty 23, 2021, 02:27
It only looks easy: Perseverance lands on Mars
by Jeff Foust Monday, February 22, 2021

An image of the Perseverance Mars rover, dangling beneath the skycrane used to lower the rover to the surface, released by NASA a day after its February 18 landing. (credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

One of NASA’s most remarkable, if peculiar, skills is its ability to turn the amazing into the mundane. When it landed astronauts on the Moon in 1969 for the first time in human history, the world stopped to watch. By the time it did it for the sixth and final time (to date) in 1972, the world largely ignored it. Most shuttle missions faded into obscurity, gaining attention only when they involved unusual complexity or unfortunate tragedy.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 02, 2021, 09:38
Review: Liftoff
by Jeff Foust Monday, March 1, 2021


Liftoff: Elon Musk and the Desperate Early Days That Launched SpaceX
by Eric Berger
Willam Morrow, 2021
hardcover, 288 pp.
ISBN 978-0-06-297997-1

Rocket launches are coming back to Kwajalein. On Friday, NASA announced it awarded a contract to Astra to launch a constellation of cubesats called TROPICS that will study the structure of tropical cyclones. Those satellites will be launched on three of Astra’s Rocket 3 vehicles during a 120-day period in the first half of 2022, from Kwajalein Atoll.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 02, 2021, 09:38
Review: Apollo 11: Quarantine
by Christopher Cokinos Monday, March 1, 2021


Apollo 11: Quarantine
Directed by Todd Douglas Miller
2021, 23 minutes
Available on streaming services from $3.99

Todd Douglas Miller’s restored found-footage film Apollo 11 was rightly hailed as a masterpiece and it was one of the highlights of the 2019 50th anniversary celebration of the first human landing on the Moon (see “Review: Apollo 11”, The Space Review, March 4, 2019). It was even short-listed for an Oscar.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 02, 2021, 09:38
India’s foray into the commercial space market
by Ajey Lele
Monday, March 1, 2021

An Indian PSLV on the pad before its February 28 launch carrying a Brazilian satellite and 18 secondary payloads. (credit: ISRO)

On Sunday, the Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO) Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) successfully placed Brazil’s Amazônia-1 satellite, weighing 637 kilograms, into its desired orbit. This is the first Earth observation satellite developed entirely by Brazil. The PSLV also carried 18 secondary payloads placed a different orbit, including two from India. Satish Dhawan Sat (SD SAT) was developed by Space Kidz India to study space weather and radiation, while UNITYsat was the combination of three satellites by students from engineering and technology institutes. (A third Indian satellite, SinduNetra, was launched through a separate commercial arrangement, along with the SAI-1 NanoConnect-2 and 12 SpaceBEE satellites from the US on the rocket.)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 02, 2021, 09:38
Don’t move US Space Command
by Matthew Jenkins Monday, March 1, 2021

US Space Command, formally reestablished in 2019, is temporarily headquartered in Colorado, but the Air Force announced in January plans to move the headquarters to Alabama. (credit: DoD photo by Lisa Ferdinando)

On January 13, the United States Air Force selected Huntsville, Alabama, as the new home for the space domain combatant command, United States Space Command. You would not be alone if you misidentified this as the organize, train, and equip entity, the United States Space Force, but that, like all the other services, is led from the halls of the Pentagon. Space Command was re-established in August 2019. While initially established in 1988, it was deactivated in 2002 and merged with United States Strategic Command, the unified combatant command responsible for the United States nuclear triad’s employment, among other things.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 02, 2021, 09:38
Waiting is the hardest part
by Jeff Foust Monday, March 1, 2021

Virgin Galactic pilots prepare for a SpaceShipTwo test flight. The company announced last week it was delaying the next powered flight of the vehicle until May to address an electromagnetic interference issue, the latest delay for that program. (credit: Quinn Tucker for Virgin Galactic)

There is one thing that nearly every space-related program has in common, be it launch vehicle or satellite, government or commercial, aerospace giant or young startup. It will run late.

That was made abundantly clear last week when three different programs announced delays, ranging from weeks to a year or more. That difficulty to adhere to schedule is at one level remarkable, and at another hardly surprising.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 09, 2021, 14:35
Review: First Light
by Jeff Foust Monday, March 8, 2021


First Light: Switching on Stars at the Dawn of Time
by Emma Chapman
Bloomsbury Sigma, 2021
hardcover, 304 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-4729-6292-8

Astrophysics specializes in some of the most profound, but also puzzling questions. How did the universe form? How will it end? Just what is the universe made of? The simplicity of these questions belies the difficulty scientists have faced answering them, and the implications the answer to one has for others.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 09, 2021, 14:35
The enduring fantasy of space hotels
by A.J. Mackenzie Monday, March 8, 2021

Voyager Space Station will start accepting gusts for luxury stays starting in 2027, assuming its developer can raise tens of billions of dollars and develop the giant space station on a rushed schedule. Good luck! (credit: Orbital Assembly Corp.)

You probably saw something in the last week about a new space hotel project by a company called Orbital Assembly Corporation. Most of that coverage was in tabloids and blogs, but it also made it to the Washington Post and CNN. That company says it will launch its first space hotel, a massive circular structure 200 meters across, and start hosting tourists there in 2027. Yes, 2027.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 09, 2021, 14:35
The new era of private human orbital spaceflight
by Jeff Foust Monday, March 8, 2021

A Crew Dragon spacecraft like this one currently docked to the ISS will be used for both an Axiom Space mission to the station next year and the Inspiration4 free-flight mission launching this fall. (credit: NASA)

Back about 15 years ago or so, one might have expected commercial human spaceflight to be relatively commonplace by now. The Ansari X PRIZE had been won, and promised to open a new era of suborbital spaceflight, while tourists were flying regularly on Soyuz mission to the International Space Station. Surely by the early 2020s thousands of people would be flying to space, at least suborbitally, on an annual basis.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 09, 2021, 14:35
Putting the SpaceX-FAA dispute in context
by Wayne Eleazer Monday, March 8, 2021

The SpaceX Starship SN10 prototype coming in for a landing during a flight March 3 at Boca Chica, Texas. (credit: SpaceX)

On January 25, 1957, the first Thor IRBM launch occurred from Launch Complex 17 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The objectives of that first-ever Thor launch operation were modest: to proceed down through the countdown, load the liquid oxygen, and start the engine. Anything useful that occurred after that was pure gravy. As it turned out, contamination in the liquid oxygen led to a valve failure and Thor 101 barely rose off the launch pad before the engine quit and the vehicle fell back down, creating a massive explosion and damaging the launch pad. Nonetheless, since the objectives of the operation were all met, it was a “success.”
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 16, 2021, 00:31
Review: Three Sigma Leadership
by Jeff Foust Monday, March 15, 2021


Three Sigma Leadership: Or, the Way of the Chief Engineer
by Steven R. Hirshorn
NASA, 2019

NASA engages in some of the most technically challenging projects, from building and operating the International Space Station to landing a one-ton rover on Mars. For all the complaints about those projects that run behind schedule or run over budget, not to mention to occasional failed mission, what is remarkable is that most of those projects are successful, often far beyond their original expectations. The ISS, for example, has been continuously crewed for more than two decades, and Perseverance is now rolling across the terrain of Jezero Crater on Mars.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 16, 2021, 00:31
Mobility and surface access lessons for the Artemis lunar lander
by Philip Horzempa Monday, March 15, 2021

A Lockheed Martin concept from the mid-2000s for a Centaur-derived lunar lander.

NASA will soon choose the company or companies that will develop crewed lunar landers for the Artemis program. Mobility and ease of surface access should be key design goals for these new spacecraft. In 2006, Lockheed Martin proposed a lander, based on their veteran Centaur upper stage, which addressed how those goals could be achieved. I will review that concept and highlight some of its advantages. This is not meant to advocate for Lockheed’s specific proposal but, rather, these “concepts are intended to illustrate different design features and provoke further thought.”[1]
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 16, 2021, 00:31
The case for scrapping the Space Launch System
by Ajay Kothari Monday, March 15, 2021

The Space Launch System has been the subject of heated debates, but what’s the alternative for going to the Moon, Mars, and beyond? (credit: NASA)

Several days after the editorial board of Bloomberg recommended that the Biden Administration cancel the Space Launch System (SLS), Loren Thompson published a rebuttal in Forbes. But I respectfully, if strongly, disagree with Thompson. The future of the SLS is of immense importance to NASA and the country, and thus to the taxpayers, and hence we need to attempt as soon as possible to set the record straight.

Thompson says, “The editorial board at Bloomberg News launched a nonsensical attack on NASA’s human spaceflight program last week. It was full of dubious assertions about alternatives to the Space Launch System.” And yet it is his attack that seems motivated for self-centered reasons, and is full of questionable assertions.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 16, 2021, 00:31
Spaceport traffic management
by Jeff Foust Monday, March 15, 2021

A Falcon 9 stands on the pad at LC-39A last month as another Falcon 9 lifts off from SLC-40 at Cape Canaveral, a sign of the increasing cadence of launches from the Eastern Range. (credit: SpaceX)

Early Sunday morning, just a few hours after clocks sprung ahead to daylight saving time, a Falcon 9 lifted off from Launch Complex 39A at the Kennedy Space Center. An hour and five minutes later, it deployed its payload of 60 Starlink satellites into low Earth orbit.

Those watching the launch could be excused for feeling a sense of déjà vu. Nearly 74 hours earlier, another Falcon 9 lifted off from nearby Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Space Force Station, carrying another set of Starlink satellites, again deployed 65 minutes after liftoff.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 23, 2021, 00:18
Review: Star Settlers
by Jeff Foust Monday, March 22, 2021


Star Settlers: The Billionaires, Geniuses, and Crazed Visionaries Out to Conquer the Universe
by Fred Nadis
Pegasus Books, 2020
hardcover, 288 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-64313-448-2

Many industries have visionaries who predict how their companies and technologies will revolutionize life, but space seems to take that to a whole new level. Take, for example, Elon Musk, one of the world’s richest men, who has long talked about making humanity multiplanetary by settling Mars, and soon. Musk, replying Sunday to a tweet describing an architectural firm’s proposal to start building a Mars settlement in 2054, said, “Hopefully will happen this decade.” Then there’s Jeff Bezos, currently the world’s richest man, who many not have the same schedule or destination as Musk, but still talks about a goal of millions of people living and working in space.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 23, 2021, 00:18
The politics of settling space
by Gregory Anderson Monday, March 22, 2021

A SpaceX vision for a future Mars settlement. Politics will guide when and how settlements beyond Earth develop. (credit: SpaceX)

Around 100,000 years ago, people we refer to as modern humans because they were physically like us began to move out of their African home and into the wider world. Those few humans and their descendants had much to learn, but they learned well enough, and quickly enough, to survive, and multiply, and prosper, not just for a few generations, but to the present day. Intelligence capable of grappling with the cosmos may or may not exist elsewhere, but it exists here, partly because those few people decided to roam.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 23, 2021, 00:18
This woman’s work: “For All Mankind” and women’s pain
by Emily Carney Monday, March 22, 2021

Danielle Poole contemplates her next step while visiting her old Apollo spacecraft. (credit: AppleTV+)

In February, Apple TV+’s “For All Mankind” debuted its second season (see “It is very cold in space: Season 2 of ‘For All Mankind’”, The Space Review, February 8, 2021), and caught up with the women characters we’ve grown acquainted with during the show’s first season. Perhaps the most notable and unique characteristic of “For All Mankind” is how it depicts its women—astronauts, ground support crew, and wives/mothers—as real people with real issues, similar to how the AMC show “Mad Men” turned the image of the well-coiffed, lipsticked 1960s woman inside out during its seven seasons. In the new episodes of “For All Mankind”, its cadre of women are again front and center, and are all experiencing deep emotional and/or physical pain as the events of the 1980s unfold. “For All Mankind’s” women deny the presence of pain at all, or reveal it only after it’s shoved vividly into the forefront. (Note: this piece contains spoilers of “For All Mankind” Season 1, and the first four episodes of Season 2.)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 23, 2021, 00:18
Back to the future
by Jeff Foust Monday, March 22, 2021

Bill Nelson, at the time a US senator from Florida, speaks at a September 2011 event unveiling the design of the Space Launch System, a vehicle established in a 2010 NASA authorization bill he helped author. Nelson was nominated Friday to be the agency’s next administrator. (credit: NASA/Paul E. Alers)

On Thursday afternoon, the core stage of the Space Launch System roared to life for a second time. Two months after its first test-firing was cut short after a little more than a minute because of what turned out to be “intentionally conservative” limits in software controlling the engines’ hydraulics (see “Green Run, yellow light”, The Space Review, January 18, 2021), the four RS-25 engines this time ignited and ran for a full 500 seconds. “Everything that we’ve seen in the test today looked nominal,” John Honeycutt, NASA SLS program manager, said in a briefing just after the test.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 30, 2021, 02:31
Review: Proxima
by Jeff Foust Monday, March 29, 2021


directed by Alice Winocour
2019, 107 minutes
Streaming on Hulu

The European Space Agency is starting its search for a new class of astronauts. ESA will begin accepting applications Wednesday for that astronaut class, continuing through late May. That kicks off a selection process that will end in about 18 months with the agency selecting four to six new career astronauts, eligible for long-duration missions to the International Space Station or, eventually to the Moon. ESA will also select a larger number of “reserve” astronauts who could fly one-off missions, such as taking part in commercial flight opportunities, and will investigate the feasibility of so-called “parastronauts,” or people with physical limitations who would not otherwise ordinarily be considered.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 30, 2021, 02:31
Sustainable space manufacturing and design will help get us to the Moon, Mars, and beyond
by Dylan Taylor Monday, March 29, 2021

In-space manufacturing and assembly can be enabled by the use of technologies to repair and recycle materials. (credit: Made In Space)

Sustainability isn’t merely an initiative that supports life on Earth. It also holds the power to propel the future of the space industry forward. The NewSpace industry and government agencies like NASA are focused on developing the commercial space industry, where technologies and methodologies are lower cost and more accessible in a rapidly growing market.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 30, 2021, 02:31
Space Force sounds like a joke thanks to pop culture: how that could be a problem for an important military branch
by Wendy Whitman Cobb Monday, March 29, 2021

Mention “Space Force” to many members of the public, and they’ll think of the Netflix series starring Steve Carrell rather than the new military service. (credit: Netflix)

The US Space Force has a serious role to play in the modern world. Its stated mission is to train and equip personnel to defend US interests in space. Given the increasing military and economic importance of space, the Space Force is likely to grow in importance.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 30, 2021, 02:31
The growing case for active debris removal
by Jeff Foust Monday, March 29, 2021

Astroscale will use the ELSA-d spacecraft, launched March 22, to demonstrate technologies needed for active debris removal. (credit: Astroscale)

There are, unfortunately, plenty of reminders of the growing problem of orbital debris. On March 18, the Space Force’s 18th Space Control Squadron (18 SPCS), responsible for tracking objects in Earth orbit, announced that the retired NOAA-17 polar-orbiting weather satellite had broken up eight days earlier, creating 16 pieces being tracked (and likely more too small to be tracked.) On March 22, 18 SPCS reported that a Chinese satellite, Yunhai 1-02, had broken up four days earlier, creating 21 pieces being tracked.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 06, 2021, 23:53
Review: Lunar Outfitters
by Jeff Foust Monday, April 5, 2021

Lunar Outfitters: Making the Apollo Space Suit
by Bill Ayrey
Univ. Press of Florida, 2020
hardcover, 422 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-0-8130-6657-8

Most of the attention NASA’s Artemis lunar exploration program has received has been on its biggest programs: the Space Launch System, Orion spacecraft, lunar Gateway, and the Human Landing System program to commercially develop crewed lunar landers. A smaller yet still critical element of getting boots on the Moon is literally those boots, and the rest of the spacesuits that astronauts walking on the lunar surface will wear. NASA’s Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Unit (xEMU) program is developing that suit, building in part upon the lessons of the Apollo program.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 06, 2021, 23:53
NASA revises its low Earth orbit commercialization plans
by Jeff Foust Monday, April 5, 2021

Axiom Space plans to start with commercial modules attached to the International Space Station, but eventually undocking and adding elements to create a standalone commercial station. (credit: Axiom Space)

In June of 2019, NASA rolled out its new low Earth orbit commercialization initiative, an effort to build up both the supply of commercial capabilities in LEO as well as demand for them outside of NASA (see “NASA tries to commercialize the ISS, again”, The Space Review, June 10, 2019.) That initiative features several elements, from setting aside a fraction of International Space Station resources for commercial activities and allowing private astronaut missions to starting the process of supporting both commercial ISS modules and standalone commercial stations that could, eventually, succeed the ISS.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 06, 2021, 23:53
The Paper Chase: declassifying and releasing space history documents from the Cold War
by Dwayne A. Day and Asif Siddiqi Monday, April 5, 2021

A Soviet Lunokhod lunar rover. In 2020 Roscosmos released a new set of documents about this program, part of a series of document releases about their secretive space program. (credit: Roscosmos)

In recent years, the Russian space agency Roscosmos has begun releasing documents from the history of the Soviet civilian space program, usually corresponding with anniversaries of key achievements in their long history. These have included document releases on the Lunokhod rovers, the Luna 16 mission that returned samples from the Moon, the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, and most recently, the Luna-9 mission, which became the first spacecraft to soft land on the Moon in February 1966. (See: “Handshakes and histories: The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, 45 years later,” The Space Review, July 20, 2020.)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 06, 2021, 23:53
The status of Russia’s signals intelligence satellites
by Bart Hendrickx Monday, April 5, 2021

Lotos signals intelligence satellite, part of the Liana project. (source)

In early February, Russia launched the latest in a series of signals intelligence satellites that are part of a project called Liana. Initiated shortly after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the project has suffered significant technical problems and delays over the years and has so far failed to live up to expectations. A new generation of signals intelligence satellites is currently under development, but may take at least several more years to become fully operational.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 14, 2021, 01:25
Review: Institutions That Shaped Modern India: ISRO
by Jeff Foust Monday, April 12, 2021


Institutions That Shaped Modern India: ISRO
by Ajey Lele
Rupa Publications India, 2021
ebook, 152 pp.
ISBN 9390356563

Since Yuri Gagarin flew to space 60 years ago today, people from dozens of countries have followed on suborbital or orbital missions. Yet, to this day, only three countries have developed human spaceflight capabilities: the United States and the former Soviet Union 60 years ago, and China more than 40 years later. All the space travelers from other countries have flown on American or Russian vehicles.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 14, 2021, 01:25
Why venture? A memo for the Biden Administration
by Derek Webber
Monday, April 12, 2021

NASA is expected to continue the Artemis program of human lunar exploration under Biden Administration, which could eventually support efforts to utilize space resources for the benefit of humanity. (credit: NASA)

It’s that time again. A new administration reassesses the funding, rationale, and specific projects being undertaken by the various space related departments. This is an inevitable consequence of the political vicissitudes that operate on a four-year time horizon as compared with the much longer timescales involved in space development, at least in these still-early years, when most of the funding still comes from government sources. Of course, there will always be geopolitical and even military considerations, which will vary with the tides of world affairs, but maybe it would be a good idea to re-state those basic rationales that transcend the politics of the moment. Why did Gagarin, Glenn, Armstrong, et al., risk their lives at the onset of the Space Age, and why do today’s astronauts line up for the challenges of the future? Space, above all else, is a global endeavor, and we should therefore be able to understand those common perspectives that all occupants of the planet share about the rationale of space exploration, whether it involves robots or people. In particular, it can be helpful to do this to get a handle on the timescales involved in developing space policy.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 14, 2021, 01:25
A Moonshot to inspire: Building back better in space
by Alan Stern Monday, April 12, 2021
[Editor’s Note: A version of this essay was previous published by The Hill, and is republished here with permission.]

President Joe Biden watching the landing of NASA’s Mars Perseverance rover from the White House in February. (credit: White House)

Recent Democratic presidents have supported and initiated important, bold, and sustainable robotic and commercial space efforts. But no Democrat since John F. Kennedy has set this nation onto a bold course that resulted in humans exploring new worlds.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 14, 2021, 01:25
For human spaceflight, better late than never
by Jeff Foust Monday, April 12, 2021

SpaceX says the Crew Dragon that will fly the Inspiration4 private mission in September will be equipped with a cupola in place of the docking adapter on the nose of the capsule. (credit: SpaceX)

Anniversaries with nice round numbers tend to serve as prompts for reflection of the past and contemplation of potential futures. But some round numbers are more potent than others, so 40 and 60 tend to lose out to 50 in terms of significance. That means the commemorations today of the 60th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin’s flight and the 40th anniversary of the first Space Shuttle launch won’t have the impact of, say, Gagarin’s anniversary 10 years ago or, perhaps, the shuttle’s anniversary 10 years from now.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 20, 2021, 02:37
Review: The High Frontier
by Jeff Foust Monday, April 19, 2021


The High Frontier: The Untold Story of Gerard K. O’Neill
directed by Ryan Stuit
2021, 90 mins., unrated

Among many space enthusiasts, Gerard K. O’Neill has achieved something akin to sainthood. More than 50 years ago, the Princeton physics professor first asked his students there if the surface of a planet was the best place for a technological civilization, a thought experiment that evolved over the course of several years into space colonies. It inspired a generation of space advocates, some of whom dubbed themselves “Gerry’s kids,” to carry forward his vision.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 20, 2021, 02:37
Putting SpaceX’s Starship program in the proper context
by Wayne Eleazer Monday, April 19, 2021

A SpaceX Starship prototype at the company’s Boca Chica, Texas, test site before a recent test flight. (credit: SpaceX)

Where does the SpaceX Starship vehicle fit, anyway? It came out of nowhere, in response to no government RFP or recognized industry-wide need. There is no established market for its capabilities and apparently is being constructed for much the same reasons that people build little airplanes in their garage. It has been created based on the vision of one man. But perhaps the real question is, “Where should the Starship fit in the launch industry?”
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 20, 2021, 02:37
Higher burning: The Air Launched Sortie Vehicle of the 1980s
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, April 19, 2021

The air-launched space shuttle in the AppleTV+ series "For All Mankind." From 1980-1983, the US Air Force hired several aerospace contractors including Pratt & Whitney, Rockwell, and Boeing, to study such a concept, although it never reached an advanced design phase. (credit: Apple TV+)

A recent episode of the AppleTV+ series “For All Mankind” featured a big reveal: an advanced space shuttle launched off the back of a C-5 Galaxy, headed for space on a military mission. It is a concept that has been around since the beginning of the shuttle program. In the early 1980s, the United States Air Force sponsored studies of what was initially designated a Space Sortie Vehicle, then renamed the Air Launched Sortie Vehicle, or ALSV. The ALSV would have launched into space off the back of a 747. In one early concept, the 747 would have been equipped with multiple rocket engines in its tail to boost it to launch altitude. Now, newly-acquired information indicates that Boeing conducted several studies of “Trans-Atmospheric Vehicles” in 1983, including a revised variant of the ALSV. This Sortie Vehicle, looking somewhat like a space shuttle orbiter that had been (lightly) stepped on by Godzilla, would have fired its own rocket engines while on top of the 747 and pushed both vehicles higher before separating the spacecraft to head into orbit.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 20, 2021, 02:37
All in on Starship
by Jeff Foust Monday, April 19, 2021

NASA said it picked SpaceX’s Starship lunar lander, and only SpaceX, becaused on both the quality of the proposals it received and the limited funding available. (credit: SpaceX)

History will show that SpaceX won two contracts last week to land spacecraft on the Moon, but few may remember the first. On Tuesday, Astrobotic announced it selected SpaceX to launch its Griffin lunar lander in 2023. That lander will carry to the south pole of the Moon NASA’s Volatiles Investigating Polar Exploration Rover (VIPER) to search for deposits of water ice there. NASA awarded Astrobotic a contract worth nearly $200 million last year to launch VIPER through the agency’s Commercial Lunar Payload Services Program; Astrobotic did not disclose the terms of its contract with SpaceX, although the Falcon Heavy has a list price of $90 million.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 27, 2021, 08:01
Review: Not Necessarily Rocket Science
by Jeff Foust Monday, April 26, 2021


Not Necessarily Rocket Science: A Beginner's Guide to Life in the Space Age
by Kellie Gerardi
Mango, 2020
hardcover, 256 pp.
ISBN 978-1-64250-410-1

For decades, the message to students interested in pursuing career in space was simple: study science and math. That was the way to get a job as an engineer or scientist at companies or government agencies involved in space. That’s understandable, given the essential nature of those fields to launching satellites, but it was also something of an exclusionary message: if you weren’t interested in science and math, or just not good at it, then you were out of luck.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 27, 2021, 08:02
Thanks, Dmitry!
by A.J. Mackenzie Monday, April 26, 2021

In 2014, Dmitry Rogozin, Russian deputy prime minister, made threats about access to RD-180 engines and Soyuz seats that prompted a series of changes in the US. Will comments by Russia’s current deputy prime minister about the future of ISS have a similar impact? (credit: Roscosmos)

Russian officials stated last week that Russia could quit the International Space Station as soon as 2025. One of those officials, deputy prime minister Yuri Borisov, claimed “technical malfunctions” were taking place there at an increasing rate, and that Russia should instead build its own national space station, perhaps by 2030.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 27, 2021, 08:02
A message of continuity from NASA’s next administrator
by Jeff Foust Monday, April 26, 2021

Bill Nelson, the Biden Administration’s nominee to lead NASA, talks to his former colleagues on the Senate Commerce Committee during his confirmation hearing April 21. (credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

The last time the Senate Commerce Committee held a confirmation hearing for a NASA administrator nominee, Bill Nelson was not happy. As the top Democrat on the committee, the Florida senator used his opening remarks to make it clear he did not think the nominee, Jim Bridenstine, was the right person for the job. “While your time as a pilot, and your service to our country in the military is certainly commendable,” Nelson told Bridenstine, “it doesn’t make you qualified to make complex and nuanced engineering, safety, and budgetary decisions for which the head of NASA must be accountable.” (See “A contentious confirmation”, The Space Review, November 6, 2017.)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 27, 2021, 08:03
With Starship, NASA is buying the Moon, but investing in Mars
by Casey Dreier and Jason Davis Monday, April 26, 2021

NASA’s selection of SpaceX’s Starship to send humans to the Moon could help both organizations go to Mars. (credit: SpaceX)

NASA’s selection of SpaceX’s Starship for a crewed lunar landing is the most consequential decision in the Artemis program to date, not just as a major step toward the Moon, but for the long-term implications of investing in a Mars spacecraft.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Maj 04, 2021, 10:44
Review: A Man on the Moon
by Jeff Foust Monday, May 3, 2021


A Man on the Moon: The Voyages of the Apollo Astronauts
by Andrew Chaikin
The Folio Society, 2021
hardcover, 800 pp. (two volumes), illus.

The first copy of A Man on the Moon that I bought was when the book came out in 1994, timed to the 25th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing. I got a copy at a Boston bookstore just in time for a talk its author, Andrew Chaikin, gave at Boston University shortly before the book rode a wave of popularity tied to the 25th anniversary and other events, like the movie Apollo 13 that came out a year later, leading to the HBO miniseries From the Earth to the Moon.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Maj 04, 2021, 10:44
Don’t make space harder than it needs to be
by Matthew Jenkins Monday, May 3, 2021

Space Force Gen. Jay Raymond has made the case for his service to lawmakers, but the Space Force needs to inform the general public about the importance of space in order to win widespread support. (credit: US Air Force photo by Wayne Clark)

In February, White House press secretary Jen Psaki called the Space Force “the plane of today”—a reference to media interest in the paint scheme of the new Air Force One—when asked whether the new administration supported the United States Space Force. The good news is that she later provided a coherent answer. The Biden Administration fully supports the Space Force and is not revisiting its instantiation. Around the same time, the Chief of Space Operations, Gen. Jay Raymond, remark when asked about it that “it is hard to understand the link between what the Space Force does and how it affects U.S. citizens.”
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Maj 04, 2021, 10:46
The little Mars helicopter that could
by Jeff Foust Monday, May 3, 2021

The Mastcam-Z camera on the Perseverance rover captured this image of Ingenuity during its second flight on Mars April 22. (credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU/MSSS)

In the last decade, drones have become almost ubiquitous. They have found roles from providing aerial photography to delivery services to entertainment. You can go on Amazon and find a low-end quadcopter, with limited range and performance but still sporting high-definition cameras, for less than $100, and maybe under $50.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Maj 04, 2021, 10:46
Let’s take down the menace to our space dreams
by Alfred Anzaldúa Monday, May 3, 2021

The growing problem of space junk requires not just technical solutions for removing debris but also new legal, regulatory, and business models. (credit: ESA/Spacejunk3D, LLC)

In March, the retired NOAA-17 polar-orbiting weather satellite and the Chinese Yunhai 1-02 satellite both broke up in orbit. The former breakup created 16 pieces of trackable objects and the latter 21 pieces. Both were in polar orbits,[1] the most popular orbit in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) band from 200 to 2000 kilometers.[2] These trackable objects joined around 34,000 other trackable objects weighing 8,000 tons[3] larger than 10 centimeters in diameter and at least 128 million smaller pieces of untrackable debris able to shred a spacecraft.[4] Around 10,000 of the fragments were created by more than 250 collisions or explosions in orbit. Only 7% of the objects are functioning satellites.[5]
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Maj 11, 2021, 02:16
Review: Test Gods
by Jeff Foust Monday, May 10, 2021


Test Gods: Virgin Galactic and the Making of a Modern Astronaut
by Nicholas Schmidle
Henry Holt and Co., 2021
hardcover, 352 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-250-22975-5
US$ 29.99

When Virgin Galactic first announced its suborbital spaceflight plans in 2004, working in cooperation with Scaled Composites just as that company’s SpaceShipOne was on the cusp of winning the $10 million Ansari X PRIZE, it said it would begin commercial service as soon as late 2007. It’s 2021, and the company has yet to take a paying customer to the edge of space. SpaceShipTwo hasn’t made a trip to suborbital space since February 2019, and a flight in December 2020 was aborted just as its hybrid engine ignited because of a computer malfunction that’s taken months to correct.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Maj 11, 2021, 02:16
To catch a star: the technical and geopolitical arguments for autonomous on-orbit satellite servicing
by Matthew Jenkins Monday, May 10, 2021

An infrared image of Intelsat 10-02 taken by the MEV-2 spacecraft shortly before docking. MEV-2 will remain docked to Intelsat 10-02 for several years, extending the satellite’s mission. (credit: Northrop Grumman)

On April 12, Northrop Grumman’s Mission Extension Vehicle-2 (MEV-2) successfully docked with a geostationary communications satellite, Intelsat 10-02. It is easy to see the applications for this technology. Besides extending the lives of satellites running out of propellant, for example, one can imagine satellites carrying less fuel in the first place, freeing up more weight for payloads. It’s easy to get caught up in the potential applications of this technology. Yet, while this accomplishment is substantial and noteworthy, it is not the first time satellite to have conducted rendezvous and proximity operations (RPO) to service another satellite.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Maj 11, 2021, 02:16
Retaining both space policies and processes
by Jeff Foust Monday, May 10, 2021

Biden Administration officials have suggested that the National Space Council, under Vice President Harris’s leadership, won’t have the same “big displays” as those by the council under Vice President Mike Pence, like this December 2020 meeting under the Saturn V on display at the Kennedy Space Center. (credit: White House)

When the Biden Administration took office in January, some in the space community were concerned about the future of initiatives started by the Trump Administration. Within a matter of weeks, though, the White House affirmed its support for both the US Space Force (which would have required an act of Congress to undo in any case) as well as NASA’s Artemis lunar exploration program.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Maj 11, 2021, 02:16
Spybirds: POPPY 8 and the dawn of satellite ocean surveillance
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, May 10, 2021

Artist impression of the September 1969 launch of multiple satellites. The four yellow objects at the front represent the POPPY 8 signals intelligence satellites that for the first time had a mission of locating Soviet ships at sea by detecting their radar emissions. POPPY scanned large portions of the electromagnetic spectrum searching for new and unusual signals, and the use of four satellites in a constellation enabled precise location of detected radars. (credit: NRO)

At the end of September 1969, a Thor-Agena rocket roared off its launch pad in California and climbed high over the Pacific Ocean, heading south. The rocket dropped its stubby pencil-like solid booster motors not very long after lifting off and continued its arc. A few minutes later, its first stage, burning a mixture of kerosene and liquid oxygen, ran low on fuel and its engine shut down. The Agena upper stage separated and small motors fired, pushing it away and forcing the fuel in its tanks to settle to the rear, and in moments its Bell rocket engine ignited, pushing it faster and higher. Its bulbous nose cone separated and flew away, revealing a cluster of four shiny, egg-shaped satellites surrounding a small pointy object. Upon reaching orbital velocity the Agena’s engine shut down and the shiny satellites began to pop off, pushed away by springs. Each satellite was about the size of a toddler, and collectively they were known as POPPY 8. They were followed by several other satellites that also separated from the front of the Agena. Moments later, various small satellites were pushed off the rear of the Agena. Then came the finale: at the rear of the Agena, a box-shaped satellite the size of a fat suitcase and named WESTON rotated back on a hinge and was shoved away on springs before firing its solid rocket motor and heading to a higher orbit.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Maj 18, 2021, 03:22
Review: Developing Space and Settling Space
by Jeff Foust Monday, May 17, 2021


Developing Space
by John Strickland with Sam Spencer and Anna Nesterova
Apogee Books, 2021
paperback, 354 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-989044-14-8

Settling Space
by John Strickland with Sam Spencer and Anna Nesterova
Apogee Books, 2021
paperback, 398 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-989044-16-2

For all his talk about wanting to make humanity multiplanetary, Elon Musk hasn’t said much about how he would ensure people would stay alive on another world. Musk is happy to talk about how Starship can make it possible for people to go to the Moon, Mars, and elsewhere in large numbers, including that vision of a million people living on Mars. But exactly what people would do once on Mars, and how they would survive the extreme environment there, is an exercise left for the reader.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Maj 18, 2021, 03:22
Why the China-Russia space alliance will speed up human exploration of Mars
by John Wolfram Monday, May 17, 2021

A Long March 5B rocket lifts off in April carrying the core module of China’s new space station. China and Russia have recently agreed to cooperate on space exploration activities, including missions to the Moon. (credit: Xinhua)

On March 9, the China National Space Administration and the Russian space agency Roscosmos signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) for the joint construction of a permanent research station on the Moon. Their explicit goal is to make this a base of future space exploration operations, with the implicit goals of planning a crewed mission to Mars and boldly challenging US leadership in space. Could this latest and largest step in the emerging “new space race” ultimately accelerate the landing of humans on Mars?
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Maj 18, 2021, 03:22
Build back better
by Robert G. Oler Monday, May 17, 2021

SpaceX’s Starship SN15 on its successful flight May 5, going to an altitude of ten kilometers before landing safely, unlike four previous vehicles. (credit: SpaceX)

History loves ironies and maybe the future will as well. SpaceX stuck the first landing of its Starship prototype on the 60th anniversary of Alan Shepard’s first flight into space. A long road remains, but the event prompts a simple question: “What if Starship works?”
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Maj 18, 2021, 03:22
Redundancy now, or redundancy never?
by Jeff Foust Monday, May 17, 2021

Lunar lander concepts by Blue Origin (left) and Dynetics. The two companies have filed protests with the GAO about NASA’s award of a single Human Landing System contract to SpaceX, while a Senate bill would require NASA to select a second company. (credit: Blue Origin/Dynetics)

A month after NASA selected SpaceX for the sole Human Landing System (HLS) award (see “All in on Starship”, The Space Review, April 19, 2021), the reverberations continue. NASA’s decision April 16 to make a single “Option A” award for the development and flight demonstration of lunar lander to SpaceX surprised many in the industry and, given the high stakes of the competition, was one that the losing companies were unlikely to accept easily.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Maj 25, 2021, 23:28
Review: Amazon Unbound and its insights into Blue Origin
by Jeff Foust Monday, May 24, 2021


Amazon Unbound: Jeff Bezos and the Invention of a Global Empire
by Brad Stone
Simon & Schuster, 2021
hardcover, 496 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-9821-3261-3

The good news is that you can now buy a seat on a New Shepard suborbital flight. The bad news is that you probably can’t afford it. Blue Origin announced early this month it would offer a single seat on the first crewed flight of New Shepard, scheduled for July 20, which it would auction off. Last week, the company unsealed the bids it received in the first phase, and moved into a more open bidding phase. As of early May 24, the current high bid was $2.8 million, with the bidding set to conclude with a live auction June 12.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Maj 25, 2021, 23:28
Why the US should ban kinetic anti-satellite weapons
by Matthew Jenkins Monday, May 24, 2021

A proliferation of kinetic anti-satellite weapons to countries like India, which tested one in 2019, raise questions about the long-term sustainability of low Earth orbit. (credit: DRDO)

The United States has long been the world leader in developing and leveraging space-based technology. While the gap between the US and other countries has shrunk in recent years, the United States remains the nation most dependent on space-based capabilities. As of June 2020, the total number of active satellites in orbit was 2,787, of which 1,425 belong to the US, 382 to China, and 172 to Russia. All other states account for the remaining 808.[1] At no time in the history of space exploration has space been more congested, contested, and competitive.[2] Since the 1960s, the global economic system has become increasingly dependent on precision timing provided by space-based capabilities, which facilitate air travel, communications, banking, and numerous other core sectors in the global economy.[3] A guiding objective in the National Space Policy published last December is to preserve the space environment to enhance space activities’ long-term sustainability.[4] Given this emphasis and the particular dependence of the US on space-based technologies, policymakers should lead the global charge to ban the use of kinetic anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons development and testing through international legislation and multilateral cooperation of all nations who have a stake in ensuring the continued use of space for the benefit of all humanity.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Maj 25, 2021, 23:28
Red planet scare
by Jeff Foust Monday, May 24, 2021

An image released last week by the China National Space Administration showing the Zhurong rover on the surface of Mars. (credit: CNSA)

Sometimes a Mars rover is just a Mars rover, but sometimes it’s not.

When China landed its Zhurong rover in the Utopia Planitia region of Mars May 14, many celebrated the technical achievement. China is just the second country, after the United States, to land a spacecraft on Mars and sustain its operations (the Soviet Union’s Mars 3 landed in 1971, but lost contact less than two minutes after touchdown, while Britain’s Beagle 2 may have landed safely in 2004 but never deployed its solar panels and antenna.) Scientists looked forward to what Zhurong’s instruments might reveal, such as its ground-penetrating radar designed to search for subsurface ice deposits.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Maj 25, 2021, 23:28
Necessary but not sufficient: Presidents and space policy 60 years after Kennedy
by Wendy N. Whitman Cobb Monday, May 24, 2021

Sixty years after John F. Kennedy called for landing a man on the Moon by the end of the decade, the influence of presidents on space policy remains important, but alone is not sufficient. (credit: NASA)

On May 25, 1961, still in the first months of his presidency but stung by recent failures at the Bay of Pigs and elsewhere, President John F. Kennedy prepared to address the Congress. Seeking a way to move the United States forward in the Cold War, Kennedy stated:

First, I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to earth. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-range exploration of space; and none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish.

Note: Because of the Memorial Day holiday, next week’s issue will be published on Tuesday, June 1.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 02, 2021, 03:10
Review: Beyond
by Jeff Foust Tuesday, June 1, 2021


Beyond: The Astonishing Story of the First Human to Leave Our Planet and Journey into Space
by Stephen Walker
Harper, 2021
hardcover, 512 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-0-06-297815-8

For all the rhetoric in recent months about a new space race developing between China and the United States, there’s little agreement about what exactly constitutes that race. Sending humans (back) to the Moon? Humans to Mars? A base on the Moon? The original Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union was, in retrospect, a little more clear cut, with the two companies striving to be the first to land humans on the Moon, played out in a series of firsts—first satellite, first spacewalk, etc.—from 1957 to 1969.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 02, 2021, 03:10
The revival of the suborbital market
by Sam Dinkin Tuesday, June 1, 2021

“Mannequin Skywalker” occupies a seat on a New Shepard suborbital vehicle earlier this year that, in July, will carry the winner of an ongoing auction to the edge of space. (credit: Blue Origin)

With the bidding for taking the first human-crewed suborbital flight of the New Shepard at $2.8 million, and the bidding not closing until June 12, a healthy market may be available, at least temporarily, for suborbital flights with paying spaceflight participants.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 02, 2021, 03:10
Should India join China and Russia’s Lunar Research Station?
by Ajey Lele Tuesday, June 1, 2021

An illustration of what the proposed China-Russia international lunar research station might one day look like. (credit: CNSA)

Last week, South Korea signed the Artemis Accords, becoming the tenth country to join. It was the latest sign of the ongoing global efforts to study the Moon and beyond, involving both state-centric programs and multilateral collaborations.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 02, 2021, 03:10
An aggressive budget for more than just Earth science
by Jeff Foust Tuesday, June 1, 2021

NISAR, a synthetic aperture radar Earth science mission being jointly developed by NASA and the Indian space agency ISRO, will be a pathfinder for the Earth System Observatory series of missions to follow later in the decade. (credit: NASA)

Even before President Biden took office in January, it was clear that his administration was going to emphasize Earth science at NASA. The Biden campaign had identified climate change as a major priority across the government, and the Democratic party platform last summer included, in its brief discussion of space policy, “strengthening” Earth observation missions at both NASA and NOAA (see “Moon 2020-something”, The Space Review, November 9, 2020).
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 08, 2021, 04:43
Review: Light in the Darkness
by Jeff Foust Monday, June 7, 2021


Light in the Darkness: Black Holes, the Universe, and Us
by Heino Falcke with Jörg Römer
HarperOne, 2021
hardcover, 368 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-0-06-302005-4

Even though the term “black hole” was introduced less than 60 years ago, the phenomenon has long since transcended astrophysics into popular culture. Almost everyone is familiar with the term, associating it not just stars and galaxies but also, more figuratively, with things from which one cannot escape, ravenously consuming everything in its path.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 08, 2021, 04:43
Revisiting the past’s future: ongoing ruminations about “For All Mankind”
by Emily Carney and Dwayne A. Day Monday, June 7, 2021

In the second season of “For All Mankind”, Skylab is the US space station in low Earth orbit, regularly serviced by—and refueling—space shuttles. (credit: AppleTV+)

Apple TV+’s “For All Mankind” finished its second season in April. That season was set entirely in 1983, in an alternate history where NASA builds a moonbase and ends up at the inflection point between peace and nuclear war. Two obsessive fans of the show who haven’t found enough opportunities to discuss it sat down and talked about it some more. Here is their extended commentary and speculation.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 08, 2021, 04:43
Venus is hot again
by Jeff Foust Monday, June 7, 2021

An illustration showing the various phases of the DAVINCI+ probe entering the atmosphere of Venus and descending towards the surface. (credit: NASA GSFC visualization and CI Labs Michael Lentz and colleagues)

Planetary scientists who study Venus went into the competition for NASA’s Discovery program with high hopes. Two Venus mission concepts, an orbiter and an atmospheric probe, were finalists. With NASA having announced its intent to select two missions in this round—a move to space out the competitions and thus reduce the workload on the scientific community of preparing proposals—scientists were optimistic at least one would be selected, ending a long drought of NASA missions to the planet.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 08, 2021, 04:43
Peeking behind the iron curtain: National Intelligence Estimates and the Soviet space program
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, June 7, 2021

The massive N1 rocket being elevated at its pad. American satellites photographed several launch vehicles on the pad during the late 1960s and early 1970s. (credit: Pavel Shubin, “Rocket Space System N1-L3”)

During the Cold War, the US intelligence community had a vast array of intelligence assets collecting information about the Soviet space program, from satellites to listening posts to radars pointed into space. Information was gathered up and processed and combined and then turned into products for decision makers. One of the major focuses at the time was the Soviet manned lunar landing program. American intelligence analysts had determined by around 1967 that the Soviet program, based on its huge N1 rocket, was not competitive with Apollo. Nevertheless, analysts in the US intelligence community maintained close tabs on Soviet space progress and regularly reported their assessments in a regular series of highly secret documents known as National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs). Now, new versions of several NIEs on the Soviet space program produced during the height of the space race have been released, and they shed further light on what the Soviets were doing, as well as some of the sources and methods used by the US intelligence community to keep tabs on their activities.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 15, 2021, 09:23
Review: Losing the Sky
by Jeff Foust Monday, June 14, 2021


Losing the Sky
by Andy Lawrence
Photon Productions, 2021
paperback,150 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-8383997-2-6

At a meeting of the American Astronomical Society last week, astronomers working on the issue of potential interference from satellite megaconstellations had some good news. Observations of the “VisorSat” versions of SpaceX’s Starlink satellites, so named because they’re equipped with visors intended to keep sunlight from hitting reflective surfaces on the satellites, were considerably darker than their unmodified counterparts. The original Starlink satellites had an average visual magnitude of 5 once in their final orbits, while the VisorSats were at magnitude 6.5, four times dimmer.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 15, 2021, 09:23
Sword and shield: defending against an American anti-satellite weapon during the Cold War
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, June 14, 2021

Launch of an ASM-135 anti-satellite missile from an F-15 Eagle in 1985. The missile was equipped with an infrared seeker and minutes later it destroyed an Air Force satellite. Two years before this test, the CIA identified possible Soviet countermeasures to the weapon, estimating that they could be available by the later 1990s. (credit: USAF)

On September 13, 1985, Major Wilbert D. “Doug” Pearson, flying an F-15A fighter aircraft named “Celestial Eagle,” pulled his aircraft into a steep climb and fired a single ASM-135 anti-satellite missile at the sky. Moments later, the missile slammed into the US Air Force’s Solwind P78-1 satellite, blasting it to smithereens—producing both orbital debris and considerable controversy. It was the culmination of an ASAT development program started in the 1970s and dedicated to giving the United States the capability to destroy Soviet satellites. Now, a newly declassified 1983 CIA report indicates that the United States was concerned about how the Soviet Union might defend against the American ASAT weapon. It offers interesting insights into the possible countermeasures that may still be valid today, nearly four decades later.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 15, 2021, 09:23
Giant ferocious steps from Jeff Bezos
by Sam Dinkin Monday, June 14, 2021

Jeff Bezos, seen here at a 2017 Blue Origin event, appears to be devoting more attention to his spaceflight company as he prepares to step down as Amazon CEO. (credit: J. Foust)

The Blue Origin motto is Gradatim Ferociter, Latin for step by step ferociously. In the past month, several of those steps have been revealed to be both giant and ferocious. In some ways Blue Origin’s owner, Jeff Bezos, is like Robert Heinlein’s character D.D. Harriman, who put everything on the line to open space and go there himself. Unlike Harriman, he is relying not only on Blue Origin’s industriousness, but also seeking a major government development contract.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 15, 2021, 09:24
Is a billionaire space race good for the industry?
by Jeff Foust Monday, June 14, 2021

Four people will be on the first crewed flight of New Shepard on July 20, including company founder Jeff Bezos and the person who bid $28 million for a seat in an auction Saturday. (credit: Blue Origin)

At one point in Saturday’s auction for a Blue Origin New Shepard seat, the bidding action slowed, prompting a rally cry of sorts from the auctioneer. “The more you pay for it, the more you enjoy it,” he implored.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 22, 2021, 16:51
Review: My Remarkable Journey
by Jeff Foust Monday, June 21, 2021


My Remarkable Journey: A Memoir
by Katherine Johnson with Joylette Hylick and Katherine Moore
Amistad, 2021
hardcover, 256 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-0-06-289766-4

At a hearing last week by a Senate appropriations subcommittee about NASA’s fiscal year 2022 budget proposal, Sen. Joe Manchin (D-WV) asked NASA administrator Bill Nelson about funding for the agency’s Independent Verification and Validation Facility, located in his state. In 2019, NASA renamed the facility after Katherine Johnson, the Black mathematician who became famous after the publication of the book Hidden Figures and the release of the movie of the same title. Nelson responded he would investigate the funding issue for the facility, then added, “if I might, tell you a story about Katherine Johnson.” He then mentioned the movie version of Hidden Figures.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 22, 2021, 16:51
Why Astrofeminism?
by Layla Martin Monday, June 21, 2021

There are few companies in the space industry founded by women, just one example of the field’s gender gap.

The ancient universal practice of studying the moon, planets and stars from Earth helped to define primordial calendars and shape our earliest conception of gods, spirits, seasons, and tides. Today, space-based assets educate and connect humanity as well as revealing information that furthers efforts to mitigate anthropogenic climate change. At its best, what space offers us is the possibility to evolve the human condition. The power of space has benefited the United States on a global scale for decades, inspiring generations while expanding democratic soft power. To illustrate, in every single place around the world I’ve spent time in, from Akiruno, Tokyo to Zanzibar, Tanzania, I’ve observed local people proudly wearing NASA t-shirts! From a non-scientific perspective, images of space reveal patterns of light and color that are so beautiful it’s difficult to describe them as anything other than magical. Yet, they are in fact, very real!
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 22, 2021, 16:51
A shifting balance of space cooperation?
by Jeff Foust Monday, June 21, 2021

Roscosmos director general Dmitry Rogozin used a conference last week to express support for international cooperation in space exploration, even while continuing to raise questions about the future of the International Space Station. (credit: Roscosmos)

For nearly three decades, cooperation in human spaceflight has been defined by the partnership between the United States and Russia in the International Space Station program. After the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union, the US brought Russia into its space station program with the goal of keeping Russia’s space program engaged in peaceful endeavors rather than producing missiles for Iran or North Korea. (It also had the benefit of providing a new justification for a space station program that, in the US, was facing threats of cancellation.) For better or worse, the two countries have worked together, along with Europe, Japan, and Canada, to build and operate the ISS to this day.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 22, 2021, 16:51
Burning Frost, the view from the ground: shooting down a spy satellite in 2008
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, June 21, 2021

Launch of an SM-3 missile from the cruiser USS Lake Erie in February 2008 on an intercept course with a disabled American reconnaissance satellite. (credit: US Navy)

In February 2008, a missile fired from the Aegis class cruiser USS Lake Erie, several hundred kilometers northwest of Hawaii, blasted high into the sky and a few minutes later destroyed a malfunctioning top-secret American satellite. The operation was known as “Burnt Frost,” and according to American officials, it was undertaken to prevent potentially toxic debris from the satellite from falling on populated areas. The operation occurred only a few months after a heavily criticized Chinese anti-satellite test produced a large amount of orbital debris. The American action was designed to minimize the generation of debris but was nevertheless controversial. Now, a newly published account of the decision-making that led to the American action provides unique insight into how it was made. The author, orbital debris expert and longtime space writer Nicolas Johnson, died in April at age 71, and his article, titled “Operation Burnt Frost: A View From Inside,” was made available free of charge by the journal Space Policy.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 22, 2021, 16:51
Scrutinizing the Russian-Iranian satellite deal
by Bart Hendrickx Monday, June 21, 2021

Signing of a pre-contractual agreement on a Russian-Iranian satellite project by Leonid Makridenko (VNIIEM), Alireza Zolali (Bonyan Danesh Shargh) and Sergei Baskov (NPK Barl) in August 2015. (Source)

On June 11, the Washington Post published an article claiming that Russia is preparing to supply Iran with an advanced remote sensing satellite that will give Tehran an unprecedented ability to track potential military targets across the Middle East and beyond. When asked to comment on the story the following day, President Vladimir Putin dismissed it as “fake news” and “nonsense”. However, plans for the joint satellite project were openly reported in the Russian and Iranian media until several years ago and an analysis of various recent Russian online sources corroborates the Post’s claim that it is not far away from launch.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 06, 2021, 07:05
Review: Project Hail Mary
by Jeff Foust Monday, June 28, 2021


Project Hail Mary: A Novel
by Andy Weir
Ballantine, 2021
hardcover, 496 pp.
ISBN 978-0-593-13520-4

When The Martian hit bookshelves in 2014 (see “Review: The Martian”, The Space Review, February 17, 2014), it became not just a bestselling novel but also a book embraced by the space exploration community. Andy Weir told a story of a stranded astronaut on Mars that was both thrilling and mostly accurate from science and engineering standpoints. By the time the film version hit theaters in the fall of 2015, even NASA hopped on the bandwagon, cooperating with the film’s production and using it to promote its own human Mars exploration plans (see “The Martian and real Martians”, The Space Review, October 5, 2015.)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 06, 2021, 07:06
Global space traffic management measures to improve the safety and sustainability of outer space
by Jamil Castillo Monday, June 28, 2021

Minor damage to the Canadarm2 robotic arm on the International Space Station, presumably from a debris strike, is the latest examine of the hazards posed by space debris. (credit: NASA/CSA)

Relying on space being “big” is no longer an option. More than 3,000 satellites operate in Earth orbit along with hundreds of thousands of pieces of debris. In October 2020, a company that tracks objects in low Earth orbit warned about an old satellite and a rocket’s upper stage, both inoperable, that had a greater than 10% chance of colliding. Inspections in May of this year revealed that a piece of debris had hit Canadarm2, the International Space Station’s robotic arm.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 06, 2021, 07:06
Before you go, Administrator Nelson
by Roger Handberg Monday, June 28, 2021

Astronauts Shane Kimbrough and Thomas Pesquet perform a spacewalk earlier this month to install new solar arrays on the International Space Station. NASA needs to plan now for a successor to the ISS, which may not last beyond 2030. (credit: NASA)

Every NASA administrator has an expiration date when they enter office, just like Major League Baseball managers or NBA coaches. The boundaries on their tenure can come with the end of the appointing president’s tenure: surviving across administrations is possible but usually limited to until a successor is nominated. More likely, the administrator either will leave office when the president does, or earlier due to issues with the administration—especially White House staff—or of their own volition.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 06, 2021, 07:06
Jumpstarting European NewSpace
by Jeff Foust Monday, June 28, 2021

Thierry Breton, the EU commissioner responsible for space, holds up a signed agreement between the European Commission and European Space Agency after a ceremony Tuesday in Brussels. (credit: ESA)

On June 22, officials from the European Commission and the European Space Agency gathered in Brussels for a signing ceremony. After many months of negotiations, the two sides had finally reached an agreement, formally known as the Financial Framework Partnership Agreement, governing how they will cooperate on programs such as the Galileo navigation satellite constellation and the Copernicus series of Earth observation satellites.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 06, 2021, 07:06
Shipkillers: from satellite to shooter at sea
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, June 28, 2021

The nuclear-powered cruiser Admiral Ushakov (ex-Kirov) next to the Slava-class cruiser Marshal Ustinov. These ships, which entered service in the late 1970s and early 1980s, were bristling with antennas and anti-ship missiles. Their targets were U.S. Navy aircraft carriers. (credit: Wikipedia (US Navy photograph during a port visit in 1992))

In late summer 1973, a US reconnaissance satellite photographed a large warship under construction at Leningrad Shipyard Ordzhonikid 189 on the Baltic. The warship had a distinctive bottom plate and was obviously one of the largest vessels ever built by the Soviet Union. The CIA soon designated it as Baltic Combatant #1, or BALCOM 1 for short. Throughout the 1970s satellites continued to fly overhead as the warship took shape, photographing the shipyard as workers installed a nuclear reactor and large diagonal silos for launching massive cruise missiles.[1] Eventually the ship was named Kirov and arrived in Northern Fleet waters in early October 1980. Late that year, the ship was conducting cruise missile and surface-to-air missile firings. By that time, a second Kirov was under construction and preparing for launch in 1981.[2]

Note: Because of the Fourth of July holiday weekend, next week’s issue will be published on Tuesday, July 6.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 07, 2021, 10:09
Reviews: Examining the life of John Glenn
by Jeff Foust Tuesday, July 6, 2021


The Last American Hero: The Remarkable Life of John Glenn
by Alice L. George
Chicago Review Press, 2020
hardcover 368 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-64160-213-6

Mercury Rising: John Glenn, John Kennedy, and the New Battleground of the Cold War
by Jeff Shesol
W.W. Norton & Co., 2021
hardcover, 416 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-324-00324-3

John Glenn is clearly one of the most famous figures in the history of American spaceflight despite a relatively brief career at NASA. Selected as part of the Mercury 7 class in 1959, he became the first American to orbit the Earth in 1962, providing a much-needed shot of confidence (or, at least, reassurance) for the country after a series of spaceflight firsts by the Soviets. By 1964, though, Glenn was out of NASA, pursuing new careers in business and politics that led to four terms in the Senate, capped by a second flight to space on the shuttle.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 07, 2021, 10:09
Did ancient astronomers set a message in stone for us?
by Sam Dinkin Tuesday, July 6, 2021

A sky chart superimposed on a scene in a pillar from an ancient temple: a depiction of an impact or guide to heaven? (credit: Andrew Collins)

Back in 2003, The Space Review first started repeating the story of the danger of large impacts (“Asteroids are probably a threat. Maybe?” The Space Review, September 9, 2003). It is possible we are recapitulating a tradition that started more than 11,000 years before present (BP). Ancient astronomers may have provided us with a report about what may be “the worst day ever in human history” according to Martin B. Sweatman and Dimitrios Tsikritsis (“Decoding Göbekli Tepe with Archaeoastronomy: What does the fox say?”, 2017).
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 07, 2021, 10:09
The nanosatellite gold rush demands new routes to space
by Steve Heller Tuesday, July 6, 2021

A SpaceX Falcon 9 launched 88 small satellites last week, but rideshare missions like this should be complemented by other means to easily and affordably get smallsats into orbit. (credit: SpaceX)

More than six decades since the launch of Sputnik 1, the first satellite in history, nanosatellites have opened up a new era in private space innovation. They’ve created a wealth of new opportunities for upstart satellite developers, and new challenges to solve for those who seek to help them make their impact.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 07, 2021, 10:09
Flights to Mars, real and LEGO
by Dwayne A. Day Tuesday, July 6, 2021

In 1968, Boeing produced a detailed study of a human mission to Mars. Now somebody has produced the spacecraft using LEGO. Here it is in two different scales. (credit: Joe Chambers)

In early 1968, The Boeing Company delivered to NASA a thick, multi-volume report on how to send humans to Mars. That report, titled “Integrated Manned Interplanetary Spacecraft Concept Definition,” described a large, nuclear-powered spacecraft that would be launched in components atop Saturn V rockets, and after assembly in orbit would head off to the Red Planet. Boeing’s Mars spacecraft design concept was further refined by NASA in 1969 and would become iconic for the next decade and a half, appearing in artwork and on book covers and in the pages of novels until it was replaced by another concept for a human mission to Mars that resulted from the Case For Mars conference and was often referred to as the “Mars Cycler.” That Mars spaceship design entered the zeitgeist for another decade or so. But Boeing’s design has shown remarkable staying power and still appears in artwork decades later. Now, Boeing’s design has been recreated in LEGO form, in three-dimensional plastic glory that you can build yourself.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 07, 2021, 10:09
Ingenuity, InSight, and Ice Mapper
by Jeff Foust Tuesday, July 6, 2021

NASA’s Ingenuity Mars helicopter took this image of its shadow on the Martian surface during its most recent flight July 4. (credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

It is a golden era for rovers on Mars. For the first time, there are now three operating rovers on the Red Planet. Curiosity has been at work for nearly nine years now, working its way up Mount Sharp in the center of Gale Crater and traveling through time as it studies different rock layers there. Perseverance, which landed on Mars in February, is ramping up its science operations in Jezero Crater, including plans for caching samples for later return to Earth. And China’s first Mars rover, Zhurong, is exploring the Utopia Planitia region of the planet, although Chinese officials have provided few details since its May landing beyond some images and videos.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 13, 2021, 10:31
Review: Across the Airless Wilds
by Jeff Foust
Monday, July 12, 2021


Across the Airless Wilds: The Lunar Rover and the Triumph of the Final Moon Landings
by Earl Swift
Custom House, 2021
hardcover, 384 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-0-06-298653-5

In late May, Lockheed Martin announced it was partnering with General Motors on concepts for future lunar rovers. Executives with the aerospace and automotive giants said they would combine the best technologies of both companies, such as GM’s work on batteries and autonomous driving, for future NASA competitions to develop lunar rovers for the Artemis program. Beyond that, though, there were few details about how the two companies will work together, in part because NASA has yet to release any requests for proposals to develop lunar rovers.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 13, 2021, 10:31
When it comes to spacewalks, size matters
by Steven Moore Monday, July 12, 2021

NASA astronaut Shane Kimbrough (left) and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet perform a spacewalk outside the space station in June, using suits that have far exceeded their original design life. (credit: NASA)

On June 25, astronauts Shane Kimbrough and Thomas Pesquet successfully completed an almost seven-hour EVA (extravehicular activity, or spacewalk) to install solar panels on the International Space Station, the last in a series of three such EVAs they performed in June. What does it take to don a spacesuit and venture out on such a technical and dangerous mission? Surprisingly, one of the main criteria (besides the years of astronaut training) is body size.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 13, 2021, 10:31
China is using mythology and sci-fi to sell its space program to the world
by Molly Silk Monday, July 12, 2021

The movie The Wandering Earth is one example of how China is using science fiction to shape perceptions of its space ambitions. (credit: Netflix)

On the morning of June 17, China launched its long-awaited Shenzhou-12 spacecraft, carrying three Chinese astronauts, or taikonauts, towards the Tianhe core module. The module itself was launched at the end of April, forming part of the permanent Tiangong space station, which is planned to remain in orbit for the next ten years.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 13, 2021, 10:31
The suborbital spaceflight race isn’t over
by Jeff Foust Monday, July 12, 2021

A view of SpaceShipTwo ascending on its suborbital spaceflight July 11 with six people, including Virgin Galactic founder Richard Branson, on board. (credit: Virgin Galactic)

It was never a race, Branson insisted. Not that anyone believed him.

Branson was sitting on a stage in a temporary building adjacent to the main hangar at Spaceport America in New Mexico, a couple of hours after making his long-awaited and highly anticipated suborbital journey on SpaceShipTwo on Sunday. He and other members of the “Unity 22” crew faced the media for a press conference where one reporter, unsurprisingly, asked him what it felt like to beat Jeff Bezos, founder of rival Blue Origin, to space.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 20, 2021, 00:05
Review: Leadership Moments from NASA
by Jeff Foust Monday, July 19, 2021


Leadership Moments from NASA: Achieving the Impossible
by Dave Williams and Elizabeth Howell
ECW Press, 2021
hardcover, 328 pp.
ISBN 978-1-77041-604-8

Over the course of more than six decades, NASA has provided plenty of examples of leadership, good and bad. Many of those cases are well known even outside the agency, from the successful return of the Apollo 13 astronauts to the losses of Challenger and Columbia. There are, though, many more events within the agency, at large and small scales, that can provide insights on management and leadership.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 20, 2021, 00:05
Assessing and celebrating the global impact of the “First Lady Astronaut Trainees”
by James Oberg Monday, July 19, 2021

Jerrie Cobb (left), one of the “Mercury 13” women, meets with Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman in space. The Mercury 13 testing effort helped prompt the Soviets to fly Tereshkova.

This month’s “billionaire’s space race” drama portends a very interesting future of more private citizen access to space, first on brief up-and-down hops and soon after on full orbital expeditions. Previous episodic very-high-priced space tourist missions will give way to much more frequent and much less expensive jaunts.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 20, 2021, 00:06
Astronomy flagships, past and future
by Jeff Foust Monday, July 19, 2021

The James Webb Space Telescope undergoes final preparations for shipment to the launch site in French Guiana for a launch on an Ariane 5 now likely to take place in November. (credit: NASA/Chris Gunn)

Sometimes it’s the missions that are behind schedule. Other times it’s the reports about the missions that are behind schedule.

For months, the astronomy community in the United States has been eagerly awaiting the final report of the astrophysics decadal survey, known as “Astro2020.” As the name suggests, the study originally expected to publish its final report in 2020 (the previous astrophysics decadal survey report was released in August 2010.) Even before the pandemic, though, it appeared likely the final report would not be ready until the beginning of 2021, a schedule further delayed by the shift to virtual meetings and deliberations since last spring.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 20, 2021, 00:06
Flattops from space: the once (and future?) meme of photographing aircraft carriers from orbit
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, July 19, 2021

The cover of Jane’s Defence Weekly in 1984 that featured reconnaissance satellite imagery of a Soviet carrier under construction.

In 1984, Samuel Loring Morison, an analyst at the Naval Intelligence Support Center outside of Washington, DC, picked three photos off the desk of a colleague. He clipped the security classification stamps off the sides of the photos and provided them to Jane’s Defence Weekly, which had only recently begun publishing. The photos were taken by a satellite of a Soviet Union military shipyard. Knowing that they had a real scoop, the editors at Jane’s put one of the photos on the cover of the magazine and featured the other two in a short article about the latest Soviet naval developments.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 27, 2021, 06:11
Review: The Burning Blue
by Jeff Foust Monday, July 26, 2021


The Burning Blue: The Untold Story of Christa McAuliffe and NASA’s Challenger Disaster
by Kevin Cook
Henry Holt and Co., 2021
hardcover, 288 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-250-75555-1

Depending on your age, the loss of the shuttle Challenger more than 35 years ago can either seem like it happened yesterday or feel like it’s ancient history. If you’re old enough to remember the tragedy, the memories run deep and can come bubbling back to the surface with just the slightest mention. For anyone younger than about 40, though, who lack the first-hand memories of the event, the events lose their visceral, emotional punch.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 27, 2021, 06:11
The case for suborbital scholarships
by A.J. Mackenzie Monday, July 26, 2021

Oliver Daemen, Jeff Bezos, Wally Funk, and Mark Bezos (left to right) pose in front of the booster that launched them on their suborbital spaceflight July 20. (credit: J. Foust)

With the successful suborbital flights this month by Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic, space is now wide open to not just professional astronauts but just about anyone. Or, rather, anyone wealthy enough to afford a ticket. And that’s a problem.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 27, 2021, 06:11
John Glenn’s fan mail and the ambitions of the girls who wrote to him
by Roshanna P. SylvestervMonday, July 26, 2021

John Glenn, seen here in the NASA mailroom after his 1962 spaceflight, received letters from fans of all ages. (credit: John Glenn Archives, The Ohio State University)

Pioneering spacefarer John Herschel Glenn Jr. would have turned 100 on July 18. When Glenn died in 2016, the famed astronaut was lauded as “the last genuine American hero.” NASA, the US Marine Corps, President Barack Obama, and many others posted tributes on social media.

Hundreds of nostalgic fans testified to Glenn’s impact on their own senses of youthful possibility. One woman recalled being a fifth grader in February 1962, listening to coverage of Glenn’s orbital flight at school on a transistor radio: “This was the definition of the future… I wanted to do hard math with slide rules and learn hard languages and solve mysteries. I wanted to be like John Glenn.”
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 27, 2021, 06:11
Will suborbital space tourism take a suborbital trajectory?
by Jeff FoustvMonday, July 26, 2021

Jeff Bezos, founder of Blue Origin, celebrates after his suborbital spaceflight on New Shepard July 20. (credit: Blue Origin)

After an extended launch delay, suborbital space tourism is finally ready for liftoff.

Many in the industry thought that was the case nearly 17 years ago, when SpaceShipOne, built by Scaled Composites and funded by billionaire Paul Allen, won the $10 million Ansari XPRIZE. Around the same time, Virgin Galactic announced a deal to license the technology, proposing to start flying people in 2007 or 2008.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 03, 2021, 13:22
Review: America’s New Destiny in Space
by Jeff Foust Monday, August 2, 2021

America’s New Destiny in Space
by Glenn Harlan Reynolds
Encounter Books, 2020
paperback, 54 pp.
ISBN 978-1-64177-182-5


The suborbital flights last month of Richard Branson on SpaceShipTwo and Jeff Bezos on New Shepard triggered an avalanche of criticism of the two men specifically and of privately funded spaceflight more generally. Some were outraged at Bezos in particular, the world’s wealthiest person, for spending money on spaceflight rather than on climate change or alleviating poverty or simply improving the wages and working conditions of employees at Amazon—criticism he did little to assuage afterwards by thanking Amazon employees and customers for making his flight possible. Others worried more broadly about giving the private sector too much control over what happens in space, fearing a mostly harmless suborbital race could turn into a high-stakes battle over the heavens.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 03, 2021, 13:22
Six things to think about (besides the price) for prospective space tourists
by Steven Freeland
Monday, August 2, 2021

Blue Origin’s successful flight last month, along with one by Virgin Galactic days earlier, suggests the era of suborbital space tourism is finally here. (credit: J. Foust)

It’s been a momentous month for space-faring billionaires. On July 11, British entrepreneur Richard Branson’s VSS Unity rocketplane flew him and five fellow passengers about 85 kilometers above Earth. Nine days later, Amazon founder Jeff Bezos’ New Shepard capsule reached an altitude of 106 kilometers, carrying Bezos, his brother, and the oldest and youngest people ever to reach such a height. Passengers on both flights experienced several minutes of weightlessness and took in breathtaking views of our beautiful and fragile Earth.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 03, 2021, 13:22
Relaunching a lunar lander program
by Jeff Foust Monday, August 2, 2021

NASA con move ahead with the contract it awarded to SpaceX to develop a lunar lander based on its Starship vehicle after the GAO rejected protests from the two losing bidders July 30. (credit: SpaceX)

No doubt there were some sighs of relief among NASA leadership on Friday afternoon, and they had nothing to do with the situation on the International Space Station.

NASA leadership, including administrator Bill Nelson, had traveled to the Kennedy Space Center in hopes of observing the launch of an Atlas V carrying Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner on a second uncrewed test flight, a rerun of the December 2019 test flight cut short by problems with the spacecraft. But a day earlier, NASA postponed the launch after the station temporarily lost attitude control when the new Russian Nauka module, which docked to the station Thursday morning, started firing its thrusters hours later. Controllers were able to get the station reoriented after about an hour, but the incident led NASA to delay the launch until this week to give the station time to get back to normal.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 03, 2021, 13:22
Little Wizards: Signals intelligence satellites during the Cold War
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, August 2, 2021

A Titan II rocket on the launch pad at Vandenberg Air Force Base in 1988. This rocket apparently carried the FARRAH III satellite into orbit, one of the last P-11 signals intelligence satellites launched. According to ground observers, the satellite is still in operation 33 years later. (credit: USAF)

In the early 1960s, somebody at Lockheed Missiles and Space Company—it is not clear who—came up with the idea of putting a small satellite on the back end of an Agena spacecraft and popping it off when the Agena reached orbit. The Agena served as a second stage and also provided stability, power, and communications for numerous military and intelligence payloads, making it both a rocket stage and a spacecraft. There was extra room near the Agena’s engine, and somebody realized that a small satellite could be placed there, getting a free ride to orbit. The deployed satellite could even have a small solid rocket motor that could propel it to a higher orbit.

Note: The Space Review is going on a reduced publishing schedule for August. We will not publish the weeks of August 9 and 23. We will publish August 16 and resume our regular weekly schedule August 30.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 17, 2021, 07:18
Review: The Impact of Lunar Dust on Human Exploration
by Jeff Foust Monday, August 16, 2021


The Impact of Lunar Dust on Human Exploration
by Joel S. Levine (ed.)
Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2021
hardcover, 303 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-5275-6308-7
GBP64.99 (approx. US$90)

NASA’s inspector general last week dealt another blow to the agency’s plans to return humans to the surface of the Moon by 2024. A report concluded that the next-generation spacesuits that the astronauts would wear on the moonwalks won’t be ready until at least April 2025, thanks to a mix of technical, funding, and management issues. The spacesuits, called Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Units or xEMUs, will cost about $1 billion to develop.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 17, 2021, 07:18
Is it time to create the designation of non-governmental astronaut?
by Michael Listner Monday, August 16, 2021

Jeff Bezos and others celebrated the first crewed flight of New Shepard last month, but they may not qualify as “astronauts” under some legal definitions. (credit: Blue Origin)

The flights of Virgin Galactic and Blue Origin with their respective founders has reinvigorated the debate as to what an astronaut is and, specifically, whether non-governmentals are indeed astronauts. Nevertheless, these two flights open a broader discussion as non-governmental space activities increase in measure and scope how they will be looked upon and treated by international law, especially as outer space activities expand.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 17, 2021, 07:18
The little satellite that could

How a vice president’s dream led—after a very long delay—to the DSCOVR spacecraft
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, August 16, 2021

The first image taken by the DSCOVR satellite from space showing the Earth’s day side. DSCOVR was originally named Triana and conceived by Vice President Al Gore in 1998. It did not launch until 17 years later. (credit: NOAA)

If satellites had personalities, DSCOVR would be a scrappy little fighter: battered, bloody, but always stumbling back to its feet and getting back into the ring to fight some more. This little satellite, about the size of a college dorm room refrigerator, finally launched in February 2015, 16 years after it was first thought up in a dream.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 17, 2021, 07:18
ISRO’s cryogenic conundrum
by Ajey Lele Monday, August 16, 2021

A GSLV Mark II rocket lifts off August 12, only to suffer a mission-ending malfunction of its cryogenic upper stage five minutes into the flight. (credit: ISRO)

On August 12, the Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO’s) GSLV-F10 mission failed. This GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle) was a three-stage rocket carrying the EOS-03 (GISAT-1) Earth observation satellite. The mission took off correctly and the performance of first and second stages was normal. However, ignition of the Cryogenic Upper Stage (CUS) did not happen due to a technical anomaly, resulting in a disastrous failure.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 17, 2021, 07:18
Space exploration and development is essential to fighting climate change
by Alex Gilbert Monday, August 16, 2021

Vice President Kamala Harris has said she will make climate change a priority of the National Space Council, expected to hold its first meeting of the Biden Administration this fall. (credit: White House photo by Cameron Smith)

The recently released Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change presents a worrying scientific consensus: climate change is happening, humans are causing it, even our best efforts cannot prevent negative effects, and reducing emissions now is essential to preventing catastrophic consequences. The Biden Administration recognizes the urgency of addressing this challenge. In continuing as head of the National Space Council, Vice President Kamala Harris has made climate one of her priorities for the interagency White House office. This prioritization rightly reflects the growing capabilities of the public and private space sectors to help our society understand, adapt, and mitigate climate change.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 17, 2021, 07:18
Starliner sidelined
by Jeff Foust Monday, August 16, 2021

The Boeing CST-100 Starliner spacecraft in July, being prepared for the OFT-2 mission. That mission is now facing an indefinite delay because of problems with valves in its propulsion system. (credit: Boeing)

On the morning of July 29, NASA held a pair of press conferences that marked, in retrospect, the peak of their optimism about the upcoming uncrewed test flight of Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner spacecraft. At the first, agency leadership, including administrator Bill Nelson, talked up the Orbital Flight Test (OFT) 2 mission, scheduled at the time to lift off the next afternoon.

Note: The Space Review will not publish the week of August 23. We will resume our normal weekly publication schedule on August 30.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 31, 2021, 12:50
Review: European-Russian Space Cooperation
by Gurbir Singh Monday, August 30, 2021

European-Russian Space Cooperation: From de Gaulle to ExoMars

by Brian Harvey
Springer Praxis, 2021
Paperback 391 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-3-030-67684-1

The Cold War was primarily the story of the USSR and the USA and their respective allies. By chronicling in meticulous detail European-Russian space cooperation, Brian Harvey has uncovered a strategic relationship between France and the USSR that modulated the larger USSR-USA Cold War relationship that dominated geopolitics between the end of World War II and demise of the USSR in 1991. It is not just about historical events. The final chapter illustrates the same geopolitical forces are at work shaping international cooperation in space today with the turbulent story of ExoMars.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 31, 2021, 12:50
The billionaires compete and the US wins the 21st century space race
by Eytan Tepper Monday, August 30, 2021

Richard Branson floats through the cabin of SpaceShipTwo during the microgravity phase of his July 11 SpaceShipTwo flight. (credit: Virgin Galactic)

Whoever is declared the winner in the so-called billionaire space race, the US wins the new space race. In the new era of space exploration, where commercial companies are taking the lead, they are mostly US-based. Symbolically, British billionaire Richard Branson, the first in space, launched from Spaceport America in New Mexico, where his company is based.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 31, 2021, 12:50
“Starship to orbit” ought to be a tipping point for policy makers
by Doug Plata Monday, August 30, 2021

Construction workers between the stages of the Starship while undergoing a stacking test. (credit: SpaceX)

We are watching history in the making.

Starship represents a turning point in human history because it will be the vehicle upon which humans start spreading beyond Earth. When Starship reaches orbit, it will fundamentally bring into question which path forward the United States should take. Given the likelihood that a reusable, very cost-effective, super-heavy-lift vehicle (SHLV) with a high flight rate will become available for the nation to use, we call upon the decision makers in Washington (i.e., the administration, Congress, and NASA) to place Starship at the center of the country’s human spaceflight program after it achieves orbit.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 31, 2021, 12:50
Cooperation, competition, conferences, and COVID
by Jeff Foust Monday, August 30, 2021

NASA administrator Bill Nelson (fourth from right) speaks during a panel featuring heads of agencies at the 36th Space Symposium August 25. (credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

The largest in-person space event in nearly 18 months was a reminder of what had changed—and what hadn’t—in the industry over that time.

The 36th Space Symposium at The Broadmoor in Colorado Springs last week looked, at first glance, like many of its predecessors. There were the usual government officials and industry executives speaking in sessions over three days, an exhibit hall with companies displaying their wares and offering tchotchkes, and side meetings and general networking that often went well into the evening.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 31, 2021, 12:51
The little satellite that could (part 2): from Triana to DSCOVR to orbit
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, August 30, 2021

The DSCOVR satellite in October 2008 after spending seven years in storage. Originally named Triana, the satellite was renamed the Deep Space Climate Observatory in 2003. (credit: Phil Horzempa)

Triana had been dreamed up by Vice President Al Gore in 1998 and gone through a contentious development process. The original goal had been to launch it into orbit on a space shuttle mission in 2001. But by 2001, with Republican President George W. Bush in the White House, the program was grounded; funding was suspended a little over a week after the inauguration. Officially, NASA indicated that the space agency would eventually launch the spacecraft, which was intended for a unique orbit at the Lagrange 1 point where it would be able to view both the Earth and the Sun. But for the next eight years, NASA did not announce any launch plans, and what little news did emerge about the spacecraft was always followed with longer periods of silence and inactivity. Triana risked becoming what pilots often refer to as a “hangar queen,” sitting in storage, cannibalized for spare parts (see “The little satellite that could (part 1)”, The Space Review, August 16, 2021.)

Note:Because of the Labor Day holiday, next week’s issue will be published on Tuesday, September 7.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 08, 2021, 05:14
Review: The Red Planet
by Jeff Foust Tuesday, September 7, 2021


The Red Planet: A Natural History of Mars
by Simon Morden
Elliott & Thompson, 2021
hardcover, 240 pp.
ISBN 978-1-78396-561-4

Three rovers are traversing the rocky, red surface of Mars today. NASA’s Perseverance rover, which arrived in February, has collected its first sample, NASA announced late Monday, after an initial sampling attempt with another rock a month ago went awry when the rock turned to powder before it could be placed in a sample tube. Curiosity continues its ascent up Mount Sharp in Gale Crater, its instruments probing the changes in the terrain as is goes across different layers and different geological eras. China’s Zhurong rover, meanwhile, continues to explore its landing site after exceeding its planned three-month mission, although Chinese scientists have not offered many details about the rover’s scientific output so far.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 08, 2021, 05:14
The privatized frontier: the ethical implications and role of private companies in space exploration
by Maanas Sharma Tuesday, September 7, 2021

NASA is relying on SpaceX to transport astronauts to the space station, one sign of a growing role for the private sector in spaceflight. (credit: SpaceX)

In recent years, private companies have taken on a larger role in the space exploration system. With lower costs and faster production times, they have displaced some functions of government space agencies. Though many have levied criticism against privatized space exploration, it also allows room for more altruistic actions by government space agencies and the benefits from increased space exploration as a whole. Thus, we should encourage this development, as the process is net ethical in the end. Especially if performed in conjunction with adequate government action on the topic, private space exploration can overcome possible shortcomings in its risky and capitalistic nature and ensure a positive contribution to the general public on Earth.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 08, 2021, 05:14
Wizards redux: revisiting the P-11 signals intelligence satellites
by Dwayne A. Day Tuesday, September 7, 2021

One of the URSULA small signals intelligence satellites of the 1970s. A proposed upgrade was named “DRACULA,” for “Direct ReAdout URSULA,” but the name was rejected because a senior Air Force officer did not want to go to Washington and face jokes about “another blood-sucking program.” (credit: NRO)

September 2021 is the 60th anniversary of the establishment of the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO). For the 50th anniversary, the NRO declassified two major Cold War era photo-reconnaissance satellites named HEXAGON and GAMBIT. Will the NRO do something similar this time? Those who follow the NRO’s history have heard rumors that they might declassify the KH-11 KENNEN near-real-time reconnaissance satellite that first flew in 1976, although that might be a bit of wishful thinking. (See “Intersections in real time: the decision to build the KH-11 KENNEN reconnaissance satellite,” The Space Review, September 9, 2019.) One small step the NRO could take is to finish the declassification of the P-11 signals intelligence satellites that were built and launched from 1963 to 1992.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 08, 2021, 05:15
The making of an Enterprise: How NASA, the Smithsonian and the aerospace industry helped create Star Trek
by Glen E. Swanson Tuesday, September 7, 2021

The cast and production crew from Star Trek toured NASA’s Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California on April 13, 1967. Shown left to right are: Unknown NASA; actor James “Jimmy” Montgomery Doohan who played chief engineer Montgomery Scott or “Scotty;” Walter Matthew “Matt” Jefferies, Jr., art director and production designer for the series; Herbert Schlosser, who at that time, was head of NBC’s programming and oversaw Star Trek’s development during the network’s production of the series; Star’s Trek’s creator Gene Roddenberry; assistant director, production manager and associate producer Gregg Peters; series director Marc Daniels; assistant director and producer Robert “Bob” Harris Justman; actor Jackson DeForest Kelley who played chief medical officer Leonard “Bones” McCoy; director Joseph “Joe” Pevney; and unknown. Shown behind the cast is NASA’s HL-10 experimental lifting body. (credit: NASA)

This month marks the 55th anniversary of the premiere of Star Trek. On Thursday evening, September 8, 1966, beginning at 8:30 pm Eastern, households in the US tuned in to a new type of television show called Star Trek that featured the adventures of Captain Kirk, Mr. Spock, and the crew of the Starship U.S.S. Enterprise as they traveled throughout the galaxy.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 08, 2021, 05:15
Small launch vehicles face their biggest test
by Jeff Foust Tuesday, September 7, 2021

An explosion destroys Firefly Aerospace’s Alpha launch vehicle two and a half minutes into its first launch September 2. (credit: J. Foust)

Astrobiology has a concept known as the “Great Filter.” It is an attempt to explain why, despite the hundreds of billions of stars in our galaxy, there is currently no evidence of intelligent life beyond Earth. It argues that, somewhere in the progression of factors laid out in the Drake Equation six decades ago from the number of stars to the number of intelligent civilizations, there is a factor that greatly diminishes the prospects of intelligent life to exist.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 14, 2021, 03:05
Review: Asteroids
by Jeff Foust Monday, September 13, 2021


Asteroids: How Love, Fear, and Greed Will Determine Our Future in Space
by Martin Elvis
Yale University Press, 2021
hardcover, 312 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-0-300-23192-2

It’s been nearly a decade since the first great asteroid mining boom. Planetary Resources announced its plans to prospect and eventually extract resources from asteroids in 2012, followed months later by Deep Space Industries with similar ambitions. The companies raised millions of dollars from sources as diverse as Silicon Valley billionaires and the government of Luxembourg, and stimulated new laws in the United States and elsewhere to ensure they would have the right to own the resources they extracted. But, by the beginning of 2019 both were effectively out of business: Planetary Resources was acquired by a blockchain company, Consensys, which later shut it down, while Deep Space Industries, having pivoted to smallsat development, was acquired by Bradford Space.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 14, 2021, 03:05
Thor the lifesaver?
by Ajay Kothari Monday, September 13, 2021

A model of a molten salt reactor which could use thorium to generate power, offering an alternative to space-based solar power.

Space-Based Solar Power (SBSP) is being touted as a solution to the climate change problem that is currently engaging humanity worldwide, and is apt to occupy this administration even more so in the future. While developing that technology, one should also bear in mind another potential solution that may be simpler, cheaper, and faster to implement, something that could be quicker to take advantage of while we wait for other solutions such as SBSP and controlled fusion. It may also have applications as a distributed power source on the lunar surface and later on Mars. Its potential application to rocket propulsion should also be determined, though is not the focus of this commentary.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 14, 2021, 03:05
The problem with space cowboys
by Layla Martin Monday, September 13, 2021

Jeff Bezos, wearing a cowboy hat, walks across a platform to board the New Shepard suborbital vehicle on his July flight. (credit: Blue Origin)

The “space race” is a good thing. Why? Private-sector competition spurs innovation creating new jobs, substantial price cuts, and progress. Yes, but who is competing? The promise of new jobs to achieve what and based upon whose vision?
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 14, 2021, 03:05
Paradigmatic shifts in space?
by Namrata Goswami Monday, September 13, 2021

Space policies of China and India: priorities, long-term focuses, and differences

China is developing new launch vehicles, spacecraft, and space stations to demonstrate it is a leading nation. (credit: Xinhua)

Space has animated both China and India since ancient times, with mythology and folklore about what lay up there amongst the stars. Chinese mythology has given us folktales like that of Chang’e the Moon goddess, Tianwen or heavenly questions, and the Yuegong-1 or heavenly palace. For India, the mythology of space can be inferred from such ancient mythical invocations like the Navagraha (nine planets), the folklore around eclipses and the invisible planets, and Rahu and Ketu (astrological connotations), which by 499 AD resulted in mathematical calculations by Aryabhatta, and his study of solar and lunar eclipses. Aryabhatta correctly attributed the brightness of the Moon and planets as reflected sunlight. India’s first satellite that was launched in 1975 was named after him. The seven main stars of the cup shaped Ursa Major were viewed as the seven sages (सप्तर्षि-Saptarishi or saptarṣī) in Indian mythology. In Indian epics like Mahabharata (written on events about 5,000 to 3,000 years ago), topics ranging from philosophy, cosmology, statecraft, and ethics were discussed. Steven R. Weisman, writing in The New York Times on “Many Faces of the Mahabharatha”, specified:

Modern India is a country in which a lawyer and teacher will tell you with certainty that references to the cosmic weapons used by a hero in the Mahabharata intentionally prefigured the space-based Strategic Defense Initiative of President Reagan.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 14, 2021, 03:05
The great space company sale
by Jeff Foust Monday, September 13, 2021

The Satellite 2021 exhibit hall included a wide range of companies, from major operators and manufacturers to small component suppliers. One CEO predicted the wave of newly public space companies will seek to acquire many of those suppliers. (credit: J. Foust)

The exhibit hall at last week’s Satellite 2021 conference in the suburbs of Washington, DC, was a little quiet. Some companies that normally exhibit at the show, one of the major conferences in the commercial space industry, elected to reduce their presence or not exhibit at all, either because of the timing of the conference—it normally takes place in the spring—or because of ongoing pandemic travel restrictions. There was, though, still an assortment of satellite operators, manufacturers, and suppliers of components and related services.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 21, 2021, 16:20
Review: The Wonderful
by Jeff Foust Monday, September 20, 2021


The Wonderful: Stories from the Space Station
directed by Clare Lewins
2021, 127 mins., not rated

The International Space Station, over its more than two decades of continuous occupation, has become something of an institution. Having shifted a decade ago from assembly to full-fledged operations, discussions about the station have focused on getting people to and from the station, the research that goes on there, its upkeep, and, most recently, what its long-term future will be (see “What is the future of the International Space Station?”, The Space Review, this issue.)
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 21, 2021, 16:20
Astrofeminism as a theory of change: save our planet, not escape from it
by Layla Martin Monday, September 20, 2021

JAstrofeminism offers a different perspective for looking at spaceflight through different priorities and different participants.

Do you have a $55 million slush fund for a joyride up to the International Space Station (ISS)? Does a settler’s ticket to Mars include a fridge stocked with groceries and someone to feed the dog and help with homework for my family here on Earth? The macho space invasion is seriously lacking a critical assessment and careful consideration of implications. As in, what are some of the costs? Not the price but the cost.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 21, 2021, 16:20
What is the future of the International Space Station?
by Roger Handberg Monday, September 20, 2021

Commercial space station modules and standalong space stations, like what Axiom Space is proposing to develop, may represent the future after the ISS, but that transition remains uncertain. (credit: Axiom Space)

Time is not a friend for the International Space Station. American efforts to extend its closing until 2030 possibly beyond are dependent upon evaluations of its continued safety and integrity. Materials in space age under the stresses of the space environment and deteriorate over time. Yet, evaluating the possible future for the ISS will not be strictly based upon technical factors. The states participating in the ISS all pursue various agendas. For most, being on the ISS is only part of their space portfolio, albeit a large one in many cases. So, ending the ISS and deorbiting the structure is a dramatic shift in direction for them, especially if terminated earlier than projected. What would replace that endeavor remains unclear.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 21, 2021, 16:20
An inspiration for private human spaceflight
by Jeff Foust Monday, September 20, 2021

The Crew Dragon spacecraft Resilience moments before splashing down in the Atlantic Ocean to complete the Inspiration4 mission. (credit: SpaceX)

The “billionaire space race” this summer was billed as a competition between Blue Origin’s Jeff Bezos and Virgin Galactic’s Richard Branson for who would be the first to go to space in their companies’ suborbital vehicles. Branson won that race, going to the fringes of space on SpaceShipTwo nine days before Bezos on New Shepard. But the real winner of the billionaire space race, though, might be someone most people in the space industry hadn't heard of before February of this year.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 28, 2021, 11:01
Review: Diary of an Apprentice Astronaut
by Jeff Foust Monday, September 27, 2021


Diary of an Apprentice Astronaut
by Samantha Cristoforetti
The Experiment, 2021
paperback, 400 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-61519-842-9

Next spring, a SpaceX Crew Dragon will launch to the International Space Station on the Crew-4 mission. Among the astronauts on board will be the European Space Agency’s Samantha Cristoforetti, making her second trip to the station. Later in the year she will become commander of ISS Expedition 68, as one might expect for a veteran astronaut like her.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 28, 2021, 11:01
Covid and Mars
by Frank Stratford Monday, September 27, 2021

The changes in society caused by the pandemic may make human missions to Mars more likely. (credit: SpaceX)

In July 1969, the first two humans walked on the surface of the Moon after a decade of breakthrough developments that proved to be both incredibly costly in dollar terms and lives lost. Yet history was made 52 years ago in a time of international crisis and war. The computing systems that enabled these voyages of discovery were barely enough to power a modern calculator. So many factors argued against the success of the Apollo program at the time it seems impossible to our minds today.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 28, 2021, 11:01
Criticism of space cowboys isn’t enough
by Blake Horn Monday, September 27, 2021

Jeff Bezos, founder of Blue Origin, celebrates after his suborbital spaceflight on New Shepard July 20. (credit: Blue Origin)

Anyone who has ever looked up at the night sky can attest to the mesmerising effect of space. Of being blinded by emptiness, by scale, by possibility. The desire to reach, and to understand, what lies beyond our planet is the closest thing to a universal human goal that we are ever likely to have.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 28, 2021, 11:02
Two directorate heads are better than one
by Jeff Foust Monday, September 27, 2021

Kathy Luders (right), who now runs the Space Operations Mission Directorate, speaks with Jim Free, the new head of the Exploration Systems Development Mission Directorate, at a town hall meeting September 21. (credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

In August 2011, weeks after the end of the final shuttle mission, NASA reorganized the management of its human spaceflight programs. It merged the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, which had been responsible for the Constellation program and now had what remained, the Orion spacecraft and the congressionally mandated Space Launch System, with the Space Operations Mission Directorate, which had the shuttle and continued to have the International Space Station. The combined organization would be known as Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate, or HEOMD.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 05, 2021, 07:23
Review: Countdown
by Jeff Foust Monday, October 4, 2021


Countdown: Inspiration4 Mission to Space
directed by Jason Hehir
Netflix, 2021
Five episodes, 244 minutes
Rated TV-14

A new era of commercial human spaceflight means a new era in media relations—and also, perhaps, a return to the earliest days of the Space Age. When Blue Origin conducted its first crewed New Shepard suborbital flight in July, Jeff Bezos and crewmates performed a handful of television interviews the day before the flight and immediately after landing. But, at a post-flight event billed to attending journalists as a press conference, he took questions from just three reporters before moving on. Virgin Galactic, at its flight earlier that month, did take more questions from reporters during a half-hour press conference after its SpaceShipTwo flight. However, it kept journalists at a distance from other attendees earlier in the morning at Spaceport America, even going as far as having a security guard shoo away any guests who had wandered over to the fence separating them from the media section to willingly chat with reporters.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 05, 2021, 07:23
Inspiration4 sent four people with minimal training to orbit and brought space tourism closer to reality
by Wendy Whitman Cobb Monday, October 4, 2021

The Crew Dragon spacecraft Resilience moments before splashing down in the Atlantic Ocean to complete the Inspiration4 mission. (credit: SpaceX)

Just after 8:00 pm EDT September 15, the latest batch of space tourists lifted off aboard a SpaceX rocket. Organized and funded by entrepreneur Jared Isaacman, the Inspiration4 mission touts itself as “the first all-civilian mission to orbit” and represents a new type of space tourism (see “An inspiration for private human spaceflight”, The Space Review, September 20, 2021).
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4256/1 20, 2021).
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 05, 2021, 07:24
Resilience and space situational awareness: an interview with NASA astronaut Mike Hopkins
by Jeff Foust Monday, October 4, 2021

Mike Hopkins signs his name next to the patch for the Crew-1 mission on the International Space Station in April, near the end of his six-month stay there. (credit: NASA)

When the Crew Dragon spacecraft was making its second trip to space last month on the Inspiration4 mission, the commander of the spacecraft’s first flight was in Hawaii, but not on a well-earned vacation.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 05, 2021, 07:24
Five big questions about the International Space Station becoming a movie set
by Alice Gorman Monday, October 4, 2021

Actress Yulia Peresild (left) and director Klim Shipenko (right) will spend nearly two weeks on the ISS this month to film a movie, launching with Roscosmos cosmonaut Anton Shkaplerov (center). (credit: Roscosmos)

On October 5, an unusual crew will fly to the International Space Station. Director Klim Shipenko and actor Yulia Peresild will spend a week and a half on the station shooting scenes for the Russian movie Challenge. Peresild plays a surgeon who must conduct a heart operation on a sick cosmonaut.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 12, 2021, 07:07
Review: Asteroids
by Thomas E. Simmons Monday, October 11, 2021


by Clifford J. Cunningham
Reaktion Books, 2021
hardcover, 190 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-78914-358-4

The strength of Asteroids lies in its historical studies. The primary thrust of the author’s previous scholarship has also been similarly situated. Thus, the personalities and quirks of 19th and 20th century astronomers take center stage.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 12, 2021, 07:07
The UK looks for its place in space
by Jeff Foust Monday, October 11, 2021

UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson at Spaceport Cornwall, the future UK base of Virgin Orbit, in June. Enabling British launch vehicles and spaceports is one element of a broader national space strategy unveiled last month. (credit: Virgin Orbit)

It was a line that launched a thousand jokes. When the British government released a national space strategy document September 27, it included a foreword from Prime Minister Boris Johnson, who decided to riff off the concept the government had been pushing of a “Global Britain” in the post-Brexit era.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 12, 2021, 07:07
Lollipops and ASATs
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, October 11, 2021

Discoverer 28, which carried a CORONA reconnaissance camera, also had two AFTRACK payloads located forward of the Agena upper stage engine. One was for detecting Soviet air defense radars. The other, known as STOPPER, was to detect if the satellite was being tracked in orbit. “Vulnerability payloads” like STOPPER were carried on many American reconnaissance satellites during the 1960s and into the 1970s. (credit: Peter Hunter Collection)

Although most of the secret satellites launched by the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) in the 1960s have now been declassified, there are very few photos of the completed spacecraft preparing for launch. Except for a few photos of early CORONA satellites being readied for launch at Vandenberg Air Force Base, there is almost nothing else, even though we would expect at least a few to have been released by now. The reason may be due to systems that the CIA and NRO added to the satellites to protect them from anti-satellite attack. The CIA was worried about possible attack on reconnaissance satellites from the beginning, and some information on early “vulnerability payloads” has been declassified, but there are also hints that as the Soviet ASAT threat grew, so did efforts to protect American reconnaissance satellites that would have been their obvious targets.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 12, 2021, 07:07
Aerostat: a Russian long-range anti-ballistic missile system with possible counterspace capabilities
by Bart Hendrickx Monday, October 11, 2021

The MIT Corporation is the manufacturer of the Aerostat missile. Composite image showing MIT’s headquarters in Moscow and one of its road-mobile ICBMs. (Source)

Russia has been working for several years on a long-range anti-ballistic missile system named Aerostat. The fact that it is being developed by the country’s sole manufacturer of solid-fuel intercontinental ballistic missiles suggests that it may very well have a range allowing it to double as a counterspace system. The oddly named ABM system (“aerostat” is a general term for unpowered balloons and airships) has never been mentioned in the Russian press or openly discussed by Russian military analysts, but its existence and basic design features can be determined through open-source intelligence.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 19, 2021, 10:01
Grimes and space communes
by Layla Martin Monday, October 18, 2021

When Grimes talkes about space communes, should we take her less serious than when Elon Musk talks about cities on Mars? (credit: Twitter @Grimezsz)

I kept a copy of the Communist Manifesto in the freezer when I lived in Los Feliz. It served as a reminder to slow down and consider the preferences of rational decision makers. Like agreeing to your third margarita in Bangkok, some ideas are good in theory but not in practice. Information asymmetry, and too much tequila, may both lead to epic failures.
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 19, 2021, 10:02
The Indian Space Association seeks to broaden commercial interests
by Ajey Lele Monday, October 18, 2021

At present, the Indian satellite industry is around 2% of the $360 billion global market. However, India wants to make it big. Can India do it? Does India having the technological base to make a difference? Or is India becoming overambitious and trying to punch above its own weight?
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 19, 2021, 10:02
Black ugliness and the covering of blue: William Shatner’s suborbital flight to “death”
by Deana L. Weibel Monday, October 18, 2021

A photo 53 years in the making. Left is a clip showing Captain Kirk (center) on the bridge of the U.S.S. Enterprise from the original Star Trek third season episode “Spock’s Brain” which first aired in 1968. To the right is William Shatner looking out at the Earth from space while onboard Blue Origin’s New Shepard spacecraft on October 13, 2021. Photos courtesy CBS and Blue Origin. Photomontage by Kipp Teague and Karl Tate.

Is outer space a horrifying place? It depends on whom you ask. As seen from Earth, clear nights with the Moon, Venus, and the Milky Way ablaze make space seem like a beautiful, unreachable dream. Horror movies, on the other hand, populate the celestial reaches with terrifying aliens that kill human beings or use us to nefarious ends. Most astronauts speak of the beauty of space, especially the gorgeous vision of Earth, whether seen from the Moon or from a much closer orbit. Few have spoken of space as “death,” the way William Shatner put it upon his return from his Blue Origin flight on October 13, 2021.

Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 19, 2021, 10:02
The normalization of space tourism
by Jeff Foust Monday, October 18, 2021

The New Shepard crew capsule descends under parachutes near the end of the NS-18 flight last week in West Texas. (credit: Blue Origin)

For a brief moment last Wednesday, there were two professional actors in space at the same time.

On the International Space Station, Russian actress Yulia Peresild was filming scenes for a Russian movie called Vyzov, or Challenge, where she plays a doctor sent to the station to perform surgery on a cosmonaut too ill to return to Earth. Klim Shipenko accompanied her to the station, with actual Roscosmos cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy reportedly playing the role of the ailing cosmonaut (see “Five big questions about the International Space Station becoming a movie set”, The Space Review, October 4, 2021).
Tytuł: Odp: The Space Review
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Październik 19, 2021, 10:02
The Artemis Accords after one year of international progress
by Paul Stimers and Audrey Jammes Monday, October 18, 2021

Peter Crabtree, head of the New Zealand Space Agency, and Charge d’Affaires Kevin Cover of the US Embassy in New Zealand pose following an Artemis Accords signing ceremony in May. New Zealand was 11th country to join the Accords. (credit: NASA)

NASA’s Artemis program, which will send the first woman and the first person of color to the Moon, is being closely watched by the rest of the world. The program’s success or failure will answer important questions with strategic implications for US leadership here on Earth: can the United States still achieve great things? Can it still lead by developing international consensus? Can it maintain a long-term effort despite political changes? Can it be a more compelling partner for space exploration than China?