Polskie Forum Astronautyczne

Człowiek i Astronautyka => Osobistości => Wątek zaczęty przez: Orionid w Styczeń 19, 2019, 15:54

Tytuł: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Styczeń 19, 2019, 15:54
Osobistości związane z kosmosem, którym poświęcone są posty w tym wątku:

Lista zmarłych uczestników lotów kosmicznych (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg136564#msg136564) (2)
Aktywni astronauci NASA wg grup (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg150032#msg150032) 2020

Pozostałe tematy:

At NASA's Day of Remembrance, 25 names are forever remembered at KSC (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg141026#msg141026) 2020
NASA, President Trump Reflect on Heroes Lost on NASA’s Day of Remembrance (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg141083#msg141083) 2020
«Мы помним вас, герои, поимённо» (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg141751#msg141751)
Smithsonian docu 'Black in Space' looks at race and the space race (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg141846#msg141846) 2020
How Christina Koch Could Become a Spaceflight Legend (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg142164#msg142164)
A quick look at the firsts and facts of birthdays in space (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg142226#msg142226)
Weterani kosmicznych lotów: warto wysyłać ludzi w kosmos (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg142385#msg142385) 2020
NASA Station Astronaut Record Holders (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg143418#msg143418) 2020

Osobistości:

Paweł Adamowicz (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg127680#msg127680) 1965-2019
Wiktor Błagow (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg130873#msg130873) (2) 1939-2019
Jerrie Cobb (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg131396#msg131396) (3) 1931-2019
Robert McCall (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg139511#msg139511) 1919-2010
Kosmiczne dziewczyny. Kobiety, bez których nie byłoby podróży w przestrzeń pozaziemską (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg141857#msg141857):
Mary Sherman Morgan 1921-2004
Margaret Hamilton 1936
Katherine Johnson 1918-2020
Peggy Whitson 1960
Charles Berry (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg142219#msg142219) 1923-2020
How to cope during social distancing with Thomas Pesquet (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg142605#msg142605) 1978
Reimar Lüst  (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg143223#msg143223) (4) 1923-2020
Kathy Sullivan pierwszą kobietą, która 6.6.2020 zanurzyła się batyskafem w Rowie Mariańskim (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg146900#msg146900) (17) 1951
Adam Strzałkowski (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg148289#msg148289) 1923-2020

Raymond Ronquillo Jr. (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg148879#msg148879) 1938-2020
Jakob van Zyl (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg149740#msg149740) (2) 1957-2020
Jürg Meister (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg149757#msg149757) 1939-2020
Robert Gilruth (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg150643#msg150643) 1913-2000
JOHN D. BARROW (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg151048#msg151048) (2) 1952 – 2020


Oleg Grigorjewicz Kononienko (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg150140#msg150140) 1938-1980
Rimantas Antanas Stankjawicius  (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg150177#msg150177) 1944-1990
Muhammed Ahmed Fares (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg150424#msg150424) 1951
Walentin Ignatjewicz Fiłatjew (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg150449#msg150449) 1930-1990


Space Station 20th: Hispanic Heritage Month (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg150452#msg150452) (9)
Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez
Ellen L. Ochoa
Michael E. “LA” Lopez-Alegria https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg150453#msg150453
Carlos I. Noriega https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg150454#msg150454
Franklin R. Chang-Díaz https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg150455#msg150455
John D. “Danny” Olivas https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg150456#msg150456
George D. Zamka https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg150457#msg150457
Joseph M. “Joe” Acaba https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg150458#msg150458
José M. Hernández https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg150459#msg150459
Serena M. Auñón-Chancellor https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg150460#msg150460
Rodolfo Neri Vela
Happy 90th Birthday to General Stafford (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3483.msg150518#msg150518) 1930
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Styczeń 19, 2019, 15:55
Astronauci, którym zostały poświęcone wątki cz1:

John Michael Lounge (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=538.msg14922#msg14922) 1946-2011
Story Musgrave (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=676.msg23006#msg23006) 19.08.1935
Walerij Iljicz Rożdiestwienskij (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=758.msg28307#msg28307)  1939-2011
Richard Garriott de Cayeux (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=762.msg28356#msg28356)  04.07.1961
Scott Kelly (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=784.msg30052#msg30052) 21.02.1964
Jerry Lynn Ross (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=884.msg34975#msg34975) 1948


==============
Ary Sternfeld (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=299.msg4365#msg4365) 1905-1980
Sean O’Keefe (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=257.msg3030#msg3030) 1956
Wojciech Rostafiński (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=363.msg6268#msg6268) 1921–2002
Andrzej Marks (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=376.msg6519#msg6519) 1932-2006
Leszek Szamocki (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=692.msg23655#msg23655)
Andrzej Woszczyk (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=714.msg25579#msg25579) 1935 - 2011
Albert Crews (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=767.msg28879#msg28879) 23.03.1929
Eugeniusz Lachocki (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=362.msg6257#msg6257) 1921-2010
Jurij Dmitrijewicz Siłajew (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=810.msg31488#msg31488) 1932-2017
Olgierd Wołczek (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=245.msg2741#msg2741) 1922-1982
Antonín Vítek (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=924.msg36544#msg36544) 1940-2012

============

Brian Todd O'Leary (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=736.msg26856#msg26856) 1940-2011
Iwan Iwanowicz Baczurin (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=815.msg31829#msg31829) 1942-2011
Boris Jewsiejewicz Czertok (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=847.msg33604#msg33604) 1912-2011
Władimir Kozłow (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=955.msg37498#msg37498) 1945-2012
Aleksandr Nikołajewicz Jabłoncew (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=981.msg38925#msg38925) 1955-2012 ====
============
Ciekawa fotografia astronautów Apollo (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=835.msg33334#msg33334)






Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Styczeń 19, 2019, 15:56
Astronauci, którym zostały poświęcone wątki cz2:
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Styczeń 19, 2019, 15:56
Astronauci -nieloci, którym zostały poświęcone wątki:
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Styczeń 19, 2019, 15:57
Paweł Adamowicz – wspomnienie
BY REDAKCJA ON 19 STYCZNIA 2019

(https://kosmonauta.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/0S6A1097a.jpg)
Paweł Adamowicz na otwarciu siedziby Polskiej Agencji Kosmicznej w Gdańsku / Credits - K. Mystkowski – KFP

Dziewiętnastego stycznia pożegnano Pawła Adamowicza – prezydenta miasta Gdańsk.

Prezydent Paweł Adamowicz aktywnie wspierał lokalne inicjatywy związane z branżą kosmiczną i edukacją. Ponad dekadę temu, w 2008 roku, po wielu latach planowania i prac rewitalizacyjnych na Górze Gradowej uruchomiono Centrum Hewelianum (obecnie – Hewelianum), będące ośrodkiem edukacyjnym mającym przybliżyć zwiedzającym historię miasta oraz nauki ścisłe. W tym miejscu szczególny nacisk postawiono na astronomię, jako, że Centrum odziedziczyło nazwę po wybitnym astronomie działającym w Gdańsk – Janie Heweliuszu.

Pod koniec 2011 roku dzięki Morskiemu Klubowi Łączności „Szkuner” SP2ZIE mieszczącego się w Akademii Morskiej oraz Muzeum Historycznego Miasta Gdańska (MHMG), przy wsparciu Prezydenta Pawła Adamowicza i Urzędu Miasta, możliwe było zorganizowanie sesji komunikacyjnej z astronautami na pokładzie Międzynarodowej Stacji Kosmicznej (https://kosmonauta.net/2012/01/2012-01-08-ariss-gdansk-2/). Ta sesja dzięki inicjatywie MHMG i poparciu ze strony władz Gdańska odbyła się w Dworze Artusa.

Kilka lat później, Paweł Adamowicz aktywnie wspierał również ulokowanie siedziby Polskiej Agencji Kosmicznej w Gdańsku (siedziba oficjalnie została otwarta w lipcu 2015 (https://kosmonauta.net/2015/07/oficjalne-otwarcie-polskiej-agencji-kosmicznej/)). Był to mocny sygnał, że branża kosmiczna rozwija się także poza Warszawą i lokalnie także może rozwijać się ta branża przemysłu.

W ciągu następnych lat Prezydent Gdańska patronował lub aktywnie wspierał inicjatywy związane z branżą kosmiczną. Wsparcie otrzymały m.in. pierwsze edycje akceleratora dla spółek technologicznych Space3ac oraz inicjatywa założenia w Gdańsku jednego z ośrodków inkubacji biznesu Europejskiej Agencji Kosmicznej.

Ostatni patronat honorowy od Prezydenta Miasta Gdańska otrzymaliśmy na początku stycznia. Nasz zespół nie zdążył jednak szerzej poinformować o nadchodzącej konferencji.

Gdańsk jest dziś jednym z głównych ośrodków powstającego polskiego sektora kosmicznego. Oprócz wielu firm w tej branży (rozumianej szeroko – zarówno elementy satelitów czy rakiet, jak i wykorzystanie danych satelitarnych), aktywne są także jednostki akademickie oraz instytuty badawczo-rozwojowe. Ledwie dekadę temu sytuacja była diametralnie inna. Stało się to także dzięki wsparciu i zainteresowaniu Pawła Adamowicza.

Zespół redakcyjny Kosmonauta.net, który wywodzi się z Trójmiasta, pragnie złożyć kondolencje rodzinie i bliskim Prezydenta, wyrażając również nadzieję, że Gdańsk będzie mógł w przyszłości liczyć na osobę równie oddaną swojemu miastu.

https://kosmonauta.net/2019/01/pawel-adamowicz-wspomnienie/#prettyPhoto
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Styczeń 19, 2019, 16:10
W 33. urodziny Pawła Adamowicza  Międzynarodowa Stacja Kosmiczna  została na stałe zamieszkana.
Dla Gdańska , dla Polski pozostanie postacią niezapomnianą i mam nadzieję , że Paweł Adamowicz zostanie  upamiętniony także  w wymiarze wybiegającym poza zasięg ziemskiej atmosfery.



Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: kanarkusmaximus w Styczeń 19, 2019, 17:44
Dzięki! Naprawdę dobry pomysł z tym zbiorczym wątkiem Orionidzie! :)
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Styczeń 19, 2019, 18:36
Zastanawiam się tylko , czy  lista ma być alfabetyczna  , czy chronologiczna.
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: kanarkusmaximus w Styczeń 19, 2019, 18:38
Zastanawiam się tylko , czy  lista ma być alfabetyczna  , czy chronologiczna.

Wydaje mi się, że chronologiczna. Najwyżej stworzymy później alfabetyczną. ;)
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: ekoplaneta w Styczeń 21, 2019, 09:12
Paweł Adamowicz – wspomnienie

Tak wczoraj Gdańszczanie pożegnali swojego prezydenta:

https://video.wp.pl/i,swiatelko-do-nieba-dla-pawla-adamowicza,mid,2031745,cid,4051,klip.html

 :'(

edit - przycięcie cytowanego tekstu
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 09, 2019, 21:47
Odszedł człowiek zasłużony dla radzieckiej kosmonautyki
9 kwietnia 2019

Zmarł Wiktor Błagow, konstruktor radzieckich załogowych statków kosmicznych Wostok, jeden z dowódców lotów radzieckiej stacji kosmicznej Salut i stacji orbitalnej Mir, aktywny uczestnik programów współpracy z USA w kosmosie prowadzonych z agencją NASA.

O śmierci Błagowa poinformowały w poniedziałek 8 kwietnia po południu zakłady Energija, w których Błagow pracował od 1959 roku. "Całe życie poświęcił kosmonautyce. Etapy jego życia to etapy rozwoju branży kosmicznej” – napisano we wspomnieniu na stronie internetowej koncernu.

Błagow urodził się 3 stycznia 1936 roku. Ukończył Moskiewski Instytut Lotniczy. Najpierw pracował w zakładach Energija jako inżynier. W kolejnych latach brał udział w projektowaniu statków Wostok, czyli serii pierwszych radzieckich jednoosobowych statków kosmicznych. Były one wynoszone na orbitę okołoziemską w latach 1961-63 za pomocą rakiety nośnej Wostok. W 1961 roku w Wostoku 1, jako pierwszy człowiek poleciał w przestrzeń kosmiczną Jurij Gagarin. Później m.in. w Wostoku 6 dokonała w 1963 roku lotu kosmicznego pierwsza kobieta w kosmosie – Walentina Tierieszkowa.

Błagow uczestniczył także w projektowaniu późniejszych statków Woschod, które – powstając jako modyfikacja Wostoków – były pierwszymi wieloosobowymi załogowymi statkami kosmicznymi. Dwa statki tej serii wykonały loty w kosmos w 1964 i 1965 roku. W 1975 roku Błagow uczestniczył w przeprowadzeniu pierwszego załogowego lotu kosmicznego realizowanego wspólnie przez ZSRR i USA, czyli w programie Sojuz-Apollo.

Później konstruktor brał udział w kolejnych wspólnych programach z NASA, takich jak Shuttle-Mir. W ramach tego programu kosmonauci z ZSRR latali na radziecką stację kosmiczną Mir amerykańskimi wahadłowcami, a Amerykanie udawali się tam na pokładzie rosyjskich pojazdów kosmicznych Sojuz.

Błagow był jednym z głównych specjalistów w zakresie planowania i kierowania lotami załogowymi i wychował kolejne pokolenia dowódców takich lotów, wykonywanych już na Międzynarodową Stację Kosmiczną (ISS) na pokładach współczesnych statków kosmicznych.

W ostatnich latach Błagow uczestniczył w pracach pomocniczych i koordynacji naukowej programów ISS.

W sylwetce Błagowa, którą znaleźć można na stronie internetowej amerykańskiej NASA, w rozdziale o programie Shuttle-Mir, amerykańska agencja cytuje jego słowa o tym, że ludzkość potrzebuje czegoś, co jednoczyłoby ludzi. "Ważne jest, byśmy robili coś, co przyniesie korzyść wszystkim, a nie walczyli przeciwko sobie w wojnach. Wojny są zbyt kosztowne i nie możemy już sobie na nie pozwolić. Znacznie mądrzej jest wydać pieniądze robiąc coś takiego, jak Międzynarodowa Stacja Kosmiczna. Politycy nie będą mieli okazji do podejmowania błędnych decyzji” – mówił Błagow.
https://www.space24.pl/odszedl-czlowiek-zasluzony-dla-radzieckiej-kosmonautyki

Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 09, 2019, 21:47
Ушел из жизни Виктор Дмитриевич Благов
08.04.2019 22:46

(https://www.roscosmos.ru/media/img/2019/news/20190408.energia.blagov.jpg)

Виктор Дмитриевич пришёл в РКК «Энергия» в 1959 году после окончания МАИ. Прошёл трудовой путь от инженера до заместителя руководителя отделения — начальника отдела. Он участвовал в проектировании транспортных пилотируемых космических кораблей «Восток», «Восход», в подготовке и проведении первого совместного международного полёта космических кораблей «Союз-19» и «Аполлон».

Виктор Дмитриевич Благов был одним из руководителей полетов орбитальных космических станций «Салют» и орбитального комплекса «Мир», принимал активное участие в совместных работах с американским космическим агентством NASA по программам «Мир—Шаттл» и «Мир—NASA».

Виктор Дмитриевич один из основателей научной школы «Планирование и оперативное управление пилотируемыми космическими полётами». Он воспитал несколько поколений высококлассных специалистов, обеспечивающих управление полётами уже современных космических кораблей и Международной космической станции.

В последние годы Виктор Дмитриевич Благов осуществлял научно-техническую координацию и сопровождение работ по программе Международной космической станции, готовил предложения по совершенствованию методов и технологий управления полётами изделий, разрабатываемых на предприятии.

За плодотворную трудовую деятельность и высокий профессионализм Виктор Дмитриевич Благов награждён орденом «Знак Почета», орденом Трудового Красного Знамени, удостоен Государственной премии и почётного звания «Заслуженный машиностроитель Российской Федерации», отмечен многочисленными наградами Роскосмоса и РКК «Энергия».

Генеральный директор Госкорпорации «Роскосмос» Дмитрий Рогозин и все сотрудники ракетно-космической отрасли выражают соболезнования родным, близким и коллегам Виктора Дмитриевича в связи с его кончиной.
https://www.roscosmos.ru/26263/
https://www.energia.ru/ru/news/news-2019/news_04-08.html
http://www.collectspace.com/ubb/Forum38/HTML/002230.html
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 22, 2019, 15:49
Jerrie Cobb, 'Mercury 13' pilot (1931-2019)

Geraldyn M. "Jerrie" Cobb, a record-setting aviator and a member of the so-called "Mercury 13" women astronaut test subjects, died on March 18, 2019.

In this 1963 interview, Cobb spoke about the need to send women to space.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DRUQOETsEk0
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DRUQOETsEk0

Her family issued the following statement:

When Geraldyn M. Cobb was born on March 5, 1931 in Norman, Oklahoma, no one would have imagined the heights to which she was destined to soar. She was one of the most accomplished and honored women in aviation history, a pioneer of and lifelong advocate for women pilots in the space program, and a passionate humanitarian to indigenous tribes in the Amazon Jungle.

The second of two daughters to Lt. Col. William "Harvey" Cobb & Helena Stone Cobb, she was raised in a happy home where faith and education were valued. It would serve her well. Known to all as "Jerrie," she was shy and humble, with her signature blonde ponytail and eyes as blue as the sky.

Jerrie first took the stick of her father's open cockpit Waco biplane at the age of 12, using a stack of pillows to see out and some blocks to reach the rudder pedals. It was love at first flight; the first step in a remarkable journey that would forge a place in history.

She was a natural. She passed her private pilot's test at age 16, earned her commercial pilot's license at age 18, and received her flight and ground instructor certificates one year later. Bitten by the aviation bug, Jerrie worked many jobs to earn money for flying lessons: odd jobs at airports, dropping circus leaflets from the air, crop dusting, waiting tables, and playing on a professional women's softball team, a job she would later revisit to save money to buy her first airplane.

While teaching flying in Oklahoma in 1952, Jerrie applied to a start-up commercial airline that was hiring DC-3 co-pilots who would be willing to fly for experience only. They agreed to interview her if she came to Miami at her own expense. Spending the last of her earnings she drove to non-stop to Miami, only to be rejected when they saw she was a woman. With no money to return home, she landed a clerical job at Miami International Airport. One day she overheard the owner of Fleetway International saying that he needed pilots to deliver surplus military planes to foreign governments around the world. It was a great opportunity for Jerrie to perfect her craft and gain experience in all kinds of aircraft. As she spoke up, he rebuffed her as a "girl wanna be pilot." Saying nothing, she handed him her log book with over 3,000 hours of flying time. The next day she ferried her first military plane to Peru, opening her heart to the people of the Amazon.

In 1959, while NASA was busy testing and selecting their all male astronaut corps, Jerrie was busy earning a world record for speed, having earned world records for altitude and distance in 1957. She would later earn a fourth world record, in 1960, for altitude.

Fast becoming a popular public figure, Jerrie's life as an aviation pioneer was well on it's way. Jerrie was the first woman to fly in the Paris Air Show, one of the first female aviation executives, and the fourth American awarded Gold Wings of the Federacion Aeronautique International. With over 7,000 hours of flying time and her rapidly growing list of accomplishments, the world took note of her remarkable career. Jerrie was honored with the Amelia Earhart Gold Medal of Achievement, the Amelia Earhart Memorial Award and Woman of the Year in Aviation. An award Jerrie was particularly honored by was Pilot of the Year, because it was given by both male and female pilots.

With NASA building the space program and the space race officially in full swing, everyone in America was dreaming about flying into space, and Jerrie was no exception. Dr. Randolph Lovelace was about to change history, and open the door of possibility for what he hoped would be the first female astronaut.

At age 28, Jerrie was chosen as the first woman to enter into astronaut testing in a privately funded and then secret program at the Lovelace Foundation in Albuquerque, run by Dr. Lovelace. This was same program in which NASA's first Astronauts – eventually known as the Mercury 7 - were tested and Astronaut John Glenn would later refer to as "...most trying."

But it was not a problem for Jerrie. She aced the tests; in the end, scoring in the top 2% of all who had been tested – including the women and NASA's new corps of male astronauts. As Jerrie completed the third and final phase of testing, 12 remaining women were about to enter that final phase. These female aviators, later dubbed "The Mercury 13," were fully expecting to find a place in line with the men for flights in space.

But it was not to be. The plug was pulled on the program two days before phase three testing was to begin at the US Naval School of Aviation, leaving Jerrie as the only woman to pass the astronaut testing. The women were given no information as to who cancelled the program or why.

Jerrie was undeterred in her quest for equal consideration of women pilots in the space program. NASA's requirements to become an astronaut, by default, excluded women. They required jet test pilot experience (only available in the military), impossible for women since women were not allowed as military pilots. In 1962, a Congressional Special Subcommittee Hearing on the Selection of Astronauts regarding the disqualification of women astronaut candidates was held.

At that time, Jerrie Cobb told lawmakers, "...we women pilots who want to be part of the research and participation in space exploration are not trying to join a battle of the sexes. As pilots, we fly and share mutual respect with male pilots in the primarily man's world of aviation. We very well know how to live together in our profession. We see, only, a place in our Nation's space future without discrimination. ... There are sound medical and scientific reasons for using women in space."

The opposing view was voiced by NASA astronaut John Glenn, basking in the afterglow of his heroic orbital space flight a few months prior. "I think this gets back to the way our social order is organized, really. It is just a fact. The men go off and fight the wars and design the airplanes and come back and help design and build and test them. The fact that women are not in this field is a matter of our social order. It may be undesirable."

After the hearings failed to change the policy to open the door for female pilots in the space program, Jerrie charted a new course. Keeping her faith in the forefront of her life, she decided to give herself to her fellow citizens of the world in one of the most remote parts of our globe, the Amazon Jungle. In what would perhaps become her greatest contribution to humanity, she flew dangerous humanitarian aid missions serving the indigenous people of the Amazon, discovering tribes of Indians never before known to man and helping them sustain life. Even in the Amazon she faced gender discrimination in trying to fly for humanitarian aid groups.

But this time she prevailed. The government of Ecuador honored her for her work in pioneering new air routes over the Andes Mountains and Amazon Jungle. She was honored by the governments of Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru for her humanitarian aid work. Jerrie received the Bishop Wright Air Industry Award for "Humanitarian Contributions to Modern Aviation." She was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1981.

In 1998, NASA decided to allow John Glenn, then 78, to fly a second spaceflight, ostensibly for medical research for the aging. News of his impending shuttle mission prompted Fresno State University professor Don Dorough to organize, and the National Organization for Women to support, a grass roots campaign to allow Jerrie to fly on a similar research mission.

The campaign took off with The Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation, The Ninety-Nines, scores of other organizations, and school children and teachers from across the country joining in. Many US Senators and Representatives gave their support.

On July 28 and 29, 1998 in Washington, DC, Jerrie met privately with the Associate Administrator for NASA, First Lady Hillary Clinton, and ten US Senators and Representatives to advocate for her spaceflight. She also secured a 15 minute meeting with John Glenn whom she had not seen since that fateful congressional hearing thirty-six years earlier.

The meeting was cordial and respectful but profoundly disappointing to Jerrie. Jerrie congratulated Senator Glenn on his shuttle mission. She asked Glenn if he would consider supporting her for a medical research mission for women. Senator Glenn stood up and wished her well in her endeavors, with no mention of his support. It was a cordial and respectful farewell on both parts. Jerrie commented afterward that she still "considers him a friend and wishes him well."

But there were many others in Jerrie's corner. Indeed, a full blown media and grass roots campaign continued for Jerrie with news stories spreading virtually all over the world.

On September 8, 1998, Jerrie met with then NASA Administrator Dan Goldin. He told her there were no plans to send up a second senior citizen for geriatric research. But two weeks later in a reversal of his position, he announced publicly that NASA would consider a second research mission – if all went well with the Glenn mission - admitting that there was no one more qualified and deserving than Jerrie.

And when John Glenn launched, Jerrie was there with a big smile to cheer him on - surrounded by reporters determined to help her cause. But NASA never called, and Jerrie returned to her missionary work in the Amazon.

Jerrie always remained a steadfast advocate for female aviators. When Eileen Collins sat on the launch pad as NASA's first female shuttle commander in July of 1999, thirty-seven years had passed since the congressional hearings failed to allow women pilots as astronauts. Jerrie along with other members of the Mercury 13, and several female aviation pioneers were there in the VIP seats, personally invited by Eileen Collins. It was a bittersweet milestone on the long road to equality for women in aviation. Collins believes it would not have happened without the skill, courage and tenacity of Jerrie and her generation of female aviators.

Jerrie continued her missionary work in the Amazon until recent years. Always humbled by her honors, Jerrie was enshrined in the National Aviation Hall of Fame and the recipient of The Harmon Trophy. She was a proud Oklahoman who cherished several recognitions by her home state. In 2007, Jerrie and the Mercury 13 were presented Honorary Degrees of Doctor of Science by The University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh.

Jerrie authored two books about her life: "Woman Into Space" (with Jane Rieker) and "Jerrie Cobb, Solo Pilot.""

After living sixty-six adventure filled years as a pilot and advocate for female pilots, and sharing over fifty years of her life with the indigenous Indian tribes of the Amazon, Jerrie's humble smile and sky-blue eyes live on in our hearts. It is fitting that Jerrie was born in, and would leave us in, Woman's History Month. Jerrie Cobb passed away peacefully on March 18, 2019 in Florida.

Whenever we look to the heavens, we will see those sky-blue eyes and be reminded of her humble smile, deep compassion and steely determination.

Via con Dios, Jerrie!

http://www.collectspace.com/ubb/Forum38/HTML/002232.html
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 22, 2019, 15:49
Jerrie Cobb dies at 88; denied a trip to space, she was first female astronaut candidate
By MARCIA DUNN APR 19, 2019 | 9:45 AM

(https://www.latimes.com/resizer/zPc5p1fjYHg3WzuK868M_xe_MtQ=/1200x0/www.trbimg.com/img-5cb9efcb/turbine/la-1555689418-zv2r2sjzff-snap-image)
Jerrie Cobb in 1961 with a display of rockets at a national space conference in Tulsa, Okla. (Associated Press)

America's first female astronaut candidate, pilot Jerrie Cobb, who pushed for equality in space but never reached its heights, has died at her home in Florida.

Cobb died March 18 following a brief illness, said Miles O'Brien, a family spokesman. She was 88.

In 1961, Cobb became the first woman to pass NASA’s astronaut screening process. Altogether, 13 women passed the arduous physical testing regimen and became known as the Mercury 13. But NASA already had its Mercury 7 astronauts, all jet test pilots and all military men, and none of the Mercury 13 ever reached space, which left Cobb bitter.

"We seek, only, a place in our nation's space future without discrimination," she later told a special House subcommittee on the selection of astronauts.

Instead of making her an astronaut, NASA tapped her as a consultant to promote the space program. But she was dismissed after commenting: "I'm the most unconsulted consultant in any government agency."

My country, my culture, was not ready to allow a woman to fly in space.

     JERRIE COBB

She wrote in her 1997 autobiography "Jerrie Cobb, Solo Pilot," that she was held back because she was a woman.

''My country, my culture, was not ready to allow a woman to fly in space," she wrote.

Cobb served for decades as a pilot delivering humanitarian aid in the Amazon jungle.

"She should have gone to space, but turned her life into one of service with grace," tweeted Ellen Stofan, director of the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum and a former NASA scientist.

The Soviet Union launched the first woman into space in 1963: Valentina Tereshkova. NASA didn't send a woman into orbit until 1983, when Sally Ride flew in the space shuttle.

Cobb and other surviving members of the Mercury 13 attended the 1995 shuttle launch of Eileen Collins, NASA's first female space pilot and later its first female space commander.

"Jerrie Cobb served as an inspiration to many of our members in her record breaking, her desire to go into space, and just to prove that women could do what men could do," said Laura Ohrenberg, of the Ninety-Nines Inc., an international organization of licensed women pilots.

Still hopeful, Cobb emerged in 1998 to make another pitch for space as NASA prepared to launch Mercury 7 astronaut John Glenn — the first American to orbit the Earth — on shuttle Discovery at the age of 77.

Cobb, who was then in her late 60s, maintained that the geriatric space study should also include an older woman.

"I would give my life to fly in space, I really would," Cobb said in 1998. "It's hard for me to talk about it, but I would. I would then, and I will now."

"It just didn't work out then, and I just hope and pray it will now," she added.

It didn't. NASA hasn’t flown another senior citizen in space, male or female, since.

Geraldyn Cobb was born on March 5, 1931, in Norman, Okla., the second daughter of a military pilot and his wife. She flew her father's open cockpit Waco biplane at age 12 and got her private pilot's license four years later.

The Mercury 13's story is told in a recent Netflix documentary and a play based on Cobb's life, "They Promised Her the Moon," is currently running at the Old Globe theater in San Diego.

In her autobiography, Cobb described how she danced on the wings of her plane in the Amazon moonlight, when learning via radio on July 20, 1969, that Apollo 11's Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin had landed on the moon.

"Yes, I wish I were on the moon with my fellow pilots, exploring another celestial body,” she wrote. “How I would love to see our beautiful blue planet Earth floating in the blackness of space. And see the stars and galaxies in their true brilliance, without the filter of our atmosphere. But I'm happy flying here in Amazonas, serving my brethren. 'Contenta, Senor, contenta.' (I am happy, Lord, happy.)"

Dunn writes for the Associated Press

https://www.latimes.com/local/obituaries/la-me-jerrie-cobb-female-astroanut-dead-20190419-story.html
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 22, 2019, 15:49
Jerrie Cobb, one of the most gifted female pilots in history, has died
ERIC BERGER - 4/18/2019, 3:53 PM

"We see, only, a place in our Nation’s space future without discrimination."

Geraldyn “Jerrie” M. Cobb, a noted aviation pioneer and fierce advocate for women flying into space, died March 18 at her home in Florida, her family has revealed. She was 88.

Cobb is perhaps most well-known for her participation in what became known as the "Mercury 13," a group of 13 women who passed preliminary screening processes in 1960 and 1961 to determine their suitability as astronauts under the guidance of Dr. Randolph Lovelace. Cobb scored in the top 2 percent of all who had taken the battery of tests for candidates previously, including both women and men.

However, the privately funded effort was not officially sanctioned by NASA. A Netflix documentary (https://arstechnica.com/science/2018/04/netflix-film-examines-why-nasa-shunned-women-astronauts-in-early-days/) about the experience, released in 2018, offered a clear verdict for why women were excluded from NASA in the space agency's early days—"good old-fashioned prejudice," as one of the participants said.

But Cobb's life was more than just this experience. Born on March 5, 1931 in Norman, Oklahoma, Cobb passed her private pilot’s test at age 16 and earned a commercial pilot’s license at age 18. As there were few opportunities for women pilots in the post-war era, she worked odd jobs that allowed her to keep up her flying habit, including dropping circus leaflets from the air, crop dusting, waiting tables, and playing on a professional women’s softball team.

In the 1950s, Cobb attempted to set several records for air speed, altitude, and distance; became the first woman to fly in the Paris Air Show; and was just the fourth American awarded Gold Wings of the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale.

After the Mercury 13 incident, Congress began investigating why NASA decided not to fly women who had similar qualifications to the men carrying out the Mercury flight program. Cobb was among those called to speak, giving compelling testimony in an attempt to open NASA's early spaceflight programs to women.

During a special subcommittee hearing in 1962, Cobb told lawmakers, “We women pilots who want to be part of the research and participation in space exploration are not trying to join a battle of the sexes. As pilots, we fly and share mutual respect with male pilots in the primarily man’s world of aviation. We very well know how to live together in our profession. We see, only, a place in our Nation’s space future without discrimination."

She maintained this belief throughout her life. When John Glenn flew into space in 1998 at the age of 78 and for the purposes of geriatric research, Cobb said NASA should send a second person into space for the same purpose—a woman, and why not her. But despite her meeting with Glenn and NASA Administrator Dan Goldin at the time, the agency never flew another such mission.

Eventually, women would break through at NASA with the advent of the space shuttle program. In 1983, Sally Ride became the first American woman to fly in space. And when Eileen Collins became NASA’s first female shuttle commander in July 1999, Cobb joined other members of the Mercury 13 at the launch, in VIP seats, at the invitation of Collins. The shuttle commander attributed her place, in part, to the advocacy of Cobb and others.

The space agency has gradually become more diverse and, most recently, of its last two astronaut classes (2013 and 2017), nine of the 20 astronaut candidates were women. And in 2017, Peggy Whitson (https://arstechnica.com/science/2017/09/americas-new-ironman-is-headed-home-from-space-its-peggy-whitson/), who has flown into space three times, broke the record for most time spent in space by a US astronaut, with a cumulative total of 665 days in orbit aboard the International Space Station. On Wednesday, NASA announced (https://arstechnica.com/science/2019/04/nasa-says-christina-koch-will-spend-328-days-in-space/) that another woman, Christina Koch, would spend nearly a year in space. Cobb may have passed away, but her legacy lives on in orbit today.

Update: This story was changed to reflect the actual date of Cobb passed away, March 18.

https://arstechnica.com/science/2019/04/jerrie-cobb-an-aviation-pioneer-and-advocate-for-women-in-space-has-died/
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 27, 2019, 03:09
Lista zmarłych uczestników lotów kosmicznych część 1

001  27.01.1967 (1926)  Virgil Ivan 'Gus' Grissom (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/3.htm) (40) (1+1) 000:04:52:31 (000:05:08:08). W wyniku pożaru na wyrzutni Apollo 1
002  27.01.1967 (1930)  Edward Higgins White II (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/20.htm) (36) (1) 004:01:56:12. W wyniku pożaru na wyrzutni Apollo 1
003  24.04.1967 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=1763.msg64316#msg64316) (1927)  Władimir Michajłowicz Komarow  (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/13.htm) (40) (2) (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=581.msg18218#msg18218) 002:03:04:55. Przy lądowaniu Sojuza 1

004  27.03.1968 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=365.msg6313#msg6313) (1934)  Jurij Aleksiejewicz Gagarin (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/1.htm) (34) (1) 000:01:46:00. W czasie treningowego lotu samolotem MiG-15UTI

005  10.01.1970 (1925)  Pawieł Iwanowicz Bielajew (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/16.htm) (44) (1) 001:02:02:17. Po krwotoku żołądka

006  29.06.1971 (1935)  Władisław Nikołajewicz 'Wadim' Wołkow (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/43.htm) (35) (2) 028:17:02:06. Po rozhermetyzowaniu lądownika  Sojuza 11
007  29.06.1971 (1928)  Gieorgij Timofiejewicz Dobrowolskij (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/52.htm) (43) (1) 023:18:21:43. Po rozhermetyzowaniu lądownika  Sojuza 11
008  29.06.1971 (1933)  Wiktor Iwanowicz Pacajew (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/53.htm) (38) (1) 023:18:21:43. Po rozhermetyzowaniu lądownika  Sojuza 11

009  27.12.1982 (1931)  John Leonard 'Jack' Swigert, Jr. (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/46.htm) (51) (1) 005:22:54:40  Apollo 13. Białaczka

010  28.01.1986 (1950)  Ronald Erwin McNair (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/134.htm) (35) (1+1 start) 007:23:15:55 (007:23:17:08). W czasie startu misji STS-51L Challenger
011  28.01.1986 (1939)  Richard Francis 'Dick' Scobee (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/139.htm) (46) (1+1 start) 006:23:40:06 (006:23:41:19). W czasie startu misji STS-51L Challenger
012  28.01.1986 (1949)  Judith Arlene Resnik (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/146.htm) (36) (1+1 start) 006:00:56:04 (006:00:57:17). W czasie startu misji STS-51L Challenger
013  28.01.1986 (1946)  Ellison Shoji Onizuka (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/157.htm) (39) (1+1 start) 003:01:33:23 (003:01:34:36). W czasie startu misji STS-51L Challenger
-      28.01.1986 (1945)  Michael John Smith (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/smithmj.htm) (40) (1 start) 000:00:01:13. W czasie startu misji STS-51L Challenger
-      28.01.1986 (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=2551.msg96157#msg96157) (1948)  Sharon Christa McAuliffe (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/mcauliffe.htm) (37)  (1 start) 000:00:01:13. W czasie startu misji STS-51L Challenger
-      28.01.1986 (1944)  Gregory Bruce Jarvis (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/jarvis.htm) (41) (1 start) 000:00:01:13. W czasie startu misji STS-51L Challenger

014  02.12.1987 (1930)  Donn Fulton Eisele (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/31.htm) (57) (1) 010:20:09:03. Zawał serca

015  06.08.1988 (1941)  Anatolij Siemionowicz Lewczenko (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/204.htm) (47) (1) 007:21:57:33. Krwawienie do mózgu wskutek lądowania spadochronowego

016  17.06.1989 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3689.msg133302#msg133302) (1939)  Stanley David Griggs (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/163.htm) (49) (1) 006:23:55:23. W katastrofie samolotu treningowego  z czasów II wojny światowej

017  06.04.1990 (1933)  Ronald Ellwin Evans, Jr. (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/58.htm) (56) (1) 012:13:51:58 Apollo 17. Zawał serca
018  31.12.1990 (1928)  Wasilij Grigorjewicz Łazariew  (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/64.htm) (61) (1+1 start) 001:23:15:32 (001:23:36:59). Po zatruciu alkoholowym

019  05.04.1991 (1947)  Manley Lanier 'Sonny' Carter, Jr. (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/221.htm) (43) (1) 005:00:06:46. Katastrofa samolotu Embraer 120RT z 23 osobami
020  08.08.1991 (1930)  James Benson Irwin (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/55.htm) (61) (1) 012:07:11:52  Apollo 15  8. człowiek na Księżycu. Zawał serca

021  13.06.1993 (1924)  Donald Kent 'Deke' Slayton (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/77.htm) (69) (1) 009:01:28:23. Od komplikacji z rakiem mózgu
022  05.10.1993 (1926)  Karl Gordon Henize (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/175.htm) (66) (1) 007:22:45:26. Podczas wspinaczki na Mount Everest na obrzęk płuc

023  12.09.1994 (1937)  Boris Borisowicz Jegorow (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/15.htm) (56) (1) 001:00:17:03. Zawał serca
024  12.12.1994 (1933)  Stuart Allen Roosa (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/49.htm) (61) (1) 009:00:01:57 Apollo 14. Wirusowe zapalenie płuc po komplikacjach zapalenia trzustki.

025  30.06.1995 (1921)  Gieorgij Timofiejewicz Bieriegowoj (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/33.htm) (74) (1) 003:22:50:45 Zawał serca
026  09.09.1995 (1940)  Reinhard Alfred Furrer (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/188.htm) (54) (1) 007:00:44:51. Katastrofa samolotu podczas akrobacji  "krzywa śmierci"
027  03.10.1995 (1944)  Charles Lacy Veach (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/246.htm) (51) (2) 018:04:18:34. Oficjalnie po długiej chorobie - (komplikacje z powodu raka skóry)

028  22.03.1996 (1936)  Robert Franklyn Overmyer (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/112.htm) (59) (2) 012:02:23:11. W katastrofie samolotu Cirrus VK-30

029  07.04.1997 (1935)  Gieorgij Stiepanowicz Szonin (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/40.htm) (61) (1) 004:22:42:47 Zawał serca

030  22.07.1998 (1923)  Alan Bartlett Shepard, Jr. (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/2.htm) (74) (1+1) 009:00:01:57 (009:00:17:19) Apollo 14 5. człowiek na Księżycu. Białaczka
031  04.08.1998 (1930)  Jurij Pietrowicz Artiuchin (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/71.htm) (67) (1) 015:17:30:28. Oficjalnie po długiej chorobie (rak)
032  18.12.1998 (1926)  Lew Stiepanowicz Diomin (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/73.htm) (72) (1) 002:00:12:11  Po długotrwałej chorobie (rak)

033  09.07.1999 (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3717.msg133955#msg133955) (1930)  Charles 'Pete' Conrad, Jr. (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/21.htm) (69) (4) 049:03:38:34 Apollo 12 3. człowiek na Księżycu. Wpadek motocyklowy
034  08.11.1999 (1941)  Jurij Wasiljewicz Małyszew (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/95.htm) (58) (2) 011:19:59:36. Zawał serca

035  19.05.2000 (1933)  Jewgienij Wasiljewicz Chrunow (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/38.htm) (66) (1) 001:23:45:50. Zawał serca
036  20.09.2000 (1935)  Gierman Stiepanowicz Titow (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/4.htm) (65) (1) 001:01:18:00. Zawał serca

037  23.04.2001 (1944)  David Mathieson Walker (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/154.htm) (56) (4) 030:04:30:05 Rak

038  19.07.2002 (1952)  Władimir Władimirowicz Wasjutin (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/182.htm) (50) (1) 064:21:52:08. Rak
039  19.10.2002 (1932)  Nikołaj Nikołajewicz Rukawisznikow (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/51.htm) (70) (3) 009:21:10:35. Zawał i porażenie mózgowe

040  01.02.2003 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=2917.msg106431#msg106431) (1962)  Kalpana Chawla (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/366.htm) (41) (2) 031:14:55:27. Katastrofa STS-107 Columbia  w czasie powrotu na Ziemię
041  01.02.2003 (1959)  Michael Philip Anderson (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/371.htm) (43) (2) 024:18:08:17. Katastrofa STS-107 Columbia  w czasie powrotu na Ziemię
042  01.02.2003 (1957)  Rick Douglas Husband (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/386.htm)  (45) (2) 025:17:34:23. Katastrofa STS-107 Columbia  w czasie powrotu na Ziemię
043  01.02.2003 (1961)  William Cameron 'Willie' McCool (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/427.htm) (41) (1) 015:22:21:23. Katastrofa STS-107 Columbia  w czasie powrotu na Ziemię
044  01.02.2003 (1956)  David McDowell Brown (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/428.htm) (46) (1) 015:22:21:23. Katastrofa STS-107 Columbia  w czasie powrotu na Ziemię
045  01.02.2003 (1961)  Laurel Blair Clark (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/429.htm) (41) (1) 015:22:21:23. Katastrofa STS-107 Columbia  w czasie powrotu na Ziemię
046  01.02.2003 (1954)  Ilan Ramon (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/430.htm) (48) (1) 015:22:21:23. Katastrofa STS-107 Columbia  w czasie powrotu na Ziemię
047  28.05.2003 (1933)  Oleg Grigorjewicz Makarow (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/65.htm) (70) (3+1 start) 020:17:22:12 (020:17:43:39). Zawał serca

048  03.07.2004 (1929)  Andrijan Grigorjewicz Nikołajew (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/7.htm) (74) (2) 021:15:20:55. Zawał serca
049  04.10.2004 (1927)  Leroy Gordon Cooper, Jr. (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/10.htm) (77) (2) 009:09:15:03 Zatrzymanie pracy serca
050  25.12.2004 (1940)  Giennadij Michajłowicz Striekałow  (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/99.htm) (64) (5+ 1 start) 268:22:24:27 (268:22:29:40). Rak żołądka
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 27, 2019, 03:09
Lista zmarłych uczestników lotów kosmicznych część 2

051  29.09.2005 (1942)  Giennadij Wasiljewicz Sarafanow (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/72.htm) (63) (1) 002:00:12:11. Po operacji raka prostaty

052  23.07.2006 (1951)  Charles Eldon 'Chuck' Brady, Jr. (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/348.htm) (54) (1) 016:21:47:34. Po długotrwałej chorobie (samobójstwo)

053  03.05.2007 (1923)  Walter Marty Schirra, Jr. (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/9.htm) (84) (3) 012:07:13:38. Zawał serca w Scripps Green Hospital.

054  15.03.2008 (1956)  George David Low (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/225.htm) (52) (3) 029:18:06:56. Rak okrężnicy
055  09.05.2008 (1951)  Ronald Anthony Parise (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/237.htm) (56) (2) 025:14:13:54. Rak mózgu
056  09.12.2008 (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3795.msg136903#msg136903) (1939)  Jurij Nikołajewicz Głazkow (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/82.htm) (69) (1) 017:17:25:58

057  29.09.2009 (1930)  Pawieł Romanowicz Popowicz (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/8.htm) (78) (2) 018:16:27:11. Udar mózgu
058  21.11.2009 (1926)  Konstantin Pietrowicz Fieoktistow (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/14.htm) (83) (1) 001:00:17:03

059  05.04.2010 (1935)  Witalij Iwanowicz Siewastjanow (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/48.htm) (74) (2) 080:16:19:03. Białaczka
060  14.06.2010 (1941)  Leonid Dienisowicz Kizim (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/98.htm) (68) (3) 374:17:57:42
061  26.08.2010 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=289.msg4012#msg4012) (1939)  William Benjamin Lenoir (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/114.htm) (71) (1) 005:02:14:25. Z powodu obrażeń głowy po wypadku rowerowym

062  01.03.2011 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=538.msg14922#msg14922) (1946)  John Michael Lounge (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/180.htm) (64) (3) 020:02:22:57. Komplikacje od raka wątroby
063  31.08.2011 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=758.msg28307#msg28307) (1939)  Walerij Iljicz Rożdiestwienskij (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/81.htm) (72) (1) 002:00:06:35. Po ciężkiej i długotrwałej chorobie

064  07.02.2012 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=906.msg35732#msg35732) (1956)  Janice Elaine Voss (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/295.htm) (55) (5) 049:03:49:03. Rak piersi
065  01.07.2012 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=1025.msg41789#msg41789) (1961)  Alan Goodwin Poindexter (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/465.htm) (50) (2) 027:21:08:47. W wyniku wypadku skutera wodnego
066  23.07.2012 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=1036.msg42613#msg42613) (1951)  Sally Kristen Ride (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/121.htm) (61) (2) 014:07:47:40. Rak trzustki
067  25.08.2012 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=234.msg2562#msg2562) (1930)  Neil Alden Armstrong (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/25.htm) (82) (2) 008:14:00:00 Apollo 11 1. człowiek  na Księżycu. Komplikacje po operacji serca

068  21.08.2013 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=1478.msg56686#msg56686) (1936)  Charles Gordon Fullerton (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/106.htm) (76) (2) 015:22:50:11. Po udarze z 31.12.2009
069  10.10.2013 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=1572.msg58582#msg58582) (1925)  Malcolm Scott Carpenter (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/6.htm) (88) (1) 000:04:55:56. Komplikacje po niedawnym udarze
070  12.11.2013 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=1623.msg59805#msg59805) (1944)  Aleksandr Aleksandrowicz Sieriebrow (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/110.htm) (69) (4) 372:22:53:50. Zmarł nagle w domu

071  19.02.2014 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=1693.msg62029#msg62029) (1935)  Walerij Nikołajewicz Kubasow (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/41.htm) (79) (3) 018:17:59:22. Zmarł nagle po krótkiej chorobie
072  19.02.2014 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3551.msg129497#msg129497) (1948)  Dale Allan Gardner (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/125.htm) (65) (2) 014:00:53:38. W domu w wyniku pęknięcia tętniaka mózgu
073  03.03.2014 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=1751.msg64082#msg64082) (1930)  William Reid Pogue (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/68.htm) (84) (1) 084:01:15:32. Z przyczyn naturalnych
074  18.05.2014 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=1396.msg54006#msg54006) (1946)  Wubbo Johannes Ockels (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/190.htm) (68) (1) 007:00:44:51. W wyniku komplikacji po raku nerek
075  17.07.2014 (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3714.msg133812#msg133812) (1933)  Henry Warren Hartsfield (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/109.htm) (80) (3) 020:02:50:36. Komplikacje po ciężkiej chorobie i operacji kręgosłupa
076  21.08.2014 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=1897.msg69506#msg69506) (1946)  Steven Ray Nagel (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/170.htm) (67) (4) 030:01:36:26. Rak
077  20.09.2014 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=1921.msg70340#msg70340) (1942)  Anatolij Nikołajewicz Bieriezowoj (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/107.htm) (72) (1) 211:09:04:33. Zmarł wskutek niewydolności serca

078  01.01.2015 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=1556.msg58283#msg58283) (1950)  Boris Władimirowicz Morukow (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/396.htm) (64) (1) 011:19:10:57. Zmarł nagle
079  21.02.2015 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=1015.msg41546#msg41546) (1931)  Aleksiej Aleksandrowicz Gubariew (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/74.htm) (83) (2) 037:11:36:15

080  04.02.2016 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=2360.msg89112#msg89112) (1930)  Edgar Dean Mitchell (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/50.htm) (85) (1) 009:00:01:57 Apollo 14 6. człowiek na Księżycu. We śnie po krótkiej chorobie,
081  23.02.2016 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=2385.msg89996#msg89996) (1942)  Donald Edward Williams (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/160.htm) (74) (2) 011:23:34:43
082  08.12.2016 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=494.msg11708#msg11708) (1921)  John Herschel Glenn (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/5.htm) (95) (2) 009:02:39:19
083  23.12.2016 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=2734.msg100197#msg100197) (1955)  Piers John Sellers (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/422.htm) (61) (3) 035:09:02:35. Rak trzustki

084  03.01.2017 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=2750.msg100578#msg100578) (1937)  Igor Pietrowicz Wołk (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/143.htm) (79) (1) 011:19:14:36. Zmarł w sanatorium "Kamczija" w Bułgarii
085  16.01.2017 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=2770.msg101117#msg101117) (1934)  Eugene Andrew Cernan (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/27.htm) (82) (3) 023:14:16:10 Apollo 10, Apollo 17 11. człowiek na Księżycu. Zmarł w szpitalu w Houston
086  08.04.2017 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=2854.msg103803#msg103803) (1931)  Gieorgij Michajłowicz Grieczko (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/75.htm) (85) (3) 134:20:32:59. Zawał serca
087  17.05.2017 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=2883.msg105097#msg105097) (1934)  Wiktor Wasiljewicz Gorbatko (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/44.htm) (82) 007:20:42:00. Zmarł w szpitalu im. Mandryka w Moskwie
088  22.10.2017 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3026.msg110863#msg110863) (1932)  Paul Joseph Weitz (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/61.htm) (85) (2) 033:01:13:30. Rak
089  06.11.2017 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3041.msg111341#msg111341) (1929)  Richard Francis Gordon (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/29.htm) (88) (2) 013:03:53:32 Apollo 12
090  21.12.2017 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3094.msg112962#msg112962) (1937)  Bruce McCandless II (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/133.htm) (80) (2) 013:00:32:00

091  05.01.2018 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=783.msg30004#msg30004) (1930)  John Watts Young (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/18.htm) (87) (6) 034:19:41:52 Apollo 10, Apollo 16 9. człowiek na Księżycu. Komplikacje po zapaleniu płuc
092  31.01.2018 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3140.msg114739#msg114739) (1951)  Leonid Konstantinowicz Kadieniuk (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/368.htm) (67) (1) 015:16:34:04. Zawał serca
093  19.04.2018 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3201.msg117582#msg117582) (1941)  Władimir Afanasjewicz Lachow (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/91.htm) (76) (3) 333:07:48:06. Zmarł nagle
094  26.05.2018 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3225.msg118769#msg118769) (1932)  Alan LaVern Bean (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/45.htm) (86) (2) 069:15:45:28 Apollo 12 4. człowiek na Księżycu. Po udarze doznanym 16 dni wcześniej,
095  27.05.2018 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3228.msg118845#msg118845) (1933)  Donald Herod Peterson (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/116.htm) (84) (1) 005:00:23:42. Choroba Alzheimera i rak kości
096  29.09.2018 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3336.msg123214#msg123214) (1956)  Richard Alan Searfoss (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/301.htm) (62) (3) 039:03:18:22. Zmarł w domu w Bear Valley Springs (stan Kalifornia)

097  27.03.2019 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=1461.msg56031#msg56031) (1934)  Walerij Fiodorowicz Bykowskij (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/11.htm) (84) (3) 020:17:48:22
098  15.04.2019 (http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3601.msg131160#msg131160) (1930)  Owen Kay Garriott (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/62.htm) (88) (2) 069:18:56:28. Zmarł w swoim domu w Huntsville w  stanie Alabama
099  21.09.2019 (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3787.msg136387#msg136387) (1937)  Sigmund Werner Paul Jähn (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/90.htm) (82) (1) 007:20:49:04. Zmarł w swoim domu w Strausbergu w Brandenburgii
100  26.09.2019 (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3792.msg136555#msg136555) (1950)  Giennadij Michajłowicz Manakow (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/229.htm) (69) (2) 309:21:19:37. Zmarł z powodu niewydolności serca
101  11.10.2019 (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3665.msg132680#msg132680) (1934)  Aleksiej Archipowicz Leonow (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/17.htm) (85) (2) 007:00:33:08. Zmarł w szpitalu po chorobie nerek

102  18.03.2020 (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3768.msg142637#msg142637) (1932) Alfred Merrill Worden (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/54.htm) (88) (1) 012:07:11:52 Apollo 15. Zmarł we śnie
103  26.08.2020 (https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=4209.msg149539#msg149539) (1932) Gerald Paul Carr (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/66.htm) (88) (1) 084:01:15:32
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Grudzień 23, 2019, 20:56
Robert McCall 1919-2010

100 Years Ago: Birth of Space Artist Robert McCall
Dec. 20, 2019

(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/mccall_with_bean_painting_astronaut_pin_on_jsc_mural_1979.jpg?itok=57XSZh3H)
McCall getting help from astronaut and fellow space artist Bean.

(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/mccall_and_resnik_at_mural_dedication_jun_19_1979_s79-33362.jpg?itok=0p12jv48)
McCall with astronaut Resnick at the dedication of his mural at JSC.

Dec. 23, 2019, marks the 100th anniversary of the birth of space artist Robert T. “Bob” McCall. Born in Columbus, Ohio, McCall combined his early interest in astronomy and aviation with an innate artistic talent that he nurtured with a scholarship to the Columbus Fine Art School. Working in a sign shop to earn extra money, McCall read science fiction magazines and journals about science and technology in his spare time. With the outbreak of World War II, McCall joined the Army Air Corps, stationed at Kirtland Field, now Kirtland Air Force Base, outside of Albuquerque, New Mexico. There he met and married his wife Louise and they soon had two daughters, Linda and Catherine. After the war, the McCalls moved to Chicago and Bob took a job as an advertising artist, and three years later they moved to New York so he could paint illustrations for magazines such as Life, The Saturday Evening Post, and Popular Science. The advent of the space program provided a natural next step in his career and in 1963 NASA selected McCall as one of the first artists in its new Art Program with other famous artists like Jamie Wyeth and Norman Rockwell.

As much as McCall loved painting technically accurate images of the evolving space program, he also relished letting his imagination wander into futuristic space scenes. In 1967, this caught the attention of director Stanley Kubrick, then working with noted science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke on a film eventually titled  2001: A Space Odyssey. The film’s studio, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Inc., asked McCall to produce promotional art for 2001 – his paintings of the pinwheel space station and the lunar base graced movie posters to advertise the release of the ground-breaking science fiction film in 1968. (...)

(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/astp_art_by_mccall_s74-29150.jpg?itok=X5KX66l2)(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/astp_crews_in_front_of_mccall_art_ksc_feb_1975_s75-24030.jpg?itok=oHp464Lo)
Left: Apollo-Soyuz Linkup.
Right: The five ASTP crewmembers stand in front of Apollo-Soyuz Linkup at Kennedy Space Center.


(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/sts_1_patch_s79-30685.jpg?itok=4tw5CSDl)(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/sts_133_patch_sts133-s-001.jpg?itok=jhieLLcz)
Selection of mission patches that McCall designed. Left: STS-1, the first flight of the Space Shuttle;
Right: STS-133, based on McCall sketches.


(...)
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/100-years-ago-birth-of-space-artist-robert-mccall
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: mss w Grudzień 26, 2019, 20:09
Lista zmarłych uczestników lotów kosmicznych część 1
-      28.01.1986 (1948)  Gregory Bruce Jarvis (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/jarvis.htm) (41) (1 start) 000:00:01:13. W czasie startu misji STS-51L Challenger

-      28.01.1986 (1944)
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: mss w Styczeń 30, 2020, 23:29
(https://pbs.twimg.com/card_img/1223003760676483074/dJMLAKLS?format=jpg&name=600x314)

At NASA's Day of Remembrance, 25 names are forever remembered at KSC


Emre Kelly Florida Today
Published 4:57 PM EST Jan 30, 2020


The first month of the year has historically seen an unfortunate intersection of space-related tragedies.

An on-the-pad capsule fire killed three Apollo 1 astronauts on Jan. 27, 1967; a catastrophic failure during liftoff killed all seven space shuttle Challenger astronauts on Jan. 28, 1986; and a re-entry gone wrong on Feb. 1, 2003 claimed seven more shuttle lives, this time Columbia.

At NASA centers across the nation, late January is a time of mourning – and its annual Day of Remembrance.

"We pause to keep their memory alive and recall the hard lessons of the past as we prepare for the future," Kennedy Space Center Associate Director Kelvin Manning said Thursday at the Visitor Complex's Space Mirror Memorial. "We understand space is an unforgiving environment that doesn't tolerate human error, but we still don't accept the loss as a natural part of this business."

The Space Mirror Memorial is hard to miss: resembling launch pad hardware, 90 black granite tiles rise 42 feet as a monument to more than two dozens astronauts. At night, their illuminated names are a reminder of why NASA hosts the event across the country.

About 150 gathered early Thursday for the event, placing flowers in the memorial's fence after a brief ceremony and minute of silence. Ilan Ramon, who perished in the 2003 Columbia disaster, was also represented by dozens of students visiting from Israel.

"We launch rockets out here all the time," Manning said. "But when we put people on a rocket, it really turns the gain up. It's critical that we get everything right."

While important every year, the Day of Remembrance took on the added topic of Commercial Crew, which is NASA's program to send astronauts to the International Space Station after the end of the shuttle program in 2011. If all proceeds as planned, astronauts could again launch from U.S. soil sometime this year on either a SpaceX Crew Dragon or Boeing Starliner capsule.

"We're really excited about the next year as we continue to work towards humans launches again from Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station," Air Force Brig. Gen. Douglas Schiess told FLORIDA TODAY. "But today, we pause to remember those who went before us and those who paid the ultimate price in this exploration."


All names on the Space Mirror Memorial:


źródło: https://eu.floridatoday.com/story/tech/science/space/2020/01/30/nasas-day-remembrance-25-names-forever-remembered-ksc/2854292001/

Day of Remembrance
The Changing of the Guard at the Tomb of the Unknowns is seen prior to the laying of a wreath as part of NASA’s Day of Remembrance, Thursday, Jan. 30, 2020, at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Va. The wreaths were laid in memory of those men and women who lost their lives in the quest for space exploration.


fotoreportaż: https://www.flickr.com/photos/nasahqphoto/albums/72157712905575836

Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Luty 01, 2020, 22:24
NASA, President Trump Reflect on Heroes Lost on NASA’s Day of Remembrance
By Space Coast Daily  //  January 30, 2020

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7X1qZmmP2mw
https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=114&v=7X1qZmmP2mw&feature=emb_title

https://spacecoastdaily.com/2020/01/nasa-president-trump-reflect-on-heroes-lost-on-nasas-day-of-remembrance/
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Luty 22, 2020, 07:21
O wojennych dziejach pierwszych radzieckich kosmonautów i ludzi związanych z radziecką kosmonautyką.

«Мы помним вас, герои, поимённо»
21 февраля 2020

Президент РФ Владимир Путин подписал указ о проведении в 2020 году Года памяти и славы в ознаменование 75-летия Победы в Великой Отечественной войне. В преддверии Дня защитника Отечества мы решили начать цикл публикаций о работниках ЦПК и их родных, которые приближали великий день 9 мая 1945 года. И сегодня мы вспомним тех, кто не только сделал важные шаги в освоении космического пространства, но и подарил нам мирное небо над головой.

(http://www.gctc.ru/media/images/news/2019/gagarin_forma.jpg)(http://www.gctc.ru/media/images/news/2019/dobrovol.skii.g.jpg)

Будущий первый космонавт планеты Юрий Гагарин (http://www.gctc.ru/main.php?id=1050) 1 сентября 1941 года только пошёл в школу. А уже 12 октября его родную деревню Клушино заняли немцы. Почти полтора года деревня была оккупирована фашистскими войсками. Маленький Юра навсегда запомнил, что такое война. И, совершив свой героический полёт, Юрий Алексеевич написал призыв для всего человечества: «Облетев Землю в корабле-спутнике, я увидел, как прекрасна наша планета. Люди, будем хранить и приумножать эту красоту, а не разрушать её!»

Начало Великой Отечественной войны Георгий Добровольский (http://www.gctc.ru/main.php?id=1057) встретил 13-летним мальчишкой. Он рыл окопы, гасил «зажигалки», помогал защищать родной город. Когда осенью 1941 года Одесса пала, решил бороться с оккупантами в рядах партизан. Раздобыл пистолет, но воспользоваться им не успел. Во время облавы был схвачен, избит и за ношение оружия брошен в тюрьму. Румынский военно-полевой суд приговорил его к 25 годам каторжных работ. 19 марта 1944 года, незадолго до освобождения Одессы, по подложным документам, изготовленным подпольщиками, юному партизану удалось бежать.

В последствии Георгий Тимофеевич стал командиром космического корабля (КК) «Союз-11» и первой в мире орбитальной станции «Салют». Экипаж, в состав которого также вошли В.Н. Волков и В.И. Пацаев, выполнил большой комплекс исследований на станции, но погиб при возвращении на Землю из-за разгерметизации спускаемого аппарата. Георгий Добровольский и его товарищи по экипажу были посмертно награждены медалью «Золотая Звезда» Героя Советского Союза.


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Владимир Комаров (http://www.gctc.ru/main.php?id=1060) в 1943 году окончил семилетку и поступил в 1-ю Московскую спецшколу ВВС, стремясь попасть на фронт. Пока учился, участвовал в разборе завалов и чистил улицы от щебёнки, переносил голод, как и все москвичи. Спецшколу Володя окончил в июле 1945 года, когда война уже закончилась, но всё равно решил связать свою судьбу с небом, а затем и с космосом.

Космонавт №7 Советского Союза выполнил два полёта. 12-13 октября 1964 года он был командиром первого в мире многоместного космического корабля «Восход», а 23-24 апреля 1967 года – командиром корабля «Союз-1». Второй полёт оказался для Владимира Михайловича роковым: во время спуска на Землю не вышел основной парашют спускаемого аппарата и космонавт погиб. Сегодня имя дважды Героя Советского Союза, лётчика-космонавта СССР В.М. Комарова носит школа в Звёздном городке.

Участвовал в Великой Отечественной войне и космонавт №8 Советского Союза Константин Феоктистов (http://www.gctc.ru/main.php?id=1038). Он сбежал на фронт сразу после окончания 9 класса школы, был разведчиком войсковой части. Перенёс несколько ранений. А однажды во время выполнения задания в Воронеже был схвачен немецким патрулём и чудом выжил после расстрела. Свой единственный космический полёт Константин Петрович совершил 12-13 октября 1964 года на многоместном корабле «Восход», в разработке которого сам принимал участие. Вместе с ним полёт совершили командир корабля лётчик-космонавт Владимир Комаров и врач-космонавт Борис Егоров.


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Георгий Береговой (http://www.gctc.ru/main.php?id=1044) – единственный дважды Герой Советского Союза, который первую Золотую Звезду получил за Великую Отечественную войну, а вторую – за полёт в космос. После окончания восьмого класса он начал трудовую деятельность учеником электрослесаря на Енакиевском металлургическом заводе. В 1938 году окончил Енакиевский аэроклуб и был призван в Красную армию. В 1941 году окончил Ворошиловградскую школу военных лётчиков имени Пролетариата Донбасса. С июня того же года участвовал в Великой Отечественной войне в качестве лётчика, командира звена, командира эскадрильи 90-го гвардейского штурмового авиационного полка (Калининский, Воронежский, Украинский фронты). За годы войны совершил 186 боевых вылетов.

После окончания Великой Отечественной войны работал лётчиком-испытателем. Георгием Тимофеевичем было испытано более 60 типов самолётов. В 1949 году, испытывая истребитель МиГ-15 со стреловидным крылом, впервые освоил пилотирование реактивного самолёта в условиях штопора. В 1961 году Г.Т. Береговой был удостоен звания «Заслуженный лётчик-испытатель СССР».

Свой космический полёт Георгий Тимофеевич выполнил 26-30 октября 1968 года в качестве командира КК «Союз-3». В полёте была предпринята попытка стыковки с беспилотным кораблём «Союз-2» в тени Земли, но она оказалась неудачной.

На доме № 2 в Звёздном городке 9 мая 2015 года была открыта мемориальная доска со скульптурными портретами трёх лётчиков-участников Великой Отечественной войны: Г.Т. Берегового, Н.Ф. Кузнецова и П.И. Беляева. После окончания десятилетки в 1942 году Павел Беляев (http://www.gctc.ru/main.php?id=1041) работал токарем на Синарском трубном заводе. В 1943 году добровольно вступил в ряды Красной Армии и был направлен в Ейское военное авиационное училище лётчиков, в 1943-1944 годах размещавшееся в городе Сарапул Удмуртской АССР. Училище окончил в 1945 году. Павел Иванович лётчиком-истребителем участвовал в Советско-японской войне в составе 38-го гвардейского истребительного авиаполка 12-й штурмовой авиадивизии Тихоокеанского флота (август-сентябрь 1945 года), затем проходил службу в частях авиации ВМФ СССР. В последствии Павел Беляев выполнил космический полёт 18-19 марта 1965 года в качестве командира КК «Восход-2» вместе с А.А. Леоновым, который в ходе полёта совершил первый в мире выход в открытое космическое пространство.


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Космонавт №13 Советского Союза Владимир Шаталов (http://www.gctc.ru/main.php?id=1120) был дублёром Георгия Берегового во время подготовки к полёту КК «Союз-3». А свой первый космический полёт Владимир Александрович совершил с 14 по 17 января 1969 года на КК «Союз-4». Мало кто знает, что прежде чем стать космонавтом, Владимир Шаталов пережил суровую ленинградскую осень 1941 года. Его отец Александр Борисович в начале войны занимался формированием особой железнодорожной части, в задачу которой входило обеспечение бесперебойной работы «Дороги жизни». После нескольких попыток Володи сбежать на фронт Шаталов-старший вынужден был забрать его к себе. В части будущий космонавт научился обращаться с оружием и ходил в атаки.

В.А. Шаталов вместе с А.С. Елисеевым (http://www.gctc.ru/main.php?id=1104) первыми из советских космонавтов совершили три космических полёта. Владимир Александрович первым выполнил ручную стыковку двух пилотируемых кораблей («Союз-4/5», 1969 г.), стал участником первого группового полёта трёх пилотируемых КК («Союз-6/7/8», 1969 г.) и первой в мире стыковки КК с орбитальной станцией («Союз-10», «Салют», 1971 г.).


Эти люди стали героями ещё до того, как преодолели притяжение Земли. Но сегодня нельзя не упомянуть как минимум ещё две фамилии, имеющие огромное значение в зарождении и развитии пилотируемой космонавтики. Будущий Главный конструктор ракетно-космических систем С.П. Королёв, приговорённый по обвинению во вредительстве, в конце 1940 года попал в список специалистов, требовавшихся А.Н. Туполеву для разработки проекта нового фронтового бомбардировщика. Сергей Павлович работал в так называемой «шарашке» – специальном конструкторском бюро НКВД, где ударным трудом крепили отечественную «оборонку» передовики научно-технической мысли, собранные по лагерям. В июле 1944 года С.П. Королёва досрочно освободили из заключения со снятием судимости.

Будущий организатор и руководитель подготовки первых советских космонавтов Н.П. Каманин был на фронтах Великой Отечественной войны с июля 1942 года. Командовал 292-й штурмовой авиационной дивизией на Калининском фронте, с февраля 1943 года – командир 8-го смешанного и 5-го штурмового авиационного корпусов (1-й и 2-й Украинские фронты). Николай Петрович внёс весомый вклад в совершенствование тактики боевых действий штурмовиков Ил-2, прозванных фашистами «чёрной смертью». Соединения под его командованием участвовали в Великолукской, Белгородско-Харьковской, Киевской, Корсунь-Шевченковской, Львовско-Сандомирской, Будапештской и Венской операциях; освобождали от гитлеровских захватчиков Украину, Польшу, Румынию, Венгрию и Чехословакию.


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На фото слева направо: В.А. Шаталов, Н.П. Каманин, А.С. Елисеев и Н.Н. Рукавишников.

http://www.gctc.ru/main.php?id=4892
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Luty 24, 2020, 19:56
Black in Space Breaking the Color Barrier coming to Smithsonian Channel
6 lut 2020

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e6jxLPu8JAQ
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e6jxLPu8JAQ

Smithsonian docu 'Black in Space' looks at race and the space race

February 24, 2020 — The intersection between race and the space race is the focus of a new documentary profiling the first African American astronauts.

"Black in Space: Breaking the Color Barrier," which premieres on the Smithsonian Channel on Monday (Feb. 24), chronicles the historical efforts by the United States and the former Soviet Union to launch the first black astronaut into space.

"I was curious about the intersection of the civil rights movement, the space race and the Cold War," Laurens Grant, director and producer of "Black in Space," said in an interview. "In talking to scholars, a lot of them told me that, in a way, this was almost fresh research."

"We know so much about the civil rights movement, the space race and the Cold War, but not a lot of people concentrate and focus on all three in one," said Grant.

The Space Age began with the launch of the world's first satellite on Oct. 4, 1957, exactly one month to the day after classes were set to begin at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. That day, nine African American students were blocked by soldiers from entering the school on the order of the state's governor, who was opposed to desegregation.

"With the 'Little Rock Nine' trying to go to high school — just black kids trying to go to an all-white school — all of the vitriol and blowback happened at the same time that the Russians blasted off with Sputnik. And so they [the Soviets] intentionally made mention in their press that Sputnik was happening at the same time that the United States was going through Little Rock, sort of a thumb in the eye, if you will," said Grant.

"I wanted to set the clock and the tone of the film right there," she said. "So you think, 'Oh, that's interesting, all of those things are happening right at once,' and then hopefully take you on a ride through all of the firsts, when we finally get the first African American astronauts making history."


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KHOU anchor Mia Gradney, National Air and Space Museum curator Cathleen Lewis, director and producer Laurens Grant, U.S. Air Force aerospace research pilot Capt. Ed Dwight and Cheryl McNair, widow of Challenger STS-51L astronaut Ron McNair at the premiere of the Smithsonian Channel documentary "Black in Space: Breaking the Color Barrier" on Feb. 4, 2020 at the Houston Museum of Natural Science in Houston, Texas. (collectSPACE)

The hour-long documentary features archival footage and new interviews with the NASA and Interkosmos crew members whose trailblazing experiences first brought diversity into orbit. The film opens with the story of Edward Dwight, a U.S. Air Force test pilot who was the first African American to be eligible to become a NASA astronaut.

At the urging of the Kennedy administration, which saw the political benefits of a diversified astronaut corps, Dwight was assigned to the Aerospace Research Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base in California, where, in 1962, the press labeled him the country's "first black astronaut."

"I was swept off my feet, being a kind of introverted, apolitical personality," Dwight said in an interview with collectSPACE prior to a Feb. 4 screening of "Black in Space" at the Houston Museum of Natural Science in Houston, Texas. "The next thing you know, I'm on magazine covers all over the world and getting 1,500 letters a day from people congratulating me — and I hadn't done anything yet."

Despite the headlines, Dwight never flew in space, or became an astronaut.

"You can almost draw a graph of it," said Dwight, who today is a celebrated sculptor. "Everything was working and the graph was on an upward trajectory until Nov. 22, 1963, when the president [Kennedy] was killed. It changed the whole play. The whole thing was turned on his head and all of a sudden, I found myself without a sponsor and was lost in the hinterlands."

Four years later, after Dwight separated from the Air Force, Robert Lawrence became the first African American to be chosen for a space program, the U.S. Air Force's Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL). Tragically, he died in a jet crash on Dec. 8, 1967, just six months after his selection.


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U.S. Air Force test pilot Edward Dwight became the first African American to graduate from the Aerospace Research Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base in California and become eligible for selection by NASA as an astronaut. Ultimately, he was not chosen and left the Air Force to become a celebrated sculptor. (USAF)

As "Black in Space" explains, it then took another 11 years before the next black astronauts were in a position to finally leave Earth. In 1978, NASA recruited its first three African American trainees, including Guion "Guy" Bluford, who ultimately became the first black astronaut to lift off (http://www.collectspace.com/news/news-060810a.html) on a U.S. space shuttle in August 1983.

But he was not the first black in space. As it had with the world's first man and first woman, the Soviet Union launched the first person of African heritage three years before Bluford's flight.

"The objective here wasn't to be the first black person in space, it was just a reality," Soyuz 38 cosmonaut Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez says in an interview filmed in his home country of Cuba in "Black in Space."

Grant concludes the documentary with a quick look at the African Americans that followed Tamayo and Bluford into space. Over the past 40 years, 17 more black astronauts have joined NASA, of which three women and 10 men have flown into space.

"I looked back at the black press way back in the '50s and African Americans were very interested in wanting to participate. They wanted to be involved in the space race — and we should, as well as anyone who wants to, should be involved in space exploration," said Grant. "Hopefully, looking at the documentary, if you're a kid you can say that this is achievable."


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The first three African Americans to launch into space: Guion "Guy" Bluford (at center), Ron McNair (at left) and Fred Gregory. The three were chosen by NASA with the 1978 astronaut class. (NASA)

"Black in Space: Breaking the Color Barrier (https://www.smithsonianchannel.com/shows/black-in-space-breaking-the-color-barrier/0/3479308)" debuts on the Smithsonian Channel at 8 p.m. EST on Monday (Feb. 24), and then re-airs at 11 p.m. and at 10 a.m. on Thursday (Feb. 27). The full documentary is also available to stream on Apple TV, Amazon Prime, Roku and on YouTube.

http://www.collectspace.com/news/news-022420a-black-in-space-smithsonian-documentary.html
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Luty 25, 2020, 08:42
Kosmiczne dziewczyny. Kobiety, bez których nie byłoby podróży w przestrzeń pozaziemską
Libby Jackson

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Podróże kosmiczne to dziedzina zdominowana przez mężczyzn. Jednak to kobieta dokonała obliczeń niezbędnych do okrążenia orbity przez Johna Glenna. Kobieta również opracowała skład paliwa rakietowego. A kto zaprojektował oprogramowanie decydujące o powodzeniu misji kosmicznych? Zgadliście - również kobieta.

Mary Sherman Morgan (ur. 1921 - zm. 2004) - chemiczka

Mary Sherman Morgan była uczoną specjalizującą się w inżynierii kosmicznej i pracowała nad programem tak tajnym, że niewiele brakowało, by pamięć o niej całkowicie zaginęła.

Wychowywała się na farmie w Dakocie Północnej i rozpoczęła naukę dopiero jako ośmiolatka, ponieważ rodzice nie chcieli zrezygnować z jej nieocenionej pomocy w polu i przy chowie zwierząt. Zapałała jednak taką miłością do nauki, że wyrwała się z domu na uniwersytet.

Podczas studiów, które przypadły na okres drugiej wojny światowej, tak błyszczała na zajęciach z chemii, że zaproponowano jej pracę z dostępem do ściśle tajnych informacji. Choć musiała w tym celu przerwać studia i nie wiedziała, z czym będzie się wiązało jej nowe zajęcie, postanowiła dołączyć do grona cywilów zaangażowanych w działania wojenne. Dopiero pierwszego dnia dowiedziała się, że dostała posadę u jednego z najpotężniejszych światowych wytwórców materiałów wybuchowych dla armii amerykańskiej.


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Morgan już w trakcie studiów dostała propozycję pracy w gronie cywilów zaangażowanych w działania wojenne (fot. Wikimedia Commons / George Morgan)

Po zakończeniu wojny Stany Zjednoczone i Związek Radziecki zaczęli wykorzystywać zdobytą przy produkcji broni wiedzę do projektowania rakiet kosmicznych. Pierwsze wielkie osiągnięcie - wystrzelenie nie większego od piłki plażowej satelity o nazwie Sputnik - przypadło w udziale inżynierom radzieckim, tak więc Stany Zjednoczone pozostały w tyle. Amerykański zespół pod kierunkiem Wernhera von Brauna opracował własną rakietę do wyniesienia satelity, ale okazała się ona za mało wydajna, by obiekt mógł się przebić do przestrzeni kosmicznej. Jedynym możliwym rozwiązaniem było dostarczenie paliwa rakietowego lepszej jakości, ale Amerykanie takiego nie mieli.

Z umiejętności Mary skorzystała skwapliwie firma North American Aviation (NAA). Mary była tam jedyną kobietą spośród dziewięciuset inżynierów, ale nie zbiło jej to z tropu i wkrótce dzięki opracowaniu nowej mieszanki paliwowej i wybuchowej została gwiazdą zespołu. Kiedy dowódcy amerykańskiej misji kosmicznej poprosili NAA o wytypowanie najlepszego specjalisty do opracowania najefektywniejszego paliwa rakietowego, usłyszeli o Mary. Nie mogli w to uwierzyć - osoba bez dyplomu, a co gorsza, kobieta? Jak ktoś taki może sprostać wyzwaniu? Ale szefowie Mary upierali się, że nikogo lepszego nie mają.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xOLsvD8aDMw
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xOLsvD8aDMw&feature=emb_title

I wkrótce Mary rzeczywiście znalazła rozwiązanie: hydyne, paliwo napędowe o nowym składzie, przetransportowane na przylądek Canaveral na Florydzie, zasiliło rakietę, która 31 stycznia 1958 roku wyniosła w kosmos Explorera 1. Stany Zjednoczone stanęły wreszcie do wyścigu kosmicznego. Mary, pierwsza amerykańska specjalistka w dziedzinie techniki rakietowej, ocaliła zaczątki rodzimego programu kosmicznego.

Margaret Hamilton (ur. 1936) - programistka

Margaret Hamilton to jedna z pionierek inżynierii oprogramowania. Gdy zaczynała swoją pracę z komputerami, ten zawód nawet nie miał nazwy - to ona ukuła termin "inżynieria oprogramowania".

Uwielbiała matematykę i wybrała ją jako przedmiot studiów, a w trakcie nauki pracowała z komputerami tak ogromnymi, że zajmowały kilka pomieszczeń. Wtedy doszły ją słuchy o jedynej w swoim rodzaju szansie zawodowej. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), gdzie przy współpracy z NASA projektowano oprogramowanie pod kątem lotu załogowego na Księżyc, poszukiwał nowych pracowników. Margaret rzuciła się do telefonu i w ciągu kilku godzin umówiła na rozmowę z dwoma różnymi kierownikami projektu. Obaj chcieli ją zatrudnić, więc poleciła im rzucić monetą, licząc skrycie, że wygra ten, którego sobie upatrzyła. Na szczęście tak właśnie się stało.


(https://bi.im-g.pl/im/a7/8e/16/z23653287O.jpg)
Hamilton kierowała zespołem projektującym oprogramowanie dla modułu dowodzenia statku Apollo. Po lewej z dziełem swojego teamu (fot. Wikimedia Commons)

Kierowała zespołem projektującym oprogramowanie dla modułu dowodzenia i modułu księżycowego statku Apollo - pojazdu, który miał zabrać amerykańskich kosmonautów na Księżyc. Poprzeczka była ustawiona bardzo wysoko, ponieważ dotąd nikt niczego podobnego nie robił. Informatycy wiedzieli, że ich oprogramowanie nie dostanie drugiej szansy i musi zostać dopięte na ostatni guzik, więc do swoich obowiązków podchodzili niezwykle poważnie.

Margaret starała się spędzać jak najwięcej czasu ze swoją córeczką Lauren i w tym gorącym okresie często brała ją ze sobą do pracy wieczorami oraz w weekendy. Kiedyś Lauren bawiła się wersją testową komputera i przypadkowo doprowadziła do awarii oprogramowania. Margaret chciała udoskonalić kod, żeby zapobiec powtórzeniu tego błędu przez astronautów, ale przełożeni z NASA nie zgodzili się na to, twierdząc, że ich ludzie nie popełnią przecież dziecięcej pomyłki. Jednak podczas misji Apollo 8 przez nieuwagę astronauty Jima Lovella tak właśnie się stało i zupełnie przypadkowo znikła część danych. Margaret i jej zespół musieli rozwiązać ten problem na odległość.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kTn56jJW4zY
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kTn56jJW4zY&feature=emb_title

Nadgodziny i pilna praca zwróciły się z nawiązką. Oprogramowanie okazało się tak profesjonalne, że nigdy nie wykryto w nim żadnego błędu. Nawet gdy Neil Armstrong i Buzz Aldrin zbliżali się do Księżyca i doszło do przeciążenia systemu, komputer uszeregował funkcje według ważności i załoga mogła bezpiecznie wylądować. Na podstawie tego oprogramowania powstały następne wersje, używane na pokładzie Skylaba, wahadłowców i samolotów. Dzięki pionierskiej pracy Margaret człowiek nadal wytrwale sięga gwiazd.

Katherine Johnson (ur. 1918 r.) - matematyczka i fizyczka

Niespotykana inteligencja, potężna siła woli i mocne postanowienie, by nie dać się zamknąć w ramach płci ani rasy, doprowadziły Katherine Johnson do iście fenomenalnych osiągnięć.

Zawsze pasjonowała się liczbami. Nauczyciele szybko poznali się na jej obiecującym talencie: w wieku czternastu lat trafiła na studia matematyczne, a jako osiemnastolatka zdobyła dyplom. W czasach, gdy większość czarnych dziewcząt nie kończyła nawet szkoły podstawowej, było to osiągnięcie niebywałe. Pewien wykładowca powiedział jej, że według niego znakomicie nadaje się na badaczkę. A kiedy zapytała, na czym polega ta praca, odpowiedział tylko: "Przekonaj się sama".


(https://bi.im-g.pl/im/f7/8e/16/z23653367O.jpg)
John Glenn nalegał, by Johnson osobiście nadzorowała obliczenia nad jego torem lotu wokół orbity ziemskiej (fot. Wikimedia Commons)

Katherine została nauczycielką, wyszła za mąż i założyła rodzinę, ale w głowie wciąż rozbrzmiewały jej słowa wykładowcy. Pewnego dnia dowiedziała się, że rządowy ośrodek badawczy poszukuje matematyków. Złożyła podanie i ku swej radości dostała wymarzoną posadę badaczki.

Inżynierowie przekazywali jej całe tomy danych, a ona z przyjemnością analizowała je linijka po linijce, rozwiązując równania niczym żywy komputer. Gdy przydzielono ją do działu badań nad lotami, spytała, dociekliwie jak zwykle, czy może uczestniczyć w odprawach inżynierów. "To nie miejsce dla kobiet" - usłyszała. "A jest na to jakiś przepis?" - wypaliła. "No, nie." - odpowiedział pytany. No więc poszła.

Niedługo potem wyznaczała tor ruchu statku kosmicznego Mercury: ustalała, skąd ma dokładnie wylecieć i gdzie wylądować amerykański pionier astronautyki, Alan Shepard. Lot śledziła z ogromnym napięciem i z ulgą przyjęła informację, że jej obliczenia były poprawne, a kosmonauta wrócił bezpiecznie na Ziemię. Następnie zaplanowano lot Johna Glenna, który jako pierwszy Amerykanin miał okrążyć Ziemię po orbicie. Tym razem trajektoria lotu była jeszcze bardziej skomplikowana. Mimo że wprowadzono już komputery elektroniczne, Glenn nalegał, by Katherine osobiście sprawdziła wszystkie obliczenia. "Jeśli ona powie, że wszystko się zgadza, to znaczy, że jest dobrze" - stwierdził. Później Katherine wyliczała też trajektorie lotów w ramach programu Apollo, który wyniósł na Księżyc pierwszego człowieka.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8g3AvxrVTic
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8g3AvxrVTic&feature=emb_title

Zakończyła pracę w NASA dopiero w 1986 roku, gdy przeszła na emeryturę. Wykonywała swoje obowiązki niezwykle sumiennie, więc nikt nigdy nie musiał prosić jej o poprawki.

Na przestrzeni lat odebrała liczne nagrody, w tym Prezydencki Medal Wolności, ale do swoich najcenniejszych pamiątek zalicza listy od dzieci szkolnych, które inspiruje swoją pracą oraz umiejętnością obalenia tylu barier rasowych i płciowych.


Little Old Ladies z Waltham (lata 60.) - włókniarki, zegarmistrzynie

Komputer pokładowy programu Apollo (AGC) przyniósł prawdziwą rewolucję, ale mimo to w żadnym razie nie mógł się równać ze współczesnymi urządzeniami. Przywykliśmy do kieszonkowych smartfonów i tabletów, na których można z łatwością zainstalować program, a potem równie szybko go odinstalować. Gdy w latach sześćdziesiątych projektowano AGC, dyski komputerowe były niesłychanie delikatne. Nie było możliwości, by podczas startu rakiety nie uległy uszkodzeniu na skutek drgań i działania siły odśrodkowej.

Z tego powodu konstruktorzy komputera posłużyli się tak zwaną pamięcią rdzeniową. Na język programowania składają się cyfry 1 i 0, które zapisane w postaci "słów" przekazują komputerowi informacje o pożądanych działaniach. Pamięć rdzeniowa jest zbudowana z pierścieni i cienkich miedzianych przewodów - przewód przechodzący przez pierścień odpowiada cyfrze 1, a przewód omijający pierścień - cyfrze 0. Tak powstaje zapis instrukcji przesyłanej do pamięci komputera.

Przyjrzawszy się swoim projektom, inżynierowie przekonali się, że do skonstruowania AGC potrzeba tysięcy drobnych części, które mogą powstać tylko dzięki mrówczej rzemieślniczej pracy. Zwrócili się więc do emerytek z miasta Waltham w Massachusetts, specjalistek od włókniarstwa i zegarmistrzostwa.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P12r8DKHsak
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P12r8DKHsak&feature=emb_title

Dwie kobiety siedziały naprzeciwko siebie przedzielone krosnem, odczytywały zapis programu komputerowego i przewlekały druciki przez pierścienie, podając sobie igłę z rąk do rąk. Było to zajęcie powolne i żmudne - "utkanie" jednego programu mogło trwać miesiącami, pracochłonne były również poprawki. Kobiety wiedziały, że od ich rękodzieła zależy życie lecących na Księżyc kosmonautów, więc starały się ze wszystkich sił dostarczyć wyroby najwyższej jakości.

Autorzy programów nazwali tę technikę metodą LOL, skrótem od określenia "Little Old Ladies" ("drobne starowinki"), chociaż ten opis zupełnie nie odpowiadał rzeczywistości. Te wykwalifikowane kobiety odgrywały tak doniosłą rolę, że czasem płacono im za samą gotowość do podjęcia pracy, żeby nie znalazły sobie w tym czasie innego zajęcia.

Proces wytwarzania pamięci rdzeniowej był bardzo kłopotliwy, ale ta technika uniemożliwiała wykasowanie programu. Kiedy zaledwie trzydzieści sześć sekund po starcie statku uderzył w niego piorun, nagłe wyładowanie elektryczne na powierzchni rakiety spowodowało wyłączenie niektórych urządzeń. Dzięki pamięci rdzeniowej komputery się zrestartowały, centrum kontroli lotów zareagowało na problem i załoga mogła kontynuować rejs na orbitę i Księżyc.

Dziś niestety nie sposób przywołać nazwisk wielu spośród kobiet, które całymi godzinami pieczołowicie budowały te komputery, ale ich rola nie odeszła w niepamięć.


Peggy Whitson (ur. 1960 r.) - bochemiczka i astronautka

Peggy Whitson, pewna siebie, lecz skromna introwertyczka, to jedna z najwybitniejszych astronautek w historii. Choć w życiu wielokrotnie słyszała, że pogoń za marzeniem o locie w kosmos kłóci się ze zdrowym rozsądkiem, ostatecznie pokazała niedowiarkom, jak bardzo się mylili.

Wychowywała się na odludnej amerykańskiej farmie. Jako dziewięciolatka zachłysnęła się wyczynami Neila Armstronga i pozostałych kosmonautów z misji księżycowej, ale dopiero na widok pierwszych astronautek uznała, że może warto też spróbować. Aby zaoszczędzić pieniądze na kurs pilotażu, sprzedała na wiejskim targu wyhodowane przez siebie kurczaki.


(https://bi.im-g.pl/im/7a/8e/16/z23653498O.jpg)
Whitson jest jedną z najwybitniejszych astronautek w historii (fot. Wikimedia Commons / nasa.gov)

Podczas studiów podzieliła się swoim marzeniem o locie w kosmos z pewnym słynnym naukowcem, a on wyraził opinię, że astronauci nie dokonują niczego istotnego i nie jest to zbyt wartościowy zawód. Nie odwiodło to jednak Peggy od jej ambitnych zamiarów i w czasie studiów oraz przygotowywania eksperymentów na potrzeby misji wahadłowców dała się poznać jako pełna oddania i entuzjazmu uczona, a w 1996 roku zaproponowano jej lot w kosmos.

Uczestniczyła w trzech misjach i za każdym razem spędzała mniej więcej pół roku na ISS - Międzynarodowej Stacji Kosmicznej. ISS to cud inżynierii, największy obiekt, jaki kiedykolwiek udało się skonstruować w kosmosie. Rozmiarem przypomina boisko do piłki nożnej i oferuje astronautom tyle przestrzeni mieszkalnej, co dom z pięcioma sypialniami. Budowano go przez dwadzieścia lat, a każdy element dostarczano rakietą lub wahadłowcem. Części składowe, projektowane przez rozmaitych inżynierów, powstawały na całym świecie, a w przestrzeni kosmicznej połączyło je ramię robotyczne. Poszczególne "pomieszczenia" nazywane są modułami, a wzdłuż stacji biegnie potężny "trzpień", do którego przymocowanych jest osiem zasilających stację potężnych paneli słonecznych.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MfQ0I_FZiuc
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MfQ0I_FZiuc&feature=emb_title

Podczas drugiego pobytu na ISS Peggy została pierwszą w historii kobietą dowodzącą całą stacją. To była niezmiernie pracowita misja: dotarły trzy nowe moduły, a dwa panele słoneczne przeniesiono w inne miejsce. Podczas transportu jeden z nich uległ poważnemu uszkodzeniu, ale dzięki wybitnym umiejętnościom przywódczym Peggy i wzorowej pracy całego zespołu został naprawiony i można było kontynuować montaż stacji kosmicznej.

Oprócz tego, że Peggy przez lata odgrywała doniosłą rolę w budowaniu i prowadzeniu ISS, odbyła też rekordową liczbę dziesięciu spacerów kosmicznych, a w 2017 roku pobiła rekord łącznej długości pobytu w przestrzeni kosmicznej, zarówno wśród kobiet, jak i mężczyzn. Za swoje dokonania odebrała liczne nagrody, ale większą dumą napawa ją przynależność do zespołu znakomitych specjalistów, którzy wspólnie penetrują przestrzeń kosmiczną i poszerzają naszą wiedzę na jej temat.


Książka 'Kosmiczne dziewczyny' ukazała się nakładem Wydawnictwa Kobiecego (mat. promocyjne)
*Fragmenty książki "Kosmiczne dziewczyny" Libby Jackson w tłumaczeniu Ewy Borówki

Libby Jackson - brytyjska ekspertka w dziedzinie kosmologii i kierownik programu kosmicznego brytyjskiej Agencji Kosmicznej. Jej kariera w branży kosmicznej rozpoczęła się, gdy w wieku 17 lat złożyła podanie o pracę w NASA. Kilka tygodni później siedziała w Mission Control w Houston. Od 2014 do 2016 r. udało jej się zrealizować programy dotyczące edukacji i agencji kosmicznych, które wspierały misję Tima Peake'a.

https://weekend.gazeta.pl/weekend/1,152121,23653004,kosmiczne-dziewczyny-kobiety-bez-ktorych-nie-byloby-podrozy.html
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 06, 2020, 06:30
How Christina Koch Could Become a Spaceflight Legend
One of the astronauts in NASA’s current corps could be the first in a generation to walk on the moon—or the first to walk on Mars.
MARINA KOREN MARCH 2, 2020

When Christina Koch returned to Earth earlier this month, feeling the full force of the planet’s gravity for the first time in a long time, it was the middle of the night in the United States. Her capsule parachuted into the Kazakh desert, and by morning, her name was all over the news. After spending 328 days living on the International Space Station, Koch had set a new record for American women in space.

The volume of attention that morning, however warranted, was somewhat unusual for a modern astronaut. Missions to the space station are routine now, and the last astronaut to have his full name flashing across headlines, as if in marquee lights, was Scott Kelly, who nearly four years earlier broke the American record for long-duration spaceflight.

All of this is to say that, in this era of space travel, most astronauts don’t become household names. Asked to think of an astronaut, most people would probably default to Neil Armstrong, the first man on the moon—not to one of the dozens of astronauts who have flown to space in this century, or even one of the three who are there right now. The public today is more likely to be familiar with nonhuman explorers, like the Mars rover Curiosity and the New Horizons spacecraft, which photographed Pluto.

But this century holds potential for new milestones in space exploration, the kind that can turn spacefarers into celebrities. The next Neil Armstrong could already be in NASA’s astronaut corps, which is more diverse now than ever before. This person will have charisma and steely resolve—and probably a very compelling Instagram account.

There is no distinct formula that makes astronauts famous, but an obvious component is novelty, says Margaret Weitekamp, a curator in the space-history department at the Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum. Firsts—Armstrong stepping onto the lunar surface, delivering his famous line after he put his boot down—become indelible in public memory. Sally Ride, the first American woman in space, is probably the most well-known American female astronaut.

Other superlatives, especially of the Guinness World Records variety—the most, the longest, the oldest—can make astronauts, if not flat-out famous, at least memorable. Peggy Whitson, for example, holds the record for most spacewalks by a woman. Seconds can be even less sticky. Do you remember, for instance, what the commander of Apollo 12, the second moon-landing mission, said when he descended from the lander and touched the gray surface? Or what his name was? Twelve men have walked on the moon, and even those in the space community might struggle to name all of them. Many people don’t realize that there was a third astronaut on the Apollo 11 mission: Michael Collins, who stayed behind in the command module while Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin went to the surface.

Some firsts, of course, can be eclipsed by later, bigger firsts. Alan Shepard was heralded as a national hero when he became the first American to reach space in 1961, less than a month after Yuri Gagarin did it for the Soviet Union. When John Glenn flew a year later, he didn’t just pierce the boundary between Earth’s atmosphere and space; he circled the planet three times. It was a more intense mission, and Glenn came up with a memorable tagline for it, which he repeated for years to come: “Zero G and I feel fine.” Today, Glenn is arguably the more famous of the two. As NASA grew its astronaut corps in the 1960s, astronauts “needed slightly more extraordinary circumstances to break out of the pack and become that household name,” Weitekamp says. Even milestone “firsts” didn’t always make a lasting impression in the national imagination; the first NASA astronauts of color to travel to space—Guion Bluford, who flew on the shuttle in 1983, and Mae Jemison, who followed in 1992—are icons in the space community, but less well known to laypeople.

The first all-female spacewalk, conducted last fall by Koch and Jessica Meir, drew a great deal of attention, and if it ever materialized, so would the first all-female crew on the ISS. When NASA astronauts launch on a brand-new SpaceX transportation system sometime this year, the first endeavor of its kind, the passengers’ names will most certainly cut through the news cycle. But such milestones, on their own, are unlikely to bestow astronauts with mythical status.

“When you start thinking about who’s going to be the next Neil Armstrong, you’re going to be looking for that combination of achievement and that personality that catches the public’s attention, the person who has the ‘it’ factor,” Weitekamp says.

Armstrong, she adds, had it. After he flew a couple of missions for Gemini, NASA’s pre-Apollo program, the agency sent him on a publicity tour through South America. Armstrong took a Spanish conversation class to prepare for the trip and name-dropped important South American figures, particularly in aviation, in his speeches, according to James R. Hansen’s biography of the astronaut. “He never failed to choose the right words,” recalled George Low, a NASA executive who traveled with Armstrong and was impressed.

Low would later manage the Apollo program and its crew assignments, including which astronaut should be the first one out of the lander. Armstrong had proved to NASA leadership not only that he could master the mission—he was one of the agency’s best pilots—but that he could handle the attention, too. Armstrong is famous in part because NASA chose him to be famous and, after he finished the mission, turned him into a spokesman for American spaceflight. Aldrin, meanwhile, may be better remembered for the persona he cultivated after visiting the moon, where he followed Armstrong onto the lunar surface. Whereas Armstrong, who died in 2012, is remembered for his stoic and amiable personality, Aldrin became known for a feisty attitude he has maintained into his 90s. (In recent years, he punched

In some cases, the “it” factor can outweigh a record-setting superlative. Chris Hadfield is the first Canadian to do a spacewalk, but he’s best known for his floating rendition of David Bowie’s “Space Oddity” on board the ISS, which has more than 45 million views on YouTube. Scott Kelly holds the American record for the most consecutive days in space, but he built his fan base through frequent Instagram posts of beautiful Earth shots. NASA does plenty of work to promote astronauts, especially those involved in the flashiest missions.

Fans have always been eager for such personal glimpses of astronauts’ personalities, Weitekamp says; in the 1950s and ’60s, Life magazine ran stories about the lives of the Mercury astronauts, ghostwritten but published under the men’s bylines. These days, every NASA astronaut has a professional Twitter account—a very different kind of launchpad for name recognition, but potentially nearly as effective. A tweet from Koch featuring a heartwarming video of the astronaut greeting her dog, adorably overjoyed after their long separation, quickly went viral.

To be a spaceflight legend, an astronaut will likely need, as Weitekamp puts it, extraordinary circumstances. Imagine the first woman on the moon, or the first people to set foot on Mars. It is not unrealistic to think that at the end of this century, the name of the first person to step onto the red planet will be more prominently woven into collective memory than the name Neil Armstrong. By the end of this century, 1969 will be 130 years in the past, as distant a memory as 1890 is now, when Nellie Bly made headlines by circumnavigating the globe, by ship and by rail, in just 72 days.

These explorers are probably already within NASA’s ranks. (Or, perhaps, working for a private company: The 21st century’s most famous spacefarer could end up being Elon Musk.) NASA recently added 11 new members to its active astronaut corps, bringing the total to 48. The new class, fresh off training, “may be assigned to missions destined for the International Space Station, the Moon, and ultimately, Mars,” the space agency said in a statement. These new astronauts can’t predict which among their ranks might be chosen for the next big feat in spaceflight history, but they can start daydreaming about what they might say as they take their own first step. Or they could go the Armstrong route and wait until the moment is near. Days before Apollo 11 launched, a reporter asked whether Armstrong, being “destined to become a historical personage of some consequence,” had come up with “something suitably historical and memorable” to say when he stepped onto the moon. “No, I haven’t,” Armstrong replied. Better to make history first.


MARINA KOREN is a staff writer at The Atlantic.

https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2020/03/most-famous-astronauts-moonwalkers/607243/
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 07, 2020, 14:58
Dr. Charles "Chuck" Berry (1923-2020)

29 lutego 2020 w wieku 96. lat zmarł Chuck Berry - lekarz, który zajmował się badaniem pierwszych astronautów w latach 1959 -1974

(http://www.asma.org/getmedia/742e2898-2951-4170-8adf-2393f5fe1b08/charles_berry?width=225&height=307)
http://www.collectspace.com/ubb/Forum38/HTML/002291.html

Charles Berry, an early NASA flight surgeon, dies at 96
Andrea Leinfelder March 5, 2020 Updated: March 5, 2020 8:08 p.m.

(https://s.hdnux.com/photos/01/10/77/53/19135173/11/gallery_xlarge.jpg)
Dr. Charles A. Berry prepares to check the blood pressure of astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot for the Gemini-Titan 4 spaceflight, on June 1, 1965. Photo: NASA

Dr. Charles “Chuck” A. Berry, a NASA flight surgeon who helped select the country’s first astronauts and devised tests to see if they could survive the demands of space, died in his sleep over the weekend in his Houston home. He was 96.

Berry is considered a pioneer in aerospace medicine, with a 68-year career in which he served as a flight surgeon for the U.S. Air Force, director of life sciences for NASA, an aviation medical examiner for the Federal Aviation Administration and an aerospace medicine consultant.


(https://s.hdnux.com/photos/01/10/77/53/19135172/11/940x0.jpg)
Dr. Charles A. Berry checks astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., Gemini-7 prime crew pilot, following a workout on an exercise machine on Dec. 2, 1965. Results would be compared with those obtained during spaceflight for evaluation. Photo: NASA

“I don’t think aerospace medicine, as a specialty in medicine and as a field, would be where it is today without the influence of all the various things he did at the various points in his career, both within the Air Force and with NASA,” said his son Dr. Michael A. Berry, who also has a specialty in aerospace medicine.

Berry received his medical degree from the University of California San Francisco in 1947. After an internship at the San Francisco General Hospital (now called the Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center), he went into private practice in Indio, Calif.

He joined the U.S. Air Force during the Korean War and moved to San Antonio for a year of training at the U.S. Air Force School of Aviation Medicine (now the Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine). He’d go on to help countries in Central and South America set up their own aviation medicine programs, earn his master’s degree in public health from Harvard University and become chief of the Department of Flight Medicine at the U.S. Air Force School of Aviation Medicine, where he sent pilots in balloons and aircraft to various altitudes to see how their bodies would react physiologically.


(https://s.hdnux.com/photos/01/10/77/00/19132479/15/940x0.jpg)
This undated photo, part of of Moody Medical Library’s Charles A. Berry, M.D. Space Medicine Collection in Galveston, Texas, shows Dr. Charles A. Berry in Mission Control at NASA in Houston. (Moody Medical Library’s Charles A. Berry, M.D. Space Medicine Collection/The Galveston County Daily News via AP)Photo: Associated Press

This was where his career took a turn that would eventually prompt Berry to leave the Air Force for NASA.

In 1957, Berry was one of the physicians who helped select test pilots — later referred to as astronauts — who would ride in a military rocket into outer space. He then helped select NASA’s first seven astronauts for Project Mercury, the country’s first man-in-space program.

Berry and his fellow physicians devised ways to physically test who could withstand the demands of space, as it was understood at that time.


(https://s.hdnux.com/photos/01/10/77/53/19135175/11/gallery_xlarge.jpg)
Charles A. Berry (left), chief of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Medical Programs, and astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (center), Gemini-7 pilot, and Frank Borman, Gemini-7 command pilot, examine a series of chest x-rays taken during the preflight physical on Dec. 2, 1965. Photo: NASA

“We put them in (a chamber) in the dark and suspended them so that they weren’t touching anything,” Berry said in a NASA Johnson Space Center oral history project (https://historycollection.jsc.nasa.gov/JSCHistoryPortal/history/oral_histories/BerryCA/BerryCA_4-29-99.htm). “They were suspended with wires, and left them in there for six hours in the dark. Now, that’s dumb when you think about it, because the thing I didn’t like about it, I said, ‘If we ever have an astronaut in this position, that means that we’ve really had a failure somewhere and he’s out of a spacecraft, and it isn’t going to make a lot of difference anyway then. So this doesn’t seem like a very realistic kind of thing to do.’ But we exposed them to heat and cold and ran them on treadmills which were not being used anywhere else at that time. Exposed them in partial pressure suits.”

And they figured out ways to monitor astronauts’ health before they launched — even telling former President Richard Nixon that he could not break the astronauts’ quarantine by eating dinner with them before Apollo 11 — and while in space.

Still, people questioned if humans could survive the journey, citing a lack of data.

“There are a lot of people who didn’t think it was OK and that we were really being pretty cavalier about the decisions that were being made,” Berry had said.

Michael Berry said his father acknowledged the lack of data but knew some risks would be required.

“I remember him saying, and I have quoted that on numerous occasions, ‘If we wait for all the data to come we’re never going to leave the ground,’” Michael Berry said.

He said his father took incremental steps, slowly increasing the amount of time astronauts spent in space, until landing men on the moon with Apollo 11 in 1969. Berry helped send those astronauts to the moon and monitored the crew during their mission. He helped send 42 people into space over 30 missions while working for NASA until 1974.

“Dr. Charles Berry was a founding member of the NASA family who will be greatly missed,” Johnson Space Center Director Mark Geyer said in a statement. “From playing a key role in selecting the original seven Mercury astronauts, to providing personal medical support from Mission Control for Apollo missions, to a distinguished career in Houston after departing NASA, Chuck was a unique person who made an indispensable contribution to human space flight.”

After leaving NASA, Berry became the first president of the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. He did on-air health segments at KPRC and was president of the Aerospace Medical Association. Berry was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1979 and 1980.

But it was the relationship he had with astronauts that inspired his son to go into aerospace medicine. Michael Berry was a flight surgeon with the Air Force and then a flight surgeon with NASA, where he helped select astronauts for Space Shuttle missions and monitored them while in space. He spent 25 years working alongside his father in a private practice called Preventive and Aerospace Medicine Consultants and is currently the federal air surgeon for the FAA.

“He was my best friend,” Michael Berry said.

Berry died from complications of coronary artery disease and heart failure.

He is survived by three children, nine grandchildren and 15 great-grandchildren. There will be a viewing Sunday between 1 p.m. and 5 p.m. at Forest Park Westheimer Funeral Home. The funeral will be 11 a.m. Monday at Memorial Drive United Methodist Church, followed by a reception from 12:30 p.m. to 2 p.m. For his friends around the world, the funeral will be livestreamed at Memorial Drive United Methodist Church’s YouTube channel (https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCv8nG1auVvyZx0JdlM27ZQg).


https://www.houstonchronicle.com/news/houston-texas/houston/article/Charles-Berry-an-early-NASA-physician-dies-at-96-15107966.php
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 07, 2020, 16:46
Feb. 4, 2020
Space Station 20th: Celebrating Birthdays on ISS

A quick look at the firsts and facts of birthdays in space:

First birthday celebrated in space: Viktor Patsayev, June 19, 1971, aboard Salyut
First American to celebrate a birthday in space: Pete Conrad, June 2, 1973, aboard Skylab
First back-to-back birthdays in space: Valery Ryumin, Aug. 26, 1979 and 1980, aboard Salyut 6
First birthday aboard a space shuttle: Dick Truly, Nov. 12, 1981, STS-2
First to launch on birthday: Dick Truly, Nov. 12, 1981, STS-2
First to land on birthday: Valery Polyakov, April 27, 1989, at end of Mir Expedition 4
Most birthdays celebrated in space: 4, Gennady Padalka (2004, 2009, 2012, 2015)
Youngest birthday in space: Sergei Krikalev (33), Aug. 27, 1991, Mir Expedition 9
Oldest birthday in space: Pavel Vinogradov (60), Aug. 31, 2013, ISS Expedition 36
First woman to celebrate a birthday in space: Janet Kavandi, July 17, 2001, STS-104
First birthday celebrated on ISS: Janet Kavandi, July 17, 2001, during Expedition 2
First birthday of ISS long-duration crew member: Yuri Onufriyenko, Feb. 6, 2002, ISS Expedition 4
First birthday of American ISS long-duration crew member: Don Pettit, April 20, 2003, ISS Expedition 6


http://www.collectspace.com/ubb/Forum38/HTML/002282.html
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 14, 2020, 10:21
Weterani kosmicznych lotów: warto wysyłać ludzi w kosmos
10.03.2020 aktualizacja 11.03.2020© Marek Matacz

O podróży na orbitę, przeżyciach, przemyśleniach, sensie i przyszłości wysyłania ludzi w kosmos rozmawiali weterani kosmicznych lotów Mirosław Hermaszewski, Bertalan Farkas, Tony Antonelli i Danny Olivas podczas konferencji My Space Love Story. Odbyła się ona w Gdańsku i Sopocie.

Na początku opowiedzieli o swojej „space love story” - o tym co sprawiło, że zapragnęli lecieć w kosmos i jak im się to udało.

„Eksploracja kosmosu inspirowała mnie, kiedy byłem już bardzo młody. Patrzyłem nocą w gwiazdy i zastanawiałem się, co tam się znajduje” - mówił John Daniel "Danny" Olivas, który odbył dwa loty na pokładzie wahadłowców Atlantis i Discovery. Opowiedział o tym, jak podążając za swoimi talentami, został inżynierem. I choć nie wiedział do końca, czego potrzeba, aby zostać astronautą, wiedział, iż inżynierskie umiejętności, to coś, co może być przydatne w kosmicznym programie.

„Kiedy byłem młody, chciałem być inżynierem, chciałem też być piłkarzem. Moja mama powiedziała - nie będziesz piłkarzem, ponieważ to jest bardzo niebezpieczne. Zostałem więc pilotem myśliwca” - wspominał z kolei gen. Bertelan Farkas - pierwszy Węgier w kosmosie.

Generał Mirosław Hermaszewski powiedział natomiast, że nigdy nawet nie marzył, aby być astronautą - Polska nie miała ani kosmodromu, ani rakiet. Jego marzeniem było zostanie pilotem i robił wszystko aby to zrealizować, mimo różnych opinii otoczenia, mówiących mu, że to niemożliwe. „Wszyscy mówili - puknij się w głowę” - opowiadał. „Kiedy już udało mi się latać na szybowcach i samodzielnie robiłem pierwsze podskoki, byłem z siebie tak niesamowicie dumny, że ja już jestem prawdziwy lotnik i wtedy zobaczyłem, że człowiek poleciał w kosmos - 12 kwietna 61 roku. To był dla mnie szok. (...). Wtedy urodziła mi się myśl: Boże, żeby kiedyś zobaczyć prawdziwego kosmonautę. Może mi rękę poda, bo ja bym nie śmiał nawet” - mówił Mirosław Hermaszewski.

Z kolei Dominic Anthony "Tony" Antonelli - weteran dwóch lotów na wahadłowcach opowiedział o tym, jak w młodości patrzył na astronautów z programu Apollo, załogę stacji Skylab i radziecki program Sojuz. „To były heroiczne osiągnięcia. Potrafili polecieć na powierzchnię Księżyca i wrócić” - mówił. Opowiadał też o swoich predyspozycjach do matematyki, zainteresowaniach nauką i o tym, jak został pilotem w US Navy, aby opłacić naukę na uniwersytecie.

Astronauci mówili też o barierach, jakie stają na drodze do eksploracji kosmicznej przestrzeni.

Według Dannego Olivasa, podstawą jest ludzka wola. „Kiedy jako gatunek zdecydujemy się, że chcemy czegoś dokonać, możemy to zrobić” - mówił. Jak zwrócił uwagę, ekonomia i technologią są ważne, ale te problemy można rozwiązać. Jako przykład sukcesu podał Międzynarodową Stację Kosmiczną, na której cały czas, od 2000 roku żyją ludzie. „Jeśli chcemy, to nie ma nic, czego nie możemy osiągnąć, jeśli tylko jest to zgodne z prawami fizyki” - powiedział.

„Podstawowy problem, który ja widzę w eksploracji kosmosu, to problem nieważkości” - mówił natomiast Bertelan Farkas. Podkreślał, że w czasie treningów na Ziemi można się do tego przygotować tylko częściowo, a loty dzisiaj trwają już nieporównanie dłużej, niż jego i gen. Hermaszewskiego.

Astronautów zapytano też o to, po co w ogóle wysyłać ludzi w kosmos - przecież coraz więcej potrafią robić bezzałogowe sondy i inne urządzenia. „Można wiele zrobić dzięki technologii - można zobaczyć to, co jest niewidoczne dla ludzkiego oka - w podczerwieni, promieniach gamma czy promieniach X - różnych spektrach poza widzialnym” - przyznał Danny Olivas, który m.in. pracował w NASA nad pierwszym marsjańskim łazikiem czy sondą Cassini.

Jednak potem dodał, że dane, które roboty zbierają kilka lat, mogłyby być przetworzone przez człowieka na miejscu nawet w tydzień. „Człowiek może zdecydować - nie chcę podnosić tego kamienia, a ten wygląda dużo ciekawiej. Może przetwarzać informacje w czasie rzeczywistym, podejmować decyzje w czasie rzeczywistym. Roboty tego nie potrafią” - podkreślał astronauta.

Także generał Hermaszewski wierzy w potrzebę tego, aby ludzie latali w przestrzeń. „W naturze człowieka zawsze, od zarania zresztą, tkwi chęć poznawania przyrody” - mówił. „Człowiek w działaniu jest precyzyjny, ale jest też kreatywny. Maszyna będzie na tyle mądra, na ile ją wyposażymy my - ludzie” - mówił kosmonauta. Dodał też, że urządzenie może się po prostu zepsuć i wtedy potrzebny będzie człowiek.

Astronauci odnieśli się też do roli polityki w kosmicznych lotach. „Zgodnie z naszą naturą skupiamy się na różnicach między nami i to staje się problematyczne przy współpracy. Polityka będzie więc zawsze odgrywała swoją rolę” - powiedział Danny Olivas. „Ale w naszej naturze jest także coś, co napędza ciekawość, pasję, kreatywność, oryginalność” - dodał.

Generał Hermaszewski zwrócił natomiast uwagę, że polityka wiąże się z funduszami, że to dzięki decyzjom politycznym mogą być dostępne pieniądze na badania. Inwestuje się przy tym, licząc na zyski. „Nikt by nie wydał przysłowiowego dolara, gdyby nie spodziewał się czterech czy pięciu. Nie wszędzie to jest rozumiane i myślę, że u nas w Polsce nie ma jeszcze zrozumienia przez polityków wartości, jakie niesie ta dziedzina życia - mówię o kosmosie, o badaniach kosmicznych. Bo przecież to, co osiągnęliśmy w ostatnich 50 latach, to gigantyczny skok. Na co dzień posługujemy się rzeczami, które prapoczątki mają właśnie w technologiach kosmicznych” - powiedział polski kosmonauta.

Tymczasem, jak zwrócił uwagę Tony Antonelli, czasy się zmieniają, a z nimi warunki lotów w kosmos. „Zasoby i pieniądze muszą skądś pochodzić. W naszej erze pochodziły od rządów, tak jednak nie musi być w przyszłości. Nikt nie zainwestuje dolara, nie oczekując czegoś w zamian. Jeśli więc uda nam się opracować model biznesu, to jak wydawać i zarabiać w przestrzeni pieniądze, mogłoby to działać” - stwierdził weteran kosmicznych lotów.

Nie zabrakło także filozoficznych przemyśleń, którymi astronauci zechcieli się podzielić. „Najciekawszą rzeczą związaną z przebywaniem na niskiej orbicie okołoziemskiej - ok. 300 km nad powierzchnią jest dla mnie to, jak piękna jest Ziemia” - mówił Tony Antonelli. "Nie mogę się doczekać pewnego dnia, choć może on nastąpić w dalszej przyszłości, może nawet nie będę wystarczająco długo żył, aby to zobaczyć - kiedy będziemy mówić +pochodzę z Ziemi+” - mówił.


Więcej informacji na stronie https://myspacelovestory.org/category/konferencja-msls/

PAP - Nauka w Polsce, Marek Matacz
http://naukawpolsce.pap.pl/aktualnosci/news%2C81042%2Cweterani-kosmicznych-lotow-warto-wysylac-ludzi-w-kosmos.html
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Marzec 18, 2020, 11:48
How to cope during social distancing with Thomas Pesquet
17 mar 2020 [ESA]

ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet gives us some advice on what to do during a period of social distancing like the one many of us have to endure during the COVID-19 outbreak.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JtoFktrSE68

Link do materiału: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JtoFktrSE68
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 01, 2020, 02:49
Dr Reimar Lüst (1923-2020)

31 marca w wieku 97 lat zmarł dyrektor generalny ESA w latach 1984-1990 Prof. Dr Reimar Lüst

(https://pbs.twimg.com/media/EUdt_agWkAI59wN?format=jpg&name=large)

ESA@esa 10:25 PM (22:25)  · 31 mar 2020

We just heard the sad news that Prof. Dr Reimar Lüst, ESA Director General from 1984–1990, passed away today aged 97.
https://twitter.com/esa/status/1245084761640579079
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 01, 2020, 02:49
Reimar Lüst

(https://www.esa.int/var/esa/storage/images/esa_multimedia/images/2007/11/reimar_luest/9627443-3-eng-GB/Reimar_Luest_pillars.jpg)

Prof. Dr Reimar Lüst was the third Director General of ESA, serving from 1984 until 1990.

Prof. Lüst was born on 25 March 1923 in Wuppertal-Barmen, Germany. He began his studies in 1933 at the Humanistisches Gymnasium in Kassel, until these were interrupted by military service with the German navy in 1941. He served on submarines (Lt. Ing.) and became a prisoner-of-war in England and USA between 1943-46.

He resumed his studies in 1946 and was awarded a Diploma in Physics from the University of Frankfurt/Main in 1949, and a Doctorate in 1951 from the University of Göttingen.

In 1951, Lüst became Fellow and assistant at the Max Planck Institute for Physics, Göttingen, and was a Fulbright Fellow at the Enrico Fermi Institute of the University of Chicago and at Princeton University in 1955-56.

Then followed many distinguished academic positions, at the University of Munich, the University of New York, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.

Prof. Lüst was involved with European space science administration from the very first days of the ‘Commission préparatoire européenne de recherches spatiales’ (COPERS). First as Secretary of the Scientific and Technical Working Group, then as Scientific Director of the European Space Research Organisation (ESRO) from 1962 to 1964, he helped to draw up the scientific programme for ESRO.

After a break at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, and the University of Munich, he became Vice President of ESRO in 1968-70. He was appointed Chairman of the German Science Council (Wissenschaftsrat) 1969-72.

Before joining ESA in 1984, Prof. Lüst was President of the Max Planck Society. Since leaving ESA, he has held a number of senior positions: President (then Honorary President) of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Bonn, Professor at the University of Hamburg, then Chairman and Honorary Chairman (2005) of the Board of Governors, International University, Bremen.

Prof. Lüst's research career has made contributions to our knowledge of the origins of our planetary system, solar physics, the physics of cosmic rays, plasma physics, hydrodynamics and to the physics of nuclear fusion. He was also closely involved the first ESRO sounding rocket launches and satellites to study the upper atmosphere and the planetary medium. He directed experiments on the ESRO-IV and HEOS-A satellites, and was an experiment group leader for the COS-B satellite.

The planetoid 4836 was named 'Lüst', an in 1995 Prof. Lüst received the Adenauer-de Gaulle Prize and the Weizman Award for Science and Humanities. He was also awarded the title of Officer of the French Légion d’Honneur and holds the Grand Federal Cross of Merit of the German Republic.


https://www.esa.int/About_Us/Corporate_news/Reimar_Luest
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 01, 2020, 02:50
Reimar Lüst 1972-1984

Reimar Lüst - From U-Boat engineer to University founder
A portrat by Michael Globig

People don't generally say that they have two dates of birth; however, physicist and science manager Professor Reimar Lüst is one who does. The first date of birth is his real one: 90 years ago, on 25 March 1923, is when he was born in Barmen (now a part of Wuppertal). He mentions his other birthday in the book Der Wissenschaftsmacher, a collection of conversations recorded between historian Paul Nolte and Lüst two years ago: that date is 11 May 1943. That's the day when Lüst, then an engineering officer, was the last man out of a submarine.

The U-boat had been severely damaged by depth charges and artillery fire, and was going to be sunk to prevent it from getting into the hands of the enemy. Lüst swam over to the English frigate that had attacked the sub and was heaved onto the deck – one of 45 crewmembers to be rescued (eleven died). That's why he sees this date as his second birthday.

But the day was to have a significance of another kind for Lüst, a mechanical engineer by background: He was taken into British captivity and later handed over to the Americans. They in turn put him in a prisoner-of-war camp where the inmates – all officers – had set up their own university. Here, the prisoners had the opportunity to listen to lectures given by their fellow prisoners, many of whom had highly specialised backgrounds. It was even possible to sit exams and have them marked. Lüst seized the opportunity and spent four semesters studying theoretical physics and mathematics. He was released from war imprisonment on 25 May 1946, his 23rd birthday. He then took up the studies he had begun in the camp at the University of Frankfurt. The university recognised two of the semesters he had completed in the camp, which enabled him to sit his degree examination as early as the beginning of 1949.

He obtained his PhD in Göttingen in May 1951 under Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, who had given him a problem from theoretical astrophysics for his dissertation topic. With his doctorate under his belt, he took up a post at the Max Planck Institute of Physics, which he interrupted in 1955/56 upon receipt of a one-year Fulbright Scholarship for the US and in 1959 when he was given a guest professorship in mathematics in New York. In 1960 he eventually obtained his postdoctoral lecturing qualification for physics at the Universität München. Lüst became a Scientific Member at the Max Planck Institute of Physics and Astrophysics, which had since moved from Göttingen to Munich, and had added a separate department for extraterrestrial physics in 1963, of which he became Director.

An artificial comet's tail

Naturally, there was a back-story to this: Ludwig Biermann, a colleague of Lüst's from his Göttingen days, had discovered in the early 1950s that comets have a tail consisting of ionised particles which are affected and thrown off track by solar corpuscular radiation (the solar wind). He and Lüst discussed how an artificial comet's tail could be created to test the theory. A mixture of barium and copper oxide proved to be particularly suitable as the starting product for the artificial tail: when a chemical reaction was caused between them, the mixture evaporated and left a cloud of ionised barium atoms.

From the early 1960s onwards, barium containers, which had been developed at the institute, were shot up to great heights with the help of French rockets to produce artificial comet tails. These made the solar wind visible and in the Institute's later experiments also interacted with the Earth's magnetic field. From Earth, they were visible as elongated coloured clouds which aligned themselves with the lines of the Earth's magnetic field. These were the successful beginnings of German space research. And they are what led to Lüst acquiring the department mentioned above – his 'little institute', as it was known – which later became the MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics.

So much for Lüst the scientist. Much more multi-faceted is the life of Lüst the science manager. It began in 1961, when a planning committee was convened for the establishment of a European Space Research Organisation (ESRO), which Lüst charged with handling the entire coordination of the scientific programme in Paris. Lüst's policy consisted in giving the ESRO a remit to provide the technical resources only (rockets, satellites, payloads). The experiments done in the satellites, on the other hand, were to be built and supervised by the national institutes. Lüst eventually parted ways with the ESRO in 1964 to put all his efforts into building up his own institute. But he was called back into the world of science policy in 1969: The German Science Council, which at the time dealt mostly with the expansion of universities and the establishment of new ones, elected him chairman – a post he held until 1972.

"The no. 1 of the Scholar Republic"

That year a new challenge came his way: Adolf Butenandt's period of office as President of the Max Planck Society (MPG) was coming to an end after twelve years and a new President had to be elected. In search of a suitable successor, the Senate of the MPG had come across Reimar Lüst in late 1971: he had long since made a name for himself as a coordinator who could balance different interests and as a good organiser. After intensive talks with Werner Heisenberg, Lüst was prepared to put himself up for office. The Senate elected him the new President on 19 November 1971. His term in office, which was to last twelve years, began on 20 June 1972 at the General Meeting of the Max Planck Society in Bremen. He was now, as a newspaper dubbed him, "the no. 1 of the Scholar Republic".

The Max Planck Society was up in arms at the time. A structural committee which had been convened to amend the statutes took the view that the staff of the institutes should not only be in the Senate but that every institute should also be represented by a member in the respective Section – Chemistry, Physics & Technology, Biology & Medicine, and Human Sciences. The biologists rejected the proposal vehemently, the human scientists were a bit more open to the suggestion and the physicists thought it was a good idea. By way of compromise, Lüst recommended giving the staff a say in the Sections, but not the right to vote on appointment matters.

Under Lüst's presidency, the Senate Planning Committee was established – with a mandate to decide on the closure of institutes and the opening of new ones. Among the new institutes that came into being at that time are the Max Planck Institute of Mathematics in Bonn and the MPI for Psycholinguistics in the Dutch town of Nijmegen. One of the institutes that was closed is the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Living Conditions in the Scientific and Technical World, which had been founded in Starnberg at the end of the 1960s at the instigation of Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and for which no suitable successor could be found after von Weizsäcker's retirement in the early 1980s. It was particularly painful for Lüst to have to inform his former PhD supervisor of the decision to close the Institute.

"A little sad to have to leave this wonderful office"

Lüst's second term of office as President of the Max Planck Society ended in 1984. At the time he was "a little sad to have to leave this wonderful office". However, a new challenge was just around the corner: he became Director General of ESA (the European Space Agency) in Paris, a post he held for six years and one of the many he was given without ever having applied for the job. It was a time when European space travel was in the ascendant: the Ariane III rocket was successfully launched, putting the Spacelab into orbit and carrying Ulf Merbold as the first astronaut to work in it. And in 1985 the European space probe, Giotto – though planned long before the start of Lüst's time in office – managed to get as close as 600 kilometres to Halley's Comet and take photos of the comet's nucleus. Another of the events that took place while Lüst was in office was the Conference of Ministers in The Hague, where the decision was made that Europe should make its own contribution for inclusion in the International Space Station.

By the time Lüst stopped working for the ESA in 1990, he had long since found something else to keep him busy. He had been appointed President of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation in 1989, one of Germany's most important institutions for the advancement of excellent postdoctoral researchers from abroad up to the age of 40. He held this post for ten years. And after that, it should come as no surprise to hear that a new challenge was already awaiting him: the task of establishing a private university, the International University Bremen (IUB, now Jacobs University). Lüst, who had campaigned for German university reform back when he had been Chairman of the German Science Council, was asked by representatives of the Hanseatic City whether he would be prepared to work with them on the planning of the IUB. He consented, but only on several conditions: the Senate and the townspeople had to be fully behind the project, the IUB had to be a fully-fledged university offering courses of study in the natural sciences, humanities and social sciences, and it had to have a board that elected the university president. Other conditions were that it hold entrance exams and lectures in English and charge tuition fees. When he received confirmation that these conditions would be met, he agreed to take part in the planning.

The IUB was officially founded in February 1999. The office of president was assumed by Fritz Schaumann, formerly undersecretary in the Ministry of Education and Research; Lüst was elected Chairman of the Board of Governors, and remains Honorary Chairman to this day. On the advice of Lüst, the IUB was given two faculties: the School of Engineering and Science and the School of Humanities and Social Sciences. September 2001 marked the official inauguration of the IUB, and a third faculty, the Jacobs Center for Lifelong Learning, was added in October 2003.

It's hard to believe that this would be the last challenge Lüst sets himself. The Max Planck Society, in any case, is preparing for further surprises.


https://www.mpg.de/8241473/reimar-luest
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 01, 2020, 03:09
Jacobs University's first honorary doctor: Reimar Lüst
7 mar 2013

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nzao8rVB8R8

Link do materiału: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nzao8rVB8R8
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Kwiecień 04, 2020, 07:40
NASA Station Astronaut Record Holders
April 17, 2020 Editor: Mark Garcia

(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/single_spaceflight_info6.jpg?itok=QJT4LUSu)
NASA astronaut Scott Kelly completed a single mission aboard the International Space Station of 340 days on March 1, 2016. NASA astronaut Christina Koch's first mission aboard the orbiting lab ended after 328 days on Feb. 6, 2020.

(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/cumulative_tis_record_holders_portal7.jpg?itok=9b8yL1TD)
Peggy Whitson set the record on Sept. 2, 2017, for most cumulative days living and working in space by a NASA astronaut at 665 days.
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/nasa-station-astronaut-record-holders

https://twitter.com/SpacesFuture/status/1238231401410904064
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: mss w Czerwiec 09, 2020, 15:35
Była astronautka NASA Kathy Sullivan (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/151.htm), 68 stała się pierwszą kobietą, która 6.6.2020 zanurzyła się batyskafem w Rowie Mariańskim (głębia 11 km)...

więcej: 1) http://www.collectspace.com/news/news-060820a-astronaut-sullivan-challenger-deep.html

2) https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/08/science/challenger-deep-kathy-sullivan-astronaut.html?smtyp=cur&smid=tw-nytimes

Na fotce wraz z dowódcą statku Victor L. Vescovo (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victor_Vescovo), 53.
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 09, 2020, 16:35
2) https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/08/science/challenger-deep-kathy-sullivan-astronaut.html?smtyp=cur&smid=tw-nytimes
Uciekający artykuł więc lepiej przytoczyć go w całości.
Ciekawe czy astronautka powtórzy swój wyczyn ?

First American Woman to Walk in Space Reaches Deepest Spot in the Ocean
By Heather Murphy June 8, 2020

The astronaut Kathy Sullivan, 68, is now also the first woman to reach the Challenger Deep, about seven miles below the ocean’s surface.

(https://static01.nyt.com/images/2020/06/08/science/08xp-sullivan/08xp-sullivan-jumbo.jpg?quality=90&auto=webp)
Kathy Sullivan and Victor Vescovo after their 35,810-foot dive to the Challenger Deep.Credit...Enrique Alvarez

The first American woman to walk in space has become the first woman to reach the deepest known spot in the ocean.

On Sunday, Kathy Sullivan, 68, an astronaut and oceanographer, emerged from her 35,810-foot dive to the Challenger Deep, according to EYOS Expeditions, a company coordinating the logistics of the mission.

This also makes Dr. Sullivan the first person to both walk in space and to descend to the deepest point in the ocean. The Challenger Deep is the lowest of the many seabed recesses that crisscross the globe.

Dr. Sullivan and Victor L. Vescovo, an explorer funding the mission, spent about an hour and a half at their destination, nearly seven miles down in a muddy depression in the Mariana Trench, which is about 200 miles southwest of Guam.

After capturing images from the Limiting Factor, a specially designed deep-sea research submersible, they began the roughly four-hour ascent.

Upon returning to their ship, the pair called a group of astronauts aboard the International Space Station, around 254 miles above earth.

“As a hybrid oceanographer and astronaut this was an extraordinary day, a once in a lifetime day, seeing the moonscape of the Challenger Deep and then comparing notes with my colleagues on the ISS about our remarkable reusable inner-space outer-spacecraft,” Dr. Sullivan said in a statement released by EYOS Expeditions on Monday.

Early Sunday, Mr. Vescovo applauded Dr. Sullivan for being “the first woman to the bottom of the ocean.”

“Big congratulations to her!” Mr. Vescovo posted on Twitter.

In 1978, Dr. Sullivan joined NASA as part of the first group of U.S. astronauts to include women. On Oct. 11, 1984, she became the first American woman to walk in space.

(https://static01.nyt.com/images/2020/06/08/multimedia/08xp-sullivan2/merlin_173345775_3cf1b60f-0156-46ab-81ab-a0f24e94423f-jumbo.jpg?quality=90&auto=webp)
Dr. Sullivan during a space walk from the shuttle Challenger in 1984.Credit...NASA

“That is really great,” Dr. Sullivan said after she floated into the cargo bay of the shuttle Challenger, about 140 miles above Earth.

She later became the administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Dr. Sullivan had a longstanding fascination with the ocean — before becoming an astronaut, she participated in one of the first attempts to use a submersible to study the volcanic processes that make the ocean crust, according to Collect Space, a space history site.

Tim Shank, a biologist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, called Dr. Sullivan a “consummate leader” in the study of the world’s oceans. There is currently only one submarine in the world that can reach the Challenger Deep, he said.

“I’m thrilled to hear that she was in it,” he said. “Anytime we can reach such extreme places on Earth to learn about them, it’s a major event.”

The Challenger Deep was discovered by the H.M.S. Challenger, a British ship that sailed the globe from 1872 to 1876. Since then, many expeditions have sought to measure the fissure’s depth, prompting disagreements not only about the precise figures but also over who truly was the first to reach the deepest point.

In April 2019, Mr. Vescovo, Dr. Sullivan’s diving partner, said he was; the “Titanic” director James Cameron disagreed, insisting he had gone deeper in 2012.

Dr. Sullivan will remain at sea for the next few days, according to a representative from Caladan Oceanic, another company involved in the mission.
https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/08/science/challenger-deep-kathy-sullivan-astronaut.html?smtyp=cur&smid=tw-nytimes
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 09, 2020, 16:36
NASA astronaut from historic spacewalk becomes first woman to reach deepest point in ocean
N'dea Yancey-Bragg USA TODAY Published 9:21 AM EDT Jun 9, 2020

Former NASA astronaut Kathryn D. Sullivan, the first American woman to walk in space, is now also the first woman to reach the deepest point in the ocean.

Sullivan, an oceanographer and veteran of three space shuttle flights, is the first person to achieve both feats. After returning from a nearly 7 mile dive to Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench, Sullivan called her colleagues at the International Space Station, which is in orbit 254 miles above Earth.

“As a hybrid oceanographer and astronaut this was an extraordinary day, a once in a lifetime day, seeing the moonscape of the Challenger Deep and then comparing notes with my colleagues on the ISS about our remarkable reusable inner-space outer-spacecraft," Sullivan said in a statement released Monday by EYOS Expeditions, the company coordinating the mission.

Sullivan became the first American woman to walk in space in a 1984 mission on the space shuttle Challenger and later left NASA to become administrator at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, according to NASA.

She traveled to the deepest point in the ocean, located in the Western Pacific Ocean, on a submersible called the Limiting Factor piloted by Victor Vescovo of Caladan Oceanic before returning to its mothership the Pressure Drop. Vescovo, who has also piloted the Limiting Factor on a recent dive to the Titanic, became the fourth person to reach Challenger Deep last year.

Historic dive: The first manned dive to the Titanic in 14 years found a wreck in 'shocking' decay. The photos are spooky

Eight people have reached the bottom of Challenger Deep, including Vescovo, Sullivan and film maker James Cameron who reached the bottom in 2012, according to EYOS Expeditions.

Vescovo congratulated Sullivan on being "the first woman to the bottom of the ocean" on Twitter.

“We made some more history today," he said in a statement. "And then got to share the experience with kindred spirits in the ISS. It was a pleasure to have Kathy along both as an oceanographer during the dive, and then as an astronaut to talk to the ISS.”

https://eu.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2020/06/09/former-nasa-astronaut-kathryn-sullivan-reaches-deepest-spot-ocean/5325153002/
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 09, 2020, 16:38
Former astronaut becomes first person to have been in space and at full ocean depth
Dr Kathryn Sullivan became the first American woman to walk in space in 1983

(https://static.independent.co.uk/s3fs-public/thumbnails/image/2020/06/08/19/space.jpg?w968)
Dr Kathryn Sullivan became the first human to have been in space and at full ocean depth ( National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) )

(...) Expedition leader Rob McCallum said, “It was amazing to set up a conversation between two ’spacecraft’; one operating as a platform for research in outer space, the other an exploration vehicle for ‘inner space’. Two groups of humans using cutting edge technology to explore the outer edges of our world. It highlighted the vast span of human endeavour while at the same time linking us close together as fellow explorers. We are well used to our clients being ambitious in their quest to explore… but this was a new ‘first’.”

Pilot Mr Vescovo was previously the fourth person in history to reach Challenger Deep as part of his Five Deeps expedition; over the course of seven days, his team made five dives in the Mariana Trench. (...)
https://www.independent.co.uk/news/long_reads/science-and-technology/kathryn-sullivan-astronaut-nasa-challenger-deep-first-limiting-factor-a9555351.html

https://www.lexpress.fr/actualite/sciences/l-ex-astronaute-kathryn-sullivan-devient-la-premiere-femme-a-visiter-le-fond-de-l-ocean_2127771.html
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 09, 2020, 16:41
Former NASA Astronaut Becomes First Woman to Reach Deepest Point on Earth
 Aristos Georgiou 1 day ago

(https://img-s-msn-com.akamaized.net/tenant/amp/entityid/BB15cikf.img?h=532&w=799&m=6&q=60&o=f&l=f)
© Brad Barket/Getty Images Kathryn Sullivan attends 18th Annual Webby Awards on May 19, 2014 in New York, United States.

(...) The first people to achieve the feat were Swiss oceanographer Jacques Piccard and U.S. Navy lieutenant Don Walsh in 1960. The pair were followed by film director James Cameron who made a solo dive in 2012 aboard the submersible Deepsea Challenger.

Then last year Limiting Factor made four trips to Challenger Deep in the space of eight days as part of EYOS and Caladan's Five Deeps Expedition. Vescovo piloted two of these dives, becoming the first person to have reached the summit of Everest, the two poles, and the bottom of four of the world's oceans.

The remaining three people to have reached Challenger Deep include Alan Jamieson, who was Chief Scientist on the Five Deeps Expedition, as well as Patrick Lahey and John Ramsay from Triton Submarines, the company that built Limiting Factor.

The latest descent to Challenger Deep took over four hours, with the total duration of the dive approaching 14 hours. (...)
https://www.msn.com/en-za/news/techandscience/former-nasa-astronaut-becomes-first-woman-to-reach-deepest-point-on-earth/ar-BB15dgT3?li=BBqg6Q6
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: mss w Czerwiec 09, 2020, 22:52
Kathryn Sullivan jest 7 czy 8 człowiekiem na dnie Rowu Mariańskiego?

Bo coś te wykazy są nie precyzyjne!

1 i 2) Don Walsh i Jacques Piccard (razem) 23 stycznia 1960;
3) James Cameron (sam) 26 marca 2012;
4) Victor Vescovo (sam) 28 kwietnia 2019;
5) Victor Vescovo (2-gi raz) 01 maja 2019;
6) ?
7 i 8) Victor Vescovo (3-ci raz) i Kathy Sullivan (1 kobieta) 06 czerwca 2020;
= = =
Aktualne zestawienie:
1) Jacques Piccard (Jan. 23, 1960)
2) Don Walsh (Jan. 23, 1960)
3) James Cameron (March 26, 2012)
4) Victor Vescovo (April 28, 2019, May 1, 2019, June 6, 2020, June 12, 2020)
5) Patrick Lahey (May 3, 2019, May 5, 2019)
6) Jonathan Struwe (May 3, 2019)
7) John Ramsay (May 5, 2019)
8) Kathy Sullivan (June 6, 2020)
9) Vanessa O'Brien (June 12, 2020)

i nowi w gotowości...
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 10, 2020, 01:49
Kathy Sullivan@AstroKDS 3:24 PM · 9 cze 2020
36 years after my space walk, I became the first woman to dive to the deepest known spot in the ocean - the Challenger Deep.  #WorldOceansDay
https://twitter.com/AstroKDS/status/1270346091209375744
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 10, 2020, 01:50
Kathy Sullivan@AstroKDS 8:06 PM · 9 cze 2020
Thanks @heathertal for covering the dive for the @nytimes
 "The first American woman to walk in space has become the first woman to reach the deepest known spot in the ocean." https://nytimes.com/2020/06/08/science/challenger-deep-kathy-sullivan-astronaut.html
https://twitter.com/AstroKDS/status/1270416946861756416
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 10, 2020, 01:55
Wywiad sprzed zejścia na głębiny.

The Vanity Fair Future Series: A Conversation with Kathy Sullivan | Vanity Fair London
115 wyświetleń•9 cze 2020

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FrVE6Z2xbQM

Link do materiału: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FrVE6Z2xbQM
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 10, 2020, 02:00
Royal Astronomical Society@RoyalAstroSoc 12:33 PM · 8 mar 2020

Happy #InternationalWomensDay from the Royal Astronomical Society Iskry Our rising star Assistant Editor
@lucywimss met Astronaut Dr Kathryn Sullivan @AstroKDS at the National Student Space Conference yesterday! #IWD2020 #IWD
https://twitter.com/RoyalAstroSoc/status/1236616139100258304
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 10, 2020, 02:06
Wykład astronautki o HST

Kristina@kri0sis 9:56 PM · 31 mar 2020
@AstroKDS speaking at the @UKSEDS #NSSC2020 today On #space walks + @NASAHubble AMAZING. That's all I can say..
https://twitter.com/kri0sis/status/1236305126895357952

Rescuing The Hubble Space Telescope - with Kathryn D. Sullivan
23 837 wyświetleń•26 mar 2020 The Royal Institution

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=foNf4dVwe80

Link do materiału: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=foNf4dVwe80
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 10, 2020, 02:11
Na 30-lecie umieszczenia HST astronautka napisała książkę

Review: Handprints on Hubble
by Jeff Foust Monday, February 24, 2020

Handprints on Hubble: An Astronaut’s Story of Invention
by Kathryn D. Sullivan
MIT Press, 2019
hardcover, 304 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-0-262-04318-2
US$26.95
https://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0262043181/spaceviews

(...) One key individual in that effort was NASA astronaut Kathryn Sullivan, the first American woman to walk in space. As part of the STS-31 crew, she trained for spacewalks along with Bruce McCandless in case anything went wrong with the spacecraft’s deployment. That work, though, also included efforts to make it easier for future missions to repair the telescope, an effort she describes in her book Handprints on Hubble. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3886/1
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 10, 2020, 02:17
Bardzo dawny wywiad z Kathryn Sullivan

Astronaut Interview: Kathryn D. Sullivan
2726 wyświetleń•16 maj 2016

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hu_JaqDgl1Y

Link do materiału: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hu_JaqDgl1Y
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 10, 2020, 02:28
Kilka nagrań  z udziałem astronautki

George Takei presents to astronauts Mike Massimino and Dr. Kathryn Sullivan
2077 wyświetleń•20 maj 2014
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sVPfIGNENYw

Perspectives of an Astronaut/Oceanographer
1091 wyświetleń•16 lut 2008
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3tFjd8-zCPQ

Former NASA Astronaut, Kathy Sullivan | Full Address and Q&A | Oxford Union
2675 wyświetleń•21 maj 2020
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JWwK4i7K17s

CAS Commencement Speaker Kathryn D. Sullivan
350 wyświetleń•10 maj 2015 American University
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OFZ7R2ThaRc

Kathryn Sullivan: Earth in the Palm of Your Hand
254 wyświetlenia•30 cze 2015 The Aspen Institute
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VQSphWsTHQY

Women in Conservation 2017 – Kathryn Sullivan
207 wyświetleń•17 maj 2016 National Audubon Society
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XRPrGIa4M8E

CSPAN@cspan. 12:53 AM · 13 kwi 2020
@AstroKDS: "Getting into orbit means going 17,500 mph…the liftoff is of course this amazing experience…& then it flips to this other complete magical experience of being able to float anywhere."
Q&A w/ Kathryn Sullivan, first American woman to walk in space – 8pm ET on C-SPAN
https://twitter.com/cspan/status/1249470601988681728
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 10, 2020, 02:31
Astronaut tips from Kathryn Sullivan
21 wyświetleń•14 maj 2020

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f8LM-P42syg

Link do materiału: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f8LM-P42syg&pbjreload=101
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 10, 2020, 02:54
NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project
Edited Oral History Transcript Kathryn D. Sullivan
Interviewed by Jennifer Ross-Nazzal
Falls Church, Virginia – 11 September 2007
https://historycollection.jsc.nasa.gov/JSCHistoryPortal/history/oral_histories/SullivanKD/SullivanKD_5-10-07.htm

NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project
Edited Oral History Transcript Kathryn D. Sullivan
Interviewed by Jennifer Ross-Nazzal
Columbus, Ohio – 28 May 2009
https://historycollection.jsc.nasa.gov/JSCHistoryPortal/history/oral_histories/SullivanKD/SullivanKD_5-28-09.htm
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Czerwiec 10, 2020, 03:03
Rękawica astronautki ze skafandra kosmicznego z misji 41G

https://airandspace.si.edu/stories/editorial/america%E2%80%99s-first-spacewalking-woman-kathryn-d-sullivan
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Lipiec 30, 2020, 18:09
Zmarł prof. Adam Strzałkowski, pionier radioastronomii w Polsce
30.07.2020

(https://naukawpolsce.pap.pl/sites/default/files/styles/strona_glowna_slider_750x420/public/202007/strzalkowski300.jpg?itok=muKGgiKs)
Prof. dr hab. Adam Strzałkowski, fizyk i astronom, pionier radioastronomii w Polsce. Źródło: UJ.

W wieku 96 lat, 25 lipca, zmarł prof. dr hab. Adam Strzałkowski, fizyk i astronom, jeden z polskich pionierów obserwacji radioastronomicznych – poinformował Uniwersytet Jagielloński. Uroczystości pogrzebowe odbędą się w piątek o godz. 13.00 na cmentarzu Bronowickim w Krakowie.

Adam Strzałkowski urodził się 26 listopada 1923 roku w Tenczynku pod Krakowem. W 1948 roku ukończył fizykę na Uniwersytecie Jagiellońskim w Krakowie. Stopień doktora nauk fizycznych uzyskał w 1960 roku (za badania związane z rozpraszaniem deuteronów, czyli jąder atomowych deuteru, który jest izotopem wodoru), habilitację w 1963 roku, a tytuł profesora w 1971 roku.

Pracę naukową rozpoczął w Obserwatorium Astronomicznym UJ. Zbudował pierwszy w Polsce radioteleskop do obserwacji Słońca (wspólnie z Olegiem Czyżewskim i Jerzym de Mezerem). Jego doktoratem miała być praca dotycząca rozpraszania promieniowania w atmosferze Ziemi, która jest cytowana do dzisiaj.

Równocześnie z astronomią, zajmował się także fizyką, m.in. wznowił pomiary promieniowania kosmicznego prowadzone pod ziemią w kopalni soli w Wieliczce (wspólnie z Janem Wesołowskim i Jerzym Janikiem). Była to kontynuacja prac rozpoczętych przed wojną przez Mieczysława Jeżewskiego. W końcu lat 40. został zatrudniony w Zakładzie Fizyki Jądra Atomowego. Zajmował się budową cyklotronu oraz akceleratora elektrostatycznego w Instytucie Fizyki UJ.

Zasługą prof. Strzałkowskiego jest także wkład w stworzenie fizyki uniwersyteckiej na Śląsku. W 1963 roku zorganizował Studium Fizyki w Katowicach, które po przekształceniach stało się częścią Filii Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego w Katowicach, później przekształconej w Uniwersytet Śląski. Za swoje zasługi otrzymał tytuł doktora honoris causa Uniwersytetu Śląskiego.

Opublikował ponad 160 prac naukowych, z których wiele było licznie cytowanych. Jest uważany za jednego z najbardziej zasłużonych naukowców dla rozwoju polskich badań jądrowych.

Prof. Adam Strzałkowski był w różnych latach profesorem Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, dyrektorem Instytutu Fizyki UJ, wicedyrektorem Instytutu Fizyki Jądrowej, prorektorem UJ. Był członkiem Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Polskiej Akademii Umiejętności, Polskiego Towarzystwa Fizycznego, Europejskiego Towarzystwa Fizycznego, komitetu Physics Letters.

Otrzymał także liczne odznaczenia, m.in.: Krzyż Kawalerski Orderu Odrodzenia Polski, Krzyż Oficerski Orderu Odrodzenia Polski, Krzyż Komandorski z Gwiazdą Orderu Odrodzenia Polski, Krzyż Zasługi I klasy Orderu Zasługi RFN, Odznaka Zasłużony dla Województwa Katowickiego, Medal Uniwersytetu Śląskiego.(PAP)

https://naukawpolsce.pap.pl/aktualnosci/news%2C83319%2Czmarl-prof-adam-strzalkowski-pionier-radioastronomii-w-polsce.html
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: mss w Sierpień 09, 2020, 19:39
Raymond Ronquillo Jr., engineer who helped design first lunar rover, dies at 81.

BY JOHN POPE | Contributing writer Aug 8, 2020 - 9:30 am

Raymond McCullum Ronquillo Jr., an engineer who helped design and build the first lunar rover, died July 24 at his Harvey home. He was 81.

That electric-powered vehicle, which resembles a high-tech dune buggy, was designed to extend the range that astronauts could explore once they landed on Earth’s closest neighbor in the solar system. The average jaunt for each manned moon mission has been about 20 miles.

The lunar rover is big – it weighs 460 pounds and measures 7½ feet by 10 feet by 3½ feet – but to get to the moon, all of its parts had to be carefully packed into the spacecraft’s lunar module, where every cubic inch counts, and then painstakingly unloaded and assembled after landing.

That was were Ronquillo came in, his daughter Rene Ronquillo said. “He was smart. He knew how things worked.”

Raymond Ronquillo was one of nine Boeing engineers assigned to manufacture ground equipment – the lunar rover, in other words – for the Saturn V rocket, first at the Michoud Assembly Center in New Orleans East and then in Huntsville, Alabama.

This was heady stuff, especially for a man in his mid-20s who had joined Boeing in 1963. “I don’t know if, as a young man, he realized what he was in,” said MaryTheresa Anne “Do-Bee” Plaisance, another daughter. “He was humble, but thrilled to be part of it.”

Years later, she said, “he would tear up when we talked about it. … When we would bring it up, he’d finish the story.”

His name, and those of his colleagues, is on the lunar rover, which is still on the moon. They are also in the Smithsonian Institution’s Air and Space Museum in Washington, the Space Needle in Seattle and the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

Despite this measure of far-flung fame and his lifelong love of travel, Ronquillo turned down an offer of a job in Seattle because he didn’t want to be so far from his family, Rene Ronquillo said.

“He was a family man, through and through,” she said. “He chose to stay in engineering, but he couldn’t fathom going so far from home.”

He was born in New Orleans on Oct. 14, 1938. He graduated from De La Salle High School, which has elected him to its athletic Hall of Fame.

Ronquillo lettered in track and field and football at the University of Southwestern Louisiana (now the University of Louisiana at Lafayette), where he earned a degree in mechanical engineering. He served in the Army.

He left Boeing in 1971 and worked for several companies until the mid-1970s, when he joined Gulf Engineering, where he worked about 30 years, Rene Ronquillo said.

Working with his son, Raymond McCullum Ronquillo III, he started GIT Services while he was at Gulf, Rene Ronquillo said, and he stayed there after leaving Gulf. GIT Services’ specialties include what is known as non-destructive testing, which is designed to fix defects before they become problems.

Survivors include his wife, Judith Babin Ronquillo; a son, Raymond McCullum Ronquillo III of Baton Rouge; four daughters, MaryTheresa Anne “Do-Bee” Plaisance of Marrero, Beth Ann Williams of Libertyville, Illinois, and Anna Marie Rawle and Rene Monique Ronquillo, both of Harvey; a sister, Mitzi Ronquillo Labadot of Harvey; and 10 grandchildren.

A Mass was said Saturday at St. Martha Catholic Church in Harvey. Burial was in McDonoghville Cemetery in Gretna.

Mothe Funeral Home was in charge of arrangements.

(October 14, 1938 - July 24, 2020)

Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 31, 2020, 00:30
Jakob van Zyl (1957-2020)

Namibian-NASA Scientist Dr. Jakob van Zyl Dies
Science Techniz August 26, 2020 

(https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-3XrKFqR-LEo/X0a_gr_K1JI/AAAAAAAAR3M/28u_jB9-7UYQYINGoJr9HEiTFQuxD_AnQCLcBGAsYHQ/s1600/maxresdefault%2B%25283%2529.jpg)
Dr. Jakob 'Japie' van Zyl

Top Namibian-NASA scientist Dr Jakob ‘Japie’ van Zyl who made headlines with his work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the USA, has died. Dr Van Zyl passed away today at the age of  63 on 26 August 2020 following a heart attack. He was rushed to Pasadena Huntington Hospital in California. He was found in the driveway to his house where he collapsed after returning from his morning jog. His wife Kalfie was with him, but she is not allowed to visit any more due to Covid-19 rules. We therefore don't have much information, but we urge friends and family to pray with us," his brother, Ben Van Zyl, said.

An untimely death of Dr. Japie van Zyl has robbed the nation of an icon, who served as an example to young Namibians of what can be achieved through hard work and dedication. President Hage Geingob in a message of condolence lauded Dr. van Zyl for his contribution as an outstanding scientist and said he was saddened by the news of his untimely death.

In a statement issued by the Namibian Presidency, Dr. Geingob said: “The passing of Dr. Japie van Zyl has robbed our nation of an outstanding Scientist whose contributions in space research advanced our understanding of the universe. My exchanges with the highly affable Dr. van Zyl during his visits to the country of his birth were always pleasant and illuminating.” Dr. Geingob said Dr. van Zyl had the unique ability to make the complex field of space science and his work at NASA accessible to many young Namibian learners and dared them to dream through his exchanges with them.

Namibians will remember him as one of them, born in the small town of Outjo, but who through sheer determination and a quest for excellence in research reached the summit by becoming a top engineer at NASA,” he said. The President on behalf of the Namibian Government and the people of the country expressed his deepest condolences with Dr. van Zyl’s wife, Kalfie, his family, and friends.

Jakob "Japie" van Zyl born in 1957 at Outjo in Namibia. He worked at NASA as electrical engineer and space manager. He was a high-ranking employee of NASA from 1986 to 2019 and was awarded the Outstanding Public Service Medal as part of the InSight - Mars mission by NASA in September 2019.

Education

Van Zyl earned degrees in engineering ( B. Hons. ) From Stellenbosch University in South Africa (1979) and M.Sc. and Ph.D. in the same subject from the California Institute of Technology in the United States (1983 and 1986). During this time he also taught there. From 1986 he worked in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and was responsible for setting up numerous synthetic aperture radar systems.

He holds two patents and 17 NASA certificates of recognition. Van Zyl's research interests include electromagnetic theory, wave propagation, diffraction and scattering, remote sensing techniques, radar polarimetry and interferometry, and antenna and sensor theory and techniques. He and his wife, Kalfie, are residents of Pasadena, CA in the United States.

(https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-QMgGgf5OT50/X0bC1sz0m5I/AAAAAAAAR3U/l8UyYumBsyECbZMFr-ZGyEmEWsgBr9pAwCLcBGAsYHQ/s1600/Dr-Japie-van-Zyl-NUST-8-web.jpg)
Namibian University of  Science and Technology Chancellor, Peter Katjavivi poses picture with Dr. van Zyl.

He was most recently head of the exploration of the solar system of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and previously headed from 2006, the department astronomy and physics . Van Zyl worked with other scientists to improve a test device for the detection of COVID-19 diseases.
A street in his hometown Outjo has been named after Japie van Zyl since 2018.

Award

1997: Fred Nathanson Memorial Radar Award from the IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Society
2010: Distinguished Achievement Award from the Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society
2019: Outstanding Public Service Medal from NASA

InSight-Mission

InSight (Discovery Mission) was one of the space mission a robotic lander (Curiosity Rover ) the creative art designed by Dr. Jakob van Zyl to study the deep interior of the planet Mars. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully landed at Elysium Planitia on Mars on 26 November 2018 at 19:52:59 InSight traveled 483 million km (300 million mi) during its journey to the red planet. InSight seeks to answer one of science's most fundamental questions: How did the terrestrial planets form?
https://www.sciencetechniz.com/2020/08/namibian-nasa-scientist-dies-from-heart.html
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 31, 2020, 00:30
Jakob van Zyl, key Jet Propulsion Laboratory engineer, dies
ByThe Associated Press 28 August 2020, 00:48

Jakob van Zyl, an engineer who held crucial positions at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and was involved in numerous space exploration missions over decades, has died

PASADENA, Calif. -- Jakob van Zyl, an engineer who held crucial positions at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and was involved in numerous space exploration missions over decades, has died. He was 63.

Van Zyl, who retired in 2019 after a 33-year career, suffered a heart attack on Monday and died Wednesday at a hospital in Pasadena, California, said Veronica McGregor, a spokeswoman for JPL.

Van Zyl’s roles included director for astronomy and physics, director for solar system exploration and associate director on a project to formulate a vision for JPL’s future.

“JPL and NASA are richer for his many technical and managerial contributions, and for his unwavering dedication and engaging personality,” JPL Director Michael Watkins said in a statement.

Van Zyl was involved in missions that sent the Juno spacecraft to Jupiter, Dawn to the asteroid belt, Cassini to Saturn, and the InSight Mars lander and its tying accompanying CubeSat spacecraft. He was also involved in the Mars 2020 Perseverance rover mission currently en route to the red planet, as well as development of future missions.

His early work in Earth sciences led to roles designing and developing missions using synthetic aperture radar.

A native of Namibia, van Zyl received a degree in electronics engineering from Stellenbosch University in South Africa and earned his master’s and doctorate in electrical engineering from the California Institute of Technology, which manages JPL.

JPL said van Zyl was passionate about encouraging young people in Namibia and South Africa to pursue science.

“His legacy will inspire many generations to come,” Lisa Johnson, U.S. ambassador to Namibia, said in a video tribute posted to the embassy Facebook page.

Van Zyl is survived by his wife, Kalfie, and two siblings.
https://abcnews.go.com/Technology/wireStory/jakob-van-zyl-key-jet-propulsion-laboratory-engineer-72661875
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Sierpień 31, 2020, 12:01
Jürg Meister 1939-2020

Zum Tod von Jürg Meister
18.08.2020 Von Nicola von Greyerz

Vor gut einem Jahr hielt Jürg Meister einen Teil der Sonnenwind-Folie, die an Bord von Apollo 11 zum Mond geflogen war, wieder in den Händen – anlässlich eines Filmporträts zum 50. Jahrestag der Mondlandung. Als Doktorand an der Universität Bern beteiligte er sich massgeblich am weltberühmten Sonnenwindexperiment. Am 7. August 2020 ist der Physiker im Alter von 81 Jahren verstorben.

(https://www.uniaktuell.unibe.ch/unibe/portal/uniaktuell/content/e911257/e988638/e988639/Kachelbild_Juerg_Meister_mitFolie_1200_ger.jpg)
Jürg Meister mit einer Folie für das weltberühmte Sonnenwindexperiment, das bei der ersten Mondlandung vor 50 Jahren durchgeführt wurde. Der Physiker starb am 7. August 2020 im Alter von 81 Jahren.

«Zwei Monate vor dem Apollo 11 Flug musste das Paket, das zum Mond fliegen sollte, nach Cape Canaveral gebracht werden. Dafür habe ich den Zuschlag bekommen. Ich nahm die Folie im Handgepäck mit, gab sie drüben ab. Jetzt, nach 50 Jahren, sehe ich sie zum ersten Mal wieder». Sichtlich gerührt hält Jürg Meister im Video den Bilderrahmen mit dem untersten Folienteil des Sonnenwindsegels in den Händen und erzählt weiter. Dass seine Frau und er extra ein TV Gerät gemietet hätten, um die erste Mondlandung live mitzuerleben und dass es ihn sehr freue, dass auch nach 50 Jahren immer noch so grosses Interesse an dem Berner Sonnenwindsegel bestehe.

Guido Schwarz, Kommunikationsverantwortlicher vom Nationalen Forschungsschwerpunkt NFS PlanetS, produzierte im Vorfeld von «Bern im All», den Feierlichkeiten rund um das Jubiläum der ersten Mondlandung im Sommer 2019, eine Serie von Videoporträts mit Pionierinnen und Pionieren der Berner Weltraumforschung. Jürg Meister ist als wichtiger Zeitzeuge einer der acht Kurzfilme gewidmet.

Sein Porträt ist geprägt von der ruhigen, präzisen und unaufdringlichen Art, in der Meister beispielsweise den Mechanismus der Teleskopstangen beschreibt, an denen das Segel befestigt wurde, oder das Experiment erklärt, mit dem Partikel des Sonnenwindes eingefangen werden und später im Berner Labor ausgewertet sollten: «Das ist ungefähr so, wie wenn man mit Schrot auf einen Baum schiesst. Die Kügelchen bleiben stecken. Wenn man das Holz verbrennt, kommen die Kugeln wieder zum Vorschein und man kann sie zählen. Etwa so ging das mit den Sonnenwindionen.»

Jürg Meister hat als junger Doktorand sowohl an der Entwicklung des Sonnenwindsegels als auch an der Konstruktion des Sonnenwindsimulators mitgearbeitet. In diesem Simulator wurde künstlicher Sonnenwind mittels irdischer Edelgase erzeugt. So konnte der Nachweis erbracht werden, dass die Teilchen des Sonnenwindes tatsächlich in der Folie stecken bleiben würden. Dieses Experiment brauchte es, um die NASA zu überzeugen, das Berner Sonnenwindsegel mit zum Mond fliegen zu lassen. Jürg Meister hatte dafür mehr als tausend Tests durchgeführt.


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Jürg Meister anlässlich von Feierlichkeiten rund um die Ionenbeschussanlage im ExWi in den 60er Jahren. Foto: zvg

Bei allen Erzählungen schwingt auch Stolz mit, Teil des Teams rund um Physikprofessor Johannes Geiss gewesen zu sein. Sein Sonnenwindsegel begründete den weltweit exzellenten Ruf der Universität Bern in der Weltraumforschung. «Zum Mond raufschauen und sich vorstellen, dass dort oben fünf von diesen Teleskopstangen, an denen das Sonnenwindsegel aufgehängt war, liegen und wahrscheinlich auf Zeit und Ewigkeit dort bleiben werden, das macht mich stolz und gibt mir ein richtig gutes Gefühl», sagte Jürg Meister im Video.

Im Sommer 2019 schien es für ihn daher wohl eine Selbstverständlichkeit, sich aktiv an den «Bern im All»-Feierlichkeiten rund um das 50-Jahr-Jubiläum der ersten Mondladung zu beteiligen. Mit Freude kam er den vielen Medienanfragen nach und erzählte mit grosser Geduld – und dem ihm eigenen Schalk in den Augen – Zeitungen, Radio- und TV-Stationen, aber auch bei der grossen Jubiläumsveranstaltung im Berner Kursaal immer wieder von den vielen Herausforderungen, die sich dem Team von der ersten Idee bis hin zur Realisierung des Sonnensegel-Experiments stellten. «Das verlangte uns schon sehr viel Hirnschmalz ab», fügte Meister an. Einen besseren Botschafter für das Festival konnte sich das Team von «Bern im All» nicht vorstellen!


(https://www.uniaktuell.unibe.ch/unibe/portal/uniaktuell/content/e911257/e988638/e988645/20200818_Kursaal_UniBern_JuergMeister_50J_Mondlandung_ger.jpg)
Jürg Meister bei Feierlichkeiten im Berner Kursaal im Juni 2019 anlässlich des 50-Jahr-Jubiläums der Mondlandung. Foto: Ramon Lehmann

Jürg Meister wurde 1939 geboren. Er wuchs in Köniz auf und studierte an der Universität Bern Experimentalphysik und doktorierte bei Prof. Johannes Geiss. In den frühen 1970er Jahren absolvierte er ein Postdoktorat an der Rice-University in Texas und beschäftigte sich dort mit der Analyse von Daten eines anderen Monddetektors. Nach seiner Rückkehr nach Bern wechselte er bald in die Munitionsfabrik Thun und zog mit seiner Familie nach Steffisburg. Seit jeher hat ihn alles, was flog, in den Bann gezogen. So hat er zum Beispiel mit seiner Frau Susanne zu Hause Schwalbenschwanz-Schmetterlinge gezüchtet. Am vergangenen 7. August hat auf einer Wanderung zu den Gastlosen sein Herz aufgehört zu schlagen.

ZUR AUTORIN

Nicola von Greyerz arbeitet als Verantwortliche für gesamtuniversitäre Anlässe in der Abteilung Kommunikation & Marketing an der Universität Bern und war Projektleiterin der Feierlichkeiten von «Bern im All» zum 50-jährigen Jubiläum der Mondlandung.

https://www.uniaktuell.unibe.ch/2020/zum_tod_von_juerg_meister/index_ger.html

https://www.ruag.com/en/news/piece-bern-switzerland-moon

Oral History: Dr. Jürg Meister
473 wyświetlenia•17 cze 2019 Universität Bern
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c_3QCSnATnk&feature=youtu.be

(http://www.esa.int/var/esa/storage/images/esa_multimedia/images/2009/07/the_apollo_11_solar_wind_composition_experiment/9955691-2-eng-GB/The_Apollo_11_Solar_Wind_Composition_Experiment_pillars.jpg)(http://apod.pl/apod/image/1707/AS11-40-5872HR1024.jpg)

The flag-like Solar Wind Composition Experiment was the first experiment set up by the Apollo 11 astronauts on the lunar surface, and its Principal Investigator was Johannes Geiss, the world-leading Swiss physicist.

Manufactured by the University of Bern and the Swiss National Science Foundation, this experiment was both simple and of great scientific value. It was one of the only experiments to be carried on every lunar landing mission, and it was the only non-American experiment to be part of the Apollo landings. It consisted of an aluminium foil sheet, 1.4 m by 0.3 m, fixed to a pole facing the Sun.
http://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2009/07/The_Apollo_11_Solar_Wind_Composition_Experiment

http://apod.pl/apod/ap170722.html
https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/picture-of-the-weekapollo-11-solar-wind-composition-experiment-14334095/
https://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_11/experiments/swc/
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 06, 2020, 02:23
Z dniem 03.09.2020 astronauta amerykański Richard R. Arnold II (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/489.htm) trafił do Management Astronauts (https://www.nasa.gov/astronauts/biographies/management).

Ciekawe czy będzie jakiś oficjalny release NASA?

Wg aktualnego stanu jest 47 aktywnych astronautów NASA, a w roli astronautów-menadżerów NASA jest 14 osób.
Zestawienie jest pod adresem: http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/activusa.htm.

Aktywni astronauci NASA wg grup.
Na 03.09.2020 jest 47. (w tym 16 kobiet) astronautów aktywnych w 7. grupach.
Sześcioro (w tym 2 panie) z nich urodziło się w okresie lotów księżycowych programu Apollo.
11. ( w tym 6 kobiet) ma już przydział do przyszłych załóg.
Obecnie lot kosmiczny odbywa 1 amerykański astronauta.

1996 NASA grupa 16 (4)

Edward Michael 'Mike' Fincke (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/433.htm) 1967 (2004, 2008, 2011) Starliner CFT F2 2021
Donald Roy Pettit (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/426.htm) 1955 (2002, 2008, 2011)
Jeffrey Nels Williams (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/393.htm) 1958 (2000, 2006, 2009, 2016)
Stephanie Diana Wilson (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/443.htm) 1966 (2006, 2007, 2010)

1998 NASA grupa 17 (3)

Tracy Ellen Caldwell-Dyson (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/458.htm) 1969 (2007, 2010)
Douglas Harry Wheelock (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/463.htm) 1960 (2007, 2010)
Sunita Lyn 'Suni' Williams (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/451.htm) 1965 (2006, 2012) Starliner -1/USCV-4 2021

( Były astronauta  Grupy 17):
Christopher John 'Fergie' Ferguson (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/444.htm) 01.09.1961 (2006, 2008, 2011) Starliner CFT F2 2021

2000 NASA grupa 18 (8 )

Michael Reed Barratt (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/490.htm) 1959 (2009, 2011)
Robert Louis Behnken (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/469.htm) 1970 (2008, 2010, 2020)
Eric Allen Boe (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/484.htm) 1964 (2008, 2011) odsunięty z przyczyn medycznych z lotu Starliner CFT F2, 2021
Stephen Gerard Bowen (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/485.htm) 1964 (2008, 2010, 2011)
Andrew Jay Feustel (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/494.htm) 1965 (2009, 2011, 2018)
Douglas Gerald 'Chunky' Hurley (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/496.htm) 1966 (2009, 2011, 2020)
Megan McArthur Behnken (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/493.htm) 1971 (2009) Dragon F3 USCV-2/Crew-2 2021
Barry Eugene 'Butch' Wilmore (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/505.htm) 1962 (2009, 2014)

2004 NASA grupa 19 (6)

Joseph Michael Acaba (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/488.htm) 1967 (2009, 2012, 2017)
Randolph James 'Randy' Bresnik (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/506.htm) 1967 (2009, 2017)
Christopher John 'Chris' Cassidy (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/497.htm) 1970 (2009, 2013, 2020)
Robert Shane Kimbrough (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/486.htm) 1967 (2008, 2016) Dragon F3 USCV-2/Crew-2 2021
Thomas Henry 'Tom' Marshburn (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/498.htm) 1960 (2009, 2012)
Shannon Walker (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/515.htm) 1965 (2010) Dragon F2 USCV-1/Crew-1 2020

2009 NASA grupa 20 (7)

Jeanette Jo Epps (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/epps.htm) 1970 Starliner-1/USCV-4 2021
Michael Scott Hopkins (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/533.htm) 1968 (2013) Dragon F2 USCV-1/Crew-1 2020
Kjell Norwood Lindgren (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/540.htm) 1973 (2015)
Kathleen Hallisey Rubins (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/546.htm) 1978 (2016) Sojuz MS-17 2020
Scott David Tingle (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/552.htm) 1965 (2017) z-ca szefa Oddziału Astronautów
Mark Thomas Vande Hei (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/551.htm) 1966 (2017)
Gregory Reid Wiseman (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/535.htm) 1975 (2014)

2013 NASA grupa 21 (8 )

Josh Aaron Cassada (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/cassada.htm) 1973 Starliner-1/USCV-4 2021
Victor Jerome Glover, Jr. (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/glover.htm) 1976 Dragon F2 USCV-1/Crew-1 2020
Tyler Nicklaus 'Nick' Hague (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/556.htm) 1975 (2018, 2019)
Christina Hammock-Koch (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/hammock.htm) 1979 (2019)
Nicole Aunapu Mann (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/mann.htm) 1977 Starliner CFT F2 2021
Anne Charlotte McClain (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/mcclain.htm) 1979 (2018)
Jessica Ulrika Meir (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/meir.htm) 1977 (2019)
Andrew Richard Morgan (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/morgan.htm) 1976 (2019)

2017 NASA grupa 22 (11)

Kayla Sax Barron (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/barron.htm) 1987
Zena Maria Cardman (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/cardman.htm) 1987
Raja Jon Vurputoor 'Grinder' Chari (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/chari.htm) 1977
Matthew Stuart Dominick (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/dominick.htm) 1981
Robert Thomas 'Bob' Hines, Jr. (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/hines.htm) 1975
Warren Woodrow 'Woody' Hoburg (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/hoburg.htm) 1985
Jonathan Yong 'Jonny' Kim (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/kim.htm) 1984
Jasmin Moghbeli (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/moghbeli.htm) 1983
Loral Ashley O'Hara (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/ohara.htm) 1983
Francisco Carlos 'Frank' Rubio (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/rubio.htm) 1975
Jessica Andrea Watkins (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/watkins.htm) 1988
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 08, 2020, 02:35
Oleg Grigorjewicz  Kononienko 1938-1980

(http://www.testpilot.ru/base/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/kononenko1.jpg)

Олег Григорьевич Кононенко

Испытательная работа:

В 1966 окончил вертолётное отделение Школы лётчиков-испытателей Летно-исследовательского института (ЛИИ) Министерства авиационной промышленности (МАП).

С марта 1966 - на лётно-испытательной работе в ЛИИ имени М.М.Громова. Провёл ряд сложных испытаний на вертолётах Ми-2, Ми-4, Ми-6, Ми-8, а также на самолёте Як-38 по тематике института. 27 декабря 1979 года в ходе отработки взлета с коротким разбегом с палубы авианесущего крейсера "Минск" в акватории Уссурийского залива самолет Як-38У, пилотируемый О.Кононенко и М.Дексбахом, потерпел аварию и рухнул в море из-за отказа системы поворота сопел. Летчикам удалось катапультироваться.

8 сентября 1980 года в 6 часов 13 минут по московскому времени, в Южно-Китайском море при взлете самолета вертикального взлета и посадки (СВВП) Як-38 с палубы тяжелого авианесущего крейсера «Минск» при отработке методики укороченного взлета на предельных режимах не переложились створки сопла подъемно-маршевого (заднего) двигателя, самолет «просел», ударившись колесами об ограничительный брус. Выйдя за обрез палубы, самолет стал полого снижаться. Кононенко не катапультировался, до последнего пытаясь спасти самолет. Перед ударом о воду в 150 м впереди корабля бурлящими струями воды, поднятыми работающими двигателями, от самолета оторвало закрылок, машину крутануло на 180 градусов. Як-38 с номером 45 на борту еще минуту находился на плаву, но никаких движений в кабине не было. Самолет ударился о воду не сильно - вертикальная скорость была 3 м/сек. Но сочетание боковой (машину в момент потери закрылка резко развернуло) и вертикальной перегрузок могло вызвать у летчика внезапную потерю сознания, и поэтому катапультироваться он не смог.

Космическая подготовка:

12 июля 1977 года приказом №630 начальника ЛИИ зачислен в группу специальной подготовки по программе «Буран». 3 августа 1978 года получил положительное заключение Главной медицинской комиссии (ГМК).
1 февраля 1979 года приказом №34 Министерства авиационной промышленности (МАП) зачислен в головную группу для подготовки по теме 11Ф35 («Буран»).
С апреля 1979 по сентябрь 1980 года проходил общекосмическую подготовку в ЦПК им.Ю.А.Гагарина методом сборов. 30 июля 1980 года решением ГМВК рекомендован для зачисления в группу космонавтов-исследователей.
(...)
http://www.astronaut.ru/as_rusia/lii/text/kononenko.htm?reload_coolmenus

https://testpilot.ru/base/2009/10/kononenko-o-g/

22.05.2017 Андрей Синицын: Як, обогнавший F-35

(...)
— Мог режим висения на высоте, скажем, 2000 метров использоваться для решения боевых задач?

— Он опробовался, в частности в ходе испытаний в Афганистане. Но там в придачу к высокогорью (а в этих условиях падает тяга) было еще и очень жарко, машина с трудом поднималась, имея всего пару ракет. Поэтому испытания провели, возможность использования “вертикалки“ в таких условиях доказали, но убедились, что боевая эффективность классических штурмовиков Су-25 в высокогорье значительно выше.

В чем смысл использования “вертикалки“? Практически не нужна полоса. Дайте огрызок длиной 120–150 метров, и мы взлетим. ВПП во время боевых действий становятся едва ли не основными целями. А мы с любого уцелевшего кусочка бетонки взлетим. Прорабатывались программы взлета прямо из бетонных укрытий, что при нужде позволяло поднять в воздух одновременно все имеющиеся самолеты без ожидания своей очереди на ВПП. Существовал проект, когда Як-38 взлетал с трейлера и садился на него же, причем трансформируемая посадочная площадка одновременно являлась и контейнером, в котором перевозился самолет. Эти испытания успешно провел Олег Кононенко в 1980 году. Для облегчения ориентации создали специальную оптическую систему визуальной посадки, позволявшую летчику видеть пространство под самолетом.

Получается, первое огромное преимущество “вертикалок“ — работа вне аэродромов, это на суше. Как следствие — скрытное перемещение в любую точку, взлет с любой площадки. А на море — возможность использовать для базирования и взлета-посадки практически любые суда, проводились испытания старта с контейнеровозов. Эту программу отлично отработали инструкторы из Сакского центра, доказав тем самым, что с самолетами вертикального взлета любую баржу можно превратить в авианосец. (...)
http://aviationunion.ru/news_second.php?new=10843

Олег Григорьевич Кононенко (https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BA%D0%BE,_%D0%9E%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%B3_%D0%93%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B3%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%8C%D0%B5%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87)
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 09, 2020, 04:34
Rimantas Antanas Stankjawicius (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/buran1.htm) 1944-1990

(http://www.astronaut.ru/as_rusia/lii/foto/stankyavichus.jpg)

Римантас Антанас-Антано Станкявичюс

(...)
Космическая подготовка:

12 июля 1977 года приказом №630 начальника ЛИИ зачислен в группу специальной подготовки по программе «Буран». 19 января 1979 года получил положительное заключение Главной медицинской комиссии (ГМК).

1 февраля 1979 года приказом №34 Министерства авиационной промышленности (МАП) зачислен в головную группу для подготовки по теме 11Ф35 («Буран»).

С апреля 1979 по декабрь 1980 года проходил общекосмическую подготовку в ЦПК им.Ю.А.Гагарина методом сборов. 30 июля 1980 года решением ГМВК рекомендован для зачисления в группу космонавтов-исследователей.

26 сентября 1980 года приказом MOM №345 включен в состав отряда космонавтов-исследователей (без указания названия отряда).

10 августа 1981 года приказом №26 начальника ЛИИ был зачислен в созданный в ЛИИ МАП отряд космонавтов-испытателей.

12 февраля 1982 года после сдачи всех зачетов по общекосмической подготовке решением МВКК присвоена квалификация «космонавт-испытатель».
 
С сентября 1982 по май 1983 года готовился к космическому полету в составе резервного экипажа с А.Викторенко и В.Севастьяновым. Был выведен из экипажа в связи с изменением программы полетов на ДОС «Салют-7».
 
С сентября 1984 года по программе подготовки к космическому полету на МТКК «Буран» проводил отработку систем ручного управления и автоматической посадки на самолетах-лабораториях Ту-154 и МиГ-25, оснащенных системой управления «Бурана».
 
По планам МАП и ЛИИ Р.Станкявичюс должен был стать вторым пилотом основного экипажа первого космического полета МТКК «Буран» вместе с И.Волком. Однако по планам НПО «Энергия» он проходил подготовку в качестве командира экипажа вместе с А.Баландиным из НПО «Энергия», а с 1988 года - вместе с В.Заболотским.

Выполнил шесть рулежек по ВПП и четырнадцать полетов на специальном экземпляре корабля «Буран» для горизонтально-летных испытаний ОК-ГЛИ (самолет-аналог БТС-02) в качестве командира экипажа и второго пилота: (...)

Дата и причина смерти:

Погиб 9 сентября 1990 года во время показательного выступления на Су-27 на международном авиасалоне в городе Сальгареда (Salgareda), Италия. Похоронен на Военном мемориальном кладбище г.Каунас в Литве. На Быковском кладбище в г.Жуковском поставлен мемориальный знак.
(...)
http://www.astronaut.ru/as_rusia/lii/text/stankyavichus.htm?reload_coolmenus

https://testpilot.ru/base/2010/04/stankyavichus-r-a-a/

Станкявичюс, Римантас Антанас (https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%BA%D1%8F%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87%D1%8E%D1%81,_%D0%A0%D0%B8%D0%BC%D0%B0%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B0%D1%81_%D0%90%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%81)
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: mss w Wrzesień 15, 2020, 21:49
СМИ: Турция предоставила гражданство первому сирийскому космонавту Мухаммеду Фарису

Он покинул Сирию восемь лет назад из-за начавшегося в стране противостояния между правительственными войсками и вооруженной оппозицией

АНКАРА, 12 сентября. /ТАСС/. Власти Турции предоставили гражданство первому сирийскому космонавту Мухаммеду Ахмеду Фарису, который на протяжении последних лет проживает в республике. Об этом сообщил в субботу телеканал TRT.

Фарис покинул Сирию восемь лет назад из-за начавшегося в стране противостояния между правительственными войсками и вооруженной оппозицией, требующей ухода Башара Асада с поста президента. Бывший космонавт ранее неоднократно высказывал в адрес Турции слова благодарности за то, что Анкара "поддерживает Сирию и ее народ".

Между тем сирийский военный летчик Фарис в 1987 году в течение недели участвовал в работе экспедиции на орбитальном научно-исследовательском комплексе "Мир", за что был удостоен звания Героя Советского Союза.


https://tass.ru/obschestvo/9438867

Muhammed Ahmed Fares (http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/202.htm)

Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 16, 2020, 04:52
Walentin Ignatjewicz Fiłatjew 1930-1990

(https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ru/5/58/%D0%92._%D0%A4%D0%B8%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%8C%D0%B5%D0%B2.png)

Валентин Игнатьевич Филатьев

(...) Космическая подготовка:
25 марта 1960 года приказом Главкома ВВС №363 зачислен слушателем-космонавтом в отряд космонавтов ЦПК ВВС.

С марта 1960 по декабрь 1961 года проходил общекосмическую подготовку. По программе теоретической подготовки изучал системы и материальную часть КК «Восток».

3 апреля 1961 года успешно сдал выпускные экзамены по теоретической части ОКП, после чего продолжил тренировки.

По завершению тренировок 16 декабря 1961 года был зачислен на должность космонавта ЦПК ВВС.

17 апреля 1963 года приказом Главкома ВВС №089 отчислен из отряда космонавтов «за нарушение воинской дисциплины и режима космонавтов».
(...)
Дата и причина смерти:
Умер 15 сентября 1989 года от рака легкого (по другим сообщениям - от рака горла). Похоронен на Троицком кладбище в г.Орел.
http://www.astronaut.ru/as_rusia/vvs/text/filatiev.htm?reload_coolmenus

Первый отряд космонавтов: Филатьев Валентин Игнатьевич

После ухода из отряда космонавтов продолжил службу в авиационных частях ПВО СССР.

В 1969 г. уволен из Вооруженных сил в отставку по состоянию здоровья.

В 1970-1977 гг. работал в г. Орле в Государственном институте "Гипроприбор", где занимался проектированием приборов строительных заводов. 1977-1987 гг. преподавал на областных курсах по гражданской обороне. С 1987 г. на пенсию.

Умер 15 сентября 1990 г. и похоронен в г. Орле.
http://astrolab.ru/cgi-bin/galery.cgi-id=32&no=1481.html

https://gagarinm.ru/virtex/x-men/24.html

Walentin Ignatjewicz Fiłatjew od 25.03.1960 r. do 17.04.1963 r. - zmarł 15.09.1980 r.;
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/wws1.htm

Филатьев, Валентин Игнатьевич (https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A4%D0%B8%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%8C%D0%B5%D0%B2,_%D0%92%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%BD_%D0%98%D0%B3%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%8C%D0%B5%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87)

https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walentin_Fi%C5%82atjew
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 16, 2020, 07:56
Space Station 20th: Hispanic Heritage Month (1)
Sept. 15, 2020

In honor of Hispanic Heritage Month, we recognize Hispanic astronauts who have flown to the International Space Station (ISS) and contributed to its assembly, operations, and research activities. They were preceded in space by other pioneers. The first person in space of Hispanic heritage was Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez of Cuba who spent eight days aboard the Salyut-6 space station in 1980 as part of the Soviet Union’s Interkosmos program to fly cosmonauts from friendly socialist countries. The first Hispanic-American in space was Franklin R. Chang-Díaz when he flew as a mission specialist aboard Space Shuttle Columbia’s STS-61C mission in 1986. He flew in space a record-tying six more times, including one visit to the Russian space station Mir and one to ISS.

(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/arnaldo_tamayo_mendez_portrait.jpg?itok=gBsaYYnw)(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/chang_diaz_portrait.jpg?itok=dXvKGw2-)
Left: Portrait of Tamayo Méndez. Right: Portrait of Chang-Díaz.

In this article, we recognize the American astronauts of Hispanic heritage who have flown aboard ISS, contributing to its construction and operation and conducting the world-class research for which the station is known. The table below lists these individuals and others of different nationalities who have similarly shared in this remarkable international adventure.

(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/table_of_hispanic_astronauts.jpg?itok=0beYCGIC)
Table of Hispanic astronauts who have visited ISS.

The honor of being the first Hispanic astronaut to fly to ISS belongs to Ellen L. Ochoa, selected by NASA in 1990 as the first female Hispanic astronaut. She had already completed two spaceflights, STS-56 in 1993 and STS-66 the following year, before making her first visit to ISS in 1999 as a mission specialist aboard Discovery’s STS-96. The goals of the mission, only the second shuttle flight to ISS that at the time comprised only two modules, included the transfer of two tons of logistics to the station, launched inside a Spacehab double module, and the delivery of the Russian Strela cargo crane.

(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/iss20_hhm_ochoa_iss_from_sts_96_sts096-712-068.jpg?itok=4CstSuo2)(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/iss20_hhm_ochoa_sts_96_crew_in_node_1_s96e5169.jpg?itok=3zUkVCrH)(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/iss20_hhm_ochoa_in_fgb_w_payette_sts_96_sts096-364-015.jpg?itok=gfqsT1pz)
Left: ISS as seen from STS-96.
Middle: Ochoa, lower right, with the STS-96 crew in the Unity Node 1.
Right: Ochoa, bottom, with fellow STS-96 crewmembers Julie Payette in the Zarya module.


Ochoa returned to a much-enlarged ISS aboard Atlantis in April 2002 during the STS-110 mission that delivered the 13-ton S0 truss, the center segment section to which future truss segments were attached. Ochoa operated the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) also known as Canadarm2 to lift S0 from the shuttle’s payload bay and attach it atop the Destiny module. The S0 truss also contained the Mobile Transporter to allow the SSRMS to translate up and down the trusses. Ochoa was named as the Johnson Space Center’s (JSC) Deputy Director in 2007, then as JSC’s first Hispanic Director in 2013.  She served in that position until her retirement from NASA in 2018.

(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/iss20_hhm_ochoa_sts_110_operating_ssrms_s110e5251.jpg?itok=65tn-f6G)(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/iss20_hhm_ochoa_sts_110_iss_w_s0_on_lab_s110e6006.jpg?itok=287Y-0zf)(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/iss20_hhm_ochoa_jsc_center_director.jpg?itok=uUzgdAVZ)
Left: Ochoa operating Canadarm2 in the Destiny module.
Middle:  ISS as seen from the departing STS-110, showing the S0 truss mounted on Destiny.
Right: Ochoa as JSC Director.
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 16, 2020, 07:56
Space Station 20th: Hispanic Heritage Month (2)

NASA selected Michael E. “LA” Lopez-Alegria, born in Madrid, Spain, as an astronaut in 1992. Already a veteran of STS-73, the second mission of the United States Microgravity Laboratory, Lopez-Alegria served as a mission specialist on STS-92 during his first visit to ISS. He and his six crewmates launched aboard Space Shuttle Discovery on Oct. 11, 2000, the 100th launch of the program and the last to visit an unoccupied ISS. At the time, the station comprised just three modules: the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB), the Unity Node 1 and the Zvezda Service Module, the latest addition to the station having arrived just three months prior. During their mission, the STS-92 crew installed the Z1 Truss atop the Unity module, four Control Moment Gyros, and the third Pressurized Mating Adaptor (PMA-3). The Z1 was the first truss element added to ISS to allow for the addition of solar arrays and radiators on the subsequent assembly flight and also contained high-rate communications equipment, including the first Space-to-Ground Antenna (SGANT). Lopez-Alegria participated in two of the mission’s four Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), or spacewalks, with Peter J. “Jeff” Wisoff to complete the assembly tasks. During their last EVA, the two conducted the first flight evaluation of the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) at ISS, a propulsive backpack to be used by astronauts should they become detached from the spacecraft. The STS-92 crew undocked from ISS on Oct. 20, 2000, leaving the station ready for its first inhabitants, and indeed less than two weeks later, the first Expedition crew arrived to begin permanent occupancy of low Earth orbit.

(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/iss20_hhm_la_eva_sts_92_sts092-338-012.jpg?itok=bz4cMxVt)(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/iss20_hhm_la_flying_safer_sts_92_jsc2000e26677.jpg?itok=wEjrem-b)(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/iss20_hhm_iss_post_sts_92_departure_sts092-712-059.jpg?itok=EspG2pAn)
Left: Lopez-Alegria working outside ISS during STS-92.
Middle: Lopez-Alegria, left, flies the SAFER as Wisoff looks on.
Right: ISS seen from Discovery shortly after undocking, showing the Z1 Truss with the SGANT at top and PMA-3 at bottom.


For his third flight into space, Lopez-Alegria returned to ISS in 2002 during the STS-113 mission, the station now permanently occupied and having grown significantly in the intervening two years. The primary tasks for the STS-113 crew included adding the P1 truss on the station’s port side, installing the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart, and assisting the exchange between the Expedition 5 and 6 crews. Lopez-Alegria and fellow STS-113 mission specialist John B. Harrington conducted three EVAs to complete the installation of the P1 truss and the CETA cart. After STS-113, assembly of ISS came to a temporary halt following the Columbia accident on Feb. 1, 2003, and the subsequent grounding of the space shuttle fleet and did not resume until September 2006.

(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/iss20_hhm_la_eva1_sts_113_sts113-309-012.jpg?itok=F68AsUYs)(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/iss20_hhm_la_sts_113_w_exp_5_and_6_crews_s113e05231.jpg?itok=8OurWvgR)
Left: Lopez-Alegria during the first STS-113 EVA.
Right: Lopez-Alegria, second from right in the middle row, posing in the Destiny module with his STS-113 crewmates, as well as Expedition 5 and 6 crewmembers.


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ISS as seen by the departing STS-113 crew, with the newly installed P1 truss visible at right.

Lopez-Alegria was aboard ISS again shortly after assembly resumed. He launched aboard Soyuz TMA9 on Sept. 18, 2006, from the Baykonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, his fourth and final spaceflight. Accompanying him during the 215-day mission, to that time the longest ISS expedition, was Mikhail V. Tyurin. On the station, European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Thomas A. Reiter, onboard since July 2006, became part of the Expedition 14 crew. As Commander of Expedition 14, Lopez-Alegria oversaw one of the most complex set of activities in the assembly of ISS – the reconfiguration of its power and cooling systems. A week before his arrival on ISS, the STS-115 mission had delivered the second set of solar arrays to the station as part of the P3/P4 truss segment, positioning them outboard of the P1 segment. As part of the reconfiguration, the port side P6 array mounted atop the Z1 truss needed to be retracted to prevent interference with the rotation of the new arrays, a task that was completed during the visiting STS-116 mission in December that also added the P5 short spacer to the port side truss. That mission brought Sunita L. “Suni” Williams to ISS as a new addition to Expedition 14 and returned Reiter back to Earth.  During Expedition 14, Lopez-Alegria took part in five EVAs, two in Orlan space suits to conduct work on the outside of the Russian segment with Tyurin and three in American Extravehicular Mobility Units with Williams to reconfigure the cooling system of the US segment. He accumulated a total of 67 hours and 40 minutes over 10 EVAs, still the record among American astronauts. When not busy assembling and reconfiguring ISS, Lopez-Alegria conducted a variety of scientific experiments. Lopez-Alegria and Tyurin returned to Earth on April 21, 2007, leaving Williams on board ISS with the Expedition 15 crew. Across his four missions, Lopez-Alegria spent a cumulative 258 days in space.

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Left: ISS configuration when Lopez-Alegria arrived in Sept. 2006.
Right: Lopez-Alegria, back row middle, with STS-116 and Expedition 14 crewmembers.


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Celebrating the holidays aboard ISS.

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Left: Lopez-Alegria conducting a session of the Canadian TRAC experiment in the Destiny module.
Middle: In an Orlan suit, Lopez-Alegria conducts maintenance on the exterior of the Russian segment.
Right: The ISS configuration at the end of Lopez-Alegria’s mission – note the retracted P6 solar array.
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 16, 2020, 07:57
Space Station 20th: Hispanic Heritage Month (3)

Carlos I. Noriega was the first Peruvian-born astronaut, selected by NASA in 1994. His visit to ISS in 2000 marked the second time he saw the inside of a space station. On his first spaceflight in 1997, he was a mission specialist aboard STS-84, the sixth Shuttle-Mir docking mission. On Dec. 1, 2000, he launched aboard Endeavour with his four crewmates on the STS-97 mission, their primary goal to install the P6 truss segment with the first set of solar arrays and radiators atop the Z1 truss, delivered on the previous mission. STS-97 marked the first time a shuttle visited ISS after it was occupied, but given the busy EVA schedule, the hatches between the two vehicles were only open for 24 hours. Noriega and fellow mission specialist Joseph R. Tanner conducted three EVAs to complete the P6 installation and other assembly tasks. The new solar arrays generated enough power for the arrival of the US laboratory module Destiny early in 2001 and the start of intensive research aboard ISS.

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Left: Noriega waves to the camera as he installs the P6 truss and solar arrays.
Right: Noriega, center, with the STS-97 and Expedition 1 crews in the Zarya Service Module.


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The ISS as seen from the departing STS-97 showing the newly deployed P6 solar arrays.
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 16, 2020, 07:57
Space Station 20th: Hispanic Heritage Month (4)

During his record-tying seventh trip into space, Costa Rica-born Franklin R. Chang-Díaz made his only visit to ISS. The main goals of Endeavour’s STS-111 mission, launching on June 5, 2002, included the exchange of the Expedition 4 and 5 crews and the resupply of ISS using the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM). Two new research facilities were among the MPLM’s cargo, the fifth Expedite the Processing of Experiments to the Space Station (EXPRESS) rack and the Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG). Chang-Díaz completed three EVAs with fellow mission specialist French astronaut Philippe Perrin to install the Mobile Base System portion of the Canadarm2’s remote manipulator system and perform maintenance tasks on the station.

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Left: Chang-Díaz, left of center, with his STS-111 crewmates and the Expedition 4 and 5 crews.
Right: Chang-Díaz during the first STS-111 EVA.

 
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Chang-Díaz in Endeavour’s middeck following undocking from ISS.
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 16, 2020, 07:57
Space Station 20th: Hispanic Heritage Month (5)

Selected as a member of NASA’s Astronaut Class of 1998, John D. “Danny” Olivas has visited ISS on two occasions as a shuttle mission specialist. His first visit took place aboard Atlantis during the STS-117 mission launched on June 8, 2007. During the flight, Olivas and fellow mission specialist James F. Reilly conducted two of the four EVAs to install the S3/S4 truss segment that included the third set of solar arrays. To prevent interfering with the rotation of the new arrays, the crew retracted the starboard P6 array mounted atop the Z1 truss. That truss segment was relocated outboard of the P5 truss on a later mission. The STS-117 mission also served as a crew exchange flight, with Clayton C. Anderson replacing Suni Williams as a member of Expedition 15.

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Left: Olivas during an STS-117 EVA working on the S3/S4 truss installation.
Right: Olivas, back row at right, with STS-117 and Expedition 15 crews.


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ISS as seen from the departing STS-117 crew, showing the new set of starboard solar arrays at right.

On his return to ISS, Olivas found it a bit more crowded – three months earlier, the permanent crew aboard the station had expanded from three to six. He and his crewmates launched aboard Discovery on the STS-128 mission on Aug. 29, 2009. The shuttle’s payload bay contained the MPLM Leonardo bringing supplies to help maintain a 6-person crew on ISS, including three systems racks – a Crew Quarters (CQ), an Air Revitalization System (ARS) rack, and the Combined Operational Load Bearing External Resistance Treadmill (COLBERT) for crew exercise – as well as three research racks – the Fluid Integrated Rack (FIR), the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR), and the second Minus Eighty-degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI). Olivas participated in three EVAs to replace the Ammonia Tank Assembly (ATA) on the P1 truss and to retrieve two experiments from the European Columbus module’s External Payload Facility. STS-128 also completed the final shuttle-based crew exchange, with Nicole P. Stott taking Timothy L. Kopra’s place as an Expedition 20 crewmember.

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Left: Olivas pauses during EVA work on the ATA to strike a pose.
Right: Olivas eating a chocolate and peanut butter snack.


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Olivas, at center, with STS-128 and Expedition 20 crews.
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 16, 2020, 07:57
Space Station 20th: Hispanic Heritage Month (6)

Selected as a NASA astronaut in 1998, George D. Zamka completed his first space flight as Pilot on Discovery’s STS-120 mission. Launching on Oct. 23, 2007, Zamka and his crewmates brought the Harmony Node 2 module to ISS, temporarily berthing it on the Unity Node 1’s port side until the Expedition 16 crew later relocated it to Destiny’s forward hatch. In its final location, Harmony enabled the installation of the European and Japanese elements. The crew also relocated the P6 truss segment from atop Z1 to the outboard port truss. During the redeployment of the P6 solar arrays, one of them developed a tear that required repair using a cufflink-like device to sew up the gap in the panel. STS-120 also conducted a crew exchange, with Daniel M. Tani taking Clay Anderson’s place as a member of Expedition 16. As the STS-120 Pilot, Zamka completed the undocking from ISS and the departure fly-around maneuver.

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Left: Zamka holding the cufflink device used to repair the torn solar array.
Right: Zamka, lower right, with the STS-120 and Expedition 16 crews.


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ISS as seen from STS-120 departing, showing the newly-delivered Harmony Node 2 temporarily berthed at the Unity Node 1 and the relocated and redeployed P6 truss segment and solar arrays at left.

When he returned to ISS, Zamka did so as Commander of Endeavour’s STS-130 mission, launched on Feb. 8, 2010. After guiding the shuttle to a successful docking with ISS, Zamka and his crewmates, along with the Expedition 22 crew, installed the Tranquility Node 3 module to Unity’s port side and activated the new element. The new module provided accommodations for life support and habitation facilities for a six-person crew on ISS. The crew removed the Cupola from its launch position at the end of Tranquility and relocated it to the module’s Earth-facing port. The Cupola’s six trapezoidal and one circular center window provide crews not only visibility for approaching visiting vehicles, but also spectacular views of their home planet passing by below.

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Left: Zamka peering through one of the Cupola’s windows.
Right: Zamka, front row second from right, with the STS-130 and Expedition 22 crews.


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ISS as seem from the departing STS-130, showing the Tranquility Node 3 and Cupola berthed at the Unity Node 1, left of center.
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 16, 2020, 07:58
Space Station 20th: Hispanic Heritage Month (7)

Joseph M. “Joe” Acaba was selected in 2004 as part of NASA’s Educator Astronaut Program and qualified as a mission specialist. His first flight into space was aboard STS-119, launched on March 15, 2009. Discovery brought up the S6 final truss segment with the fourth and final set of solar arrays, bringing the US segment of the station’s useable power generating capability to between 42 and 60 kilowatts. Acaba completed two of the mission’s three EVAs, one with fellow mission specialist Steven R. Swanson and the other with fellow educator-astronaut and mission specialist Richard R. “Ricky” Arnold. During the STS-119 mission, Koichi Wakata replaced Sandra H. Magnus as a member of the Expedition 18 crew.

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Left: Acaba during the third STS-119 EVA.
Right:  Acaba, front row at right, with the STS-119 and Expedition 18 crews.


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ISS as seen from the departing STS-119, with the newly-added S6 truss segment and solar arrays, at right.

For his second visit to ISS, Acaba stayed for 125 days as part of Expeditions 31 and 32, launching from Kazakhstan aboard Soyuz TMA-04M with Gennadi I. Pakalka and Sergey N. Revin on May 15, 2012. They joined Oleg D. Kononenko, Donald R. Pettit, and André Kuipers who had been aboard ISS since the previous December. A week after their arrival, Acaba and his crewmates welcomed the first commercial vehicle to dock with ISS, the SpaceX Dragon cargo resupply vehicle on its Demo 2 mission, carrying 1,150 pounds of food, water, scientific experiments, and other items. The Expedition 31 crew loaded the Dragon spacecraft with nearly 1,500 pounds of cargo and experiment samples for return to Earth. The crew observed and photographed a rare celestial event, a transit of Venus across the Sun on June 5. Kononenko, Pettit, and Kuipers returned to Earth July 1, replaced by Suni Williams, Yuri Malenchenko, and Akihiko Hoshide on July 17 as the new members of Expedition 32. In addition to conducting numerous science experiments, Acaba helped fire prevention icon Smokey the Bear celebrate his 68th birthday. Acaba, Padalka and Revin returned to Earth on Sept. 16.

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Left: Acaba, top right, with his Expedition 31 crewmates aboard the SpaceX Dragon resupply vehicle.
Right:  Acaba running on COLBERT.


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Acaba reflected in a globule of water.

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Left: Acaba, right, drawing a blood sample from Hoshide.
Right: Acaba with a toy Smokey the Bear in the Cupola to help celebrate the forest fire prevention icon’s 68th birthday.


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Acaba, lower right, with this Expedition 32 crewmates.

Acaba returned to ISS five years later as a member of Expedition 53 and 54, launching on Sept. 12, 2017, aboard Soyuz MS-06 with Aleksandr A. Misurkin and Mark T. Vande Hei. They joined Randolph J. “Randy” Bresnik, Sergei N. Ryazanski, and Paolo A. Nespoli who had been aboard ISS since July. Acaba joined Bresnik for a nearly seven-hour EVA on Oct. 20 to lubricate the newly installed replacement Latching End Effector on the SSRMS. Bresnik, Ryazanski, and Nespoli returned to Earth on Dec. 14, replaced aboard ISS five days later by Anton N. Shkaplerov, Scott D. Tingle, and Norishige Kanai to complete the Expedition 54 crew. Acaba continued with the research program and celebrated his Puerto Rican heritage with several events. He returned to Earth with Misurkin and Vande Hei on Feb. 28, 2018, after a 168-day flight. Over his three missions, Acaba accumulated 306 days in space and nearly 20 hours in EVA time.

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Left: Acaba conducting an experiment in the MSG.
Right: In the Cupola, Acaba showing Puerto Rico pride.


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Left: During an EVA, Acaba is lubricating the SSRMS Latching End Effector.
Right: Acaba, left, with his Expedition 53 crewmates.


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Left: Acaba working with the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) experiment.
Right: Acaba speaking with the Puerto Rico Institute of Robotics.


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Left: During the holidays, Acaba participating in a parranda by video.
Right: Acaba, upper left, with his Expedition 54 crewmates.
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 16, 2020, 07:58
Space Station 20th: Hispanic Heritage Month (8 )

Selected in 2004 as a NASA astronaut, José M. Hernández made his single visit to ISS during the STS-128 mission. Launched aboard Discovery on Aug. 29, 2009, Hernández operated both the shuttle and ISS robotic arms to move the MPLM Leonardo back and forth and translate astronauts during the mission’s three EVAs. He participated in the transfer and installation of the three systems racks (CQ, ARS, and COLBERT) and the three research racks (FIR, MSRR, and MELFI-2) aboard ISS. STS-128 also completed the final shuttle-based crew exchange, with Stott replacing Kopra as an Expedition 20 crewmember.

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Left: Hernández operating the shuttle’s robotic arm to transfer the MPLM to ISS.
Right: Hernández operating the ISS robotic arm to return the MPLM to the shuttle’s payload bay.


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Hernández, front row center, with the STS-128 and Expedition 20 crews.
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 16, 2020, 07:59
Space Station 20th: Hispanic Heritage Month (9)

Serena M. Auñón-Chancellor was selected as a member of NASA’s Astronaut Class of 2009 and made her first spaceflight nine years later. Launched aboard Soyuz MS-09 with Sergei V. Prokopiev and Alexander Gerst on June 6, 2018, she joined Andrew J. Feustel, Oleg G. Artemev, and Ricky Arnold, already on board ISS since March of that year. Auñón-Chancellor began work on the more than 300 research investigations she carried out during her stay aboard ISS. Feustel, Artemev, and Arnold returned to Earth Aug. 4, and would have been replaced by Aleksei N. Ovchinin and T. Nicklaus “Nick” Hague on Oct. 11, but their booster malfunctioned during launch, forcing an emergency abort landing. The next crew of Oleg D. Konoenko, David Saint-Jacques, and Anne C. McClain didn’t arrive until Dec. 3. Auñón-Chancellor and her crewmates returned to Earth on Dec. 20 after a 197-day flight.

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Left: Auñón-Chancellor conducting the AngieX Cancer Therapy experiment in the MSG.
Right: Auñón-Chancellor completing a session of the Eye Exam - Fundoscope experiment to help understand vision changes.


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Auñón-Chancellor, top, posing with her Expedition 56 crewmates in the Harmony Node 2 module.

(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/iss20_hhm_aunon-chancellor_exp_57_bioserve_protein_crystalography-1_bpc-1_experiment_iss057e074534.jpg?itok=2o-4FeOl)(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/iss20_hhm_aunon-chancellor_exp_57_halloween_iss057e057507.jpg?itok=-GKYlwK6)
Left: Auñón-Chancellor working on the BioServe Protein Crystalography-1 (BPC-1) experiment.
Right: Expedition 57 crewmembers in their best Halloween outfits – Prokopiev, left, as Elvis, Gerst as Darth Vader, and Auñón-Chancellor as a mad scientist.


(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/iss20_hhm_aunon-chancellor_exp_57_crww_photo_in_destiny_iss057e134726.jpg?itok=mz9J3H0S)
Auñón-Chancellor and her Expedition 57 crewmates in the Destiny module.

One additional crewmember deserves recognition in this tribute to Hispanic astronauts. Although he never flew to ISS, in fact, his spaceflight took place 15 years before the first crew arrived aboard the space station, he made a lasting contribution to astronaut diets aboard both the space shuttle and ISS. In November 1985, Mexican Payload Specialist Rodolfo Neri Vela, who was a crewmember aboard Atlantis during the STS-61B mission, requested that tortillas be included in his food supply. Once on orbit, his fellow crewmembers noticed that the tortillas, unlike regular bread, didn’t create crumbs and could be used to make sandwiches or hold other food items. Since that mission, tortillas have been a favorite of crewmembers of all nationalities and are standard fare aboard ISS. Crewmembers use them to make breakfast burritos, hamburgers, and even peanut butter and jelly sandwiches, as demonstrated (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z2szk-NuKWg) by Expedition 50 Commander R. Shane Kimbrough.

(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/neri_vela-eating_tortilla.jpg?itok=2k82_mOs)(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/kenneth-cockrell-breakfast-burritos.jpg?itok=GlWrORCp)(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/peggy-whitson-prepares-hmaburger-tortilla.jpg?itok=Hydb_KOO)
Left: Payload Specialist Neri Vela enjoying a trend-setting tortilla aboard Atlantis in 1985.
Middle: STS-98 Pilot Kenneth D. Cockrell preparing breakfast burritos for his crewmates.
Right: Expedition 51 Commander Peggy A. Whitson showing off the hamburger she prepared using a tortilla.


To be continued…
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/space-station-20-hispanic-heritage-month
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: mss w Wrzesień 17, 2020, 22:34
Happy 90th Birthday to General Stafford

https://jscfeatures.jsc.nasa.gov/pages.ashx/1506/Happy%2090th%20Birthday%20General%20Stafford

By Noah J. Michelsohn | September 16, 2020

NASA legend Lt. Gen. Thomas P. Stafford, USAF (Ret.) is celebrating his 90th birthday today, Sept. 17, 2020. Stafford is best known for commanding Apollo 10, the first flight of the lunar module to the Moon.

Stafford also flew the first rendezvous in space on Gemini 6 and piloted Gemini 9’s path to Earth with pencil and paper when the vehicle’s guidance computer failed in space. Throughout his career in the U.S. Air Force and at NASA, Stafford flew more than 100 different types of aircraft as he pushed the envelope of our achievement in air and space.

Stafford logged his fourth space mission as commander of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project in July 1975. Apollo-Soyuz was the first international space mission, carried out jointly by the United States and the Soviet Union. The spirit of cooperation that resulted from the collaboration between the two superpowers and the historic “handshake in space,” as well as the technology, processes, and relationships developed for Apollo-Soyuz, contributed to the success of future programs such as Shuttle-Mir and the International Space Station. That nascent international partnership has now amassed 22 years of joint system operations and 20 years of joint crew operations — and counting.

Stafford continues to serve the agency as chairman of the International Space Station Advisory Committee that provides advice and recommendation to NASA on all space station aspects related to safety and operational readiness, utilization, and exploration.

    “We’re blessed to continue working with and learning from Lt. Gen. Stafford, an Apollo pioneer, who has helped guide our decision making as we push forward to the Moon as part of our Artemis program,” said Mark Geyer, director of NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston. “Gen. Stafford’s years of dedicated service and passion for human space exploration is a constant reminder of the importance of NASA’s daring missions. We wish him a very happy birthday.”

The passion that Stafford shows can serve as inspiration to each member of the Johnson Space Center team. We will leave you with a wise reflection that Stafford offered about his time in space.

"It changes you ... As you look back, you see a little blue-and-white baseball; actually, it’s smaller than a baseball. But it’s hard to envision that is where all the people you’ve known all your life are, where you went to school, your friends, your family. It’s also hard to envision that there are 3 billion people on that blue-and-white baseball."

Happy birthday, General Stafford!

Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 21, 2020, 01:34
Robert Gilruth 1913-2000

20 Years Ago: Remembering Robert Gilruth
John Uri NASA Johnson Space Center Aug. 17, 2020

Aug. 17 marks 20 years since the passing of Robert R. Gilruth, a major driving force behind NASA’s successes in its early years including the first landing on the Moon in 1969. As the first director of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), now the Johnson Space Center in Houston, he not only oversaw the design and construction of NASA’s center for the training of astronauts and the control of human spaceflights but also instrumental in the development of the first three American human spaceflight programs that led to the achievement of President John F. Kennedy’s goal of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth before the end of the 1960s.

(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/gilruth_in_1946_0.jpg?itok=5bawbO1B)(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/gilruth_nacas_special_committee_on_space_technology_may_26_1958_0.jpg?itok=dTE1Ndhx)
Left: Gilruth as a NACA employee in 1946.
Right: Gilruth (eighth from right) during a NACA's Special Committee on Space Technology meeting of at Langley in May 1958.


(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/gilruth_w_mercury_7_and_couch_1959_0.jpg?itok=jJ1EnnPa)
Gilruth, right, showing the seven Mercury astronauts their form-fitting couches at Langley in 1959

Gilruth was born in Nashwauk, Minnesota, on Oct. 8, 1913. He earned a Bachelor of Science degree in 1935 and a Master of Science degree in 1936, both in aeronautical engineering and both from the University of Minnesota. Gilruth began his lengthy public service career in January 1937 at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics’ (NACA) Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in Hampton, Virginia. In 1941 he defined and published the first set of requirements for the handling characteristics of aircraft. Four years later he established an organization and facility for testing rocket-powered aircraft that became the Pilotless Aircraft Research Division and then NASA’s Wallops Station launching site, now the Wallops Flight Facility in Wallops Island, Virginia. In 1952, Gilruth was named the assistant director of the Langley laboratory.

(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/gilruth_and_glenn_at_langley_1959_0.jpg?itok=5sJIh6eG)(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/gilruth_stg_photo_0.jpg?itok=HbnVttfl)
Left: Gilruth, left, and Mercury astronaut John H. Glenn in conversation at Langley in 1959.
Right: A Space Task Group (STG) engineer, right, showing a model of a capsule to Charles J. Donlan, left, Gilruth, and Maxime A. Faget in 1959.


(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/gilruth_w_paul_purser_and_roundup_edition_that_announces_move_of_stg_to_houston_1961_s61-03987_0.jpg?itok=sYyOCpEY)(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/gilruth_w_6_of_7_mercury_astros_farsnworth_chambers_mar_7_1962_s62-00591_0.jpg?itok=fnpm6ojX)
Left: Paul E. Purser, right, showing Gilruth the first edition of the Space News Roundup on Nov. 1, 1961, announcing the STG’s renaming to MSC and relocation to Houston.
Right: Gilruth, middle, in March 1962 and six of the seven Mercury astronauts with the sign outside the interim MSC headquarters building in Houston.


On Oct. 1, 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, or NASA, opened for business, absorbing several existing NACA facilities including Langley, that was renamed to Langley Research Center. Just five weeks later, NASA created the Space Task Group (STG) charged with putting an American in space before the Soviet Union and placed Gilruth in charge. The work of the STG led to the creation of Project Mercury that put America’s astronauts into space, first on suborbital flights and eventually into orbit. Following President Kennedy’s announcement of the Moon landing goal and with the additional work needed, the STG outgrew its facilities at Langley. Following an extensive site evaluation and selection process, NASA announced on Sep. 19, 1961, that the STG would be relocated to Houston, Texas, and on Nov. 1 renamed it the Manned Spacecraft Center, or MSC, with Gilruth as its director.

(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/gilruth_receiving_distinguished_federal_civilian_service_presidential_award_at_wh_from_kennedy_aug_1962_s62-04852_0.jpg?itok=jrhudOeC)(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/gilruth_presenting_30_yr_award_to_ks_kleinknecht_farnsworth_oct_30_1963_s63-19473_0.jpg?itok=hAN84did)
Left: President Kennedy, left, presenting Gilruth with the President’s Award for Distinguished Federal Civilian Service at the White House in August 1962.
Right: Gilruth, right, in his office at MSC’s interim headquarters in the Farnsworth-Chambers building in Houston in October 1962, presenting a 30-year service award to Kenneth S. Kleinknecht.


(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/gilruth_and_webb_touring_msc_under_construction_sep_1_1963_s63-17079_0.jpg?itok=pNVQykOd)
Gilruth, second from right, touring MSC’s new site under construction in September 1963.

While the new facility in Clear Lake was under construction, MSC employees relocated from Virginia and worked out of several leased facilities in southeast Houston. In 1962, Gilruth set up his office in the interim MSC headquarters located in the Farnsworth-Chambers Building on South Wayside Drive, today the home of the Houston Parks and Recreation Department. During this time, six crewed Mercury flights were completed and planning had begun on the two-person Gemini missions to test the critical techniques required to accomplish a Moon landing mission and the three-person Apollo spacecraft that would take astronauts to the Moon.

(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/gilruth_hosting_af_officials_bldg_1_office_aug_14_1964_s64-20928.jpg?itok=deLjG3qe)(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/gilruth_in_mcc_viewing_gallery_w_pat_mcdivitt_and_pat_white_gemini_4_jun_1965_s65-28763.jpg?itok=msGNjhEF)
Left: Gilruth, second from left, hosting a delegation of U.S. Air Force officials in his new office on the ninth floor of MSC’s administration building in August 1964.
Right: Gilruth, left, in the Mission Control viewing gallery in June 1965 with Patricia McDivitt and Patricia White, right, the wives of the Gemini 4 crew then in orbit during the first mission controlled from the new center.


(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/gilruth_w_kraft_cooper_in_mcc_gemini_7_6_rv_dec_12_1965_s65-62719.jpg?itok=3iSd-A4H)
Gilruth, right, with Christopher C. Kraft, left, and astronaut L. Gordon Cooper in Mission Control in December 1965 celebrating the successful rendezvous between Gemini 7 and 6.

With construction still underway, the new MSC site officially opened for business on Feb. 20, 1964, and Gilruth moved into his new office on the ninth floor of the main administration building, at the time called Building 2. The new Mission Control was ready to follow the first crewed Gemini mission in March 1965 and with the flight of Gemini 4 in June it took over as the nerve center of American human spaceflights, a role it has served ever since. Gilruth played a critical role in leading the center to ensure the safe completion of the remainder of Project Gemini and his leadership guided the painful recovery of the Apollo Program following the loss of astronauts Virgil I. Grissom, Edward H. White, and Roger B. Chaffee in the Apollo 1 fire.

(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/gilruth_introducing_the_apollo_1_crew_presser_mar_23_1966_s66-26354.jpg?itok=uX614Pw7)(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/lbj_with_eva_subject_mar_1_1968_s68-20824_0.jpg?itok=R9PhQyGi)
Left: Gilruth, right, introducing the Apollo 1 crew of Chaffee, left, White, and Grissom to the press in March 1966.
Right: Gilruth, second from right, during President Johnson’s visit to MSC in March 1968.


(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/apollo_8_splashdown_in_mission_control_s68-56082.jpg?itok=2ge--AmX)
Gilruth, left, in Mission Control with other NASA senior managers following the successful splashdown of Apollo 8 in December 1968.

Part of that recovery included the bold decision in August 1968, before a crewed Apollo mission had been flown, to send Apollo 8 on a circumlunar flight in December of that year, a decision that Gilruth supported and advocated to NASA Headquarters. The success of Apollo 8 once and for all put the United States ahead of the Soviet Union in the race to the Moon and significantly increased the chances of achieving President Kennedy’s goal.

(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/gilruth_during_apollo_11_jul_20_1969_s69-39595.jpg?itok=oKptOG97)(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/gilruth_w_low_and_glenn_in_mcc_apollo_11_splashdown_s69-42262.jpg?itok=pcsaRLfh)
Left: Gilruth during the Apollo 11 Moon landing mission in July 1969.
Right: Gilruth, middle, with George M. Low, left, and astronaut John Glenn, right, in Mission Control celebrating the successful splashdown of Apollo 11.


(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/gilruth_carryging_first_box_of_moon_rocks_s69-40107.jpg?itok=ZyjWyrPP)
Gilruth, right, and Low carrying the first box of Moon rocks after its arrival in Houston.

On July 20, 1969, Apollo 11 landed on the Moon, and at least the first part of President Kennedy’s goal was met. Gilruth, surrounded by the team that he helped build over the years, all watched from Mission Control as Neil A. Armstrong took that first step on the lunar surface. They all cheered four days later as they watched Apollo 11 splashdown in the Pacific Ocean, meeting the rest of President Kennedy’s goal with the three astronauts safely back on Earth. Two days later, Gilruth and other top NASA managers stood on the tarmac at Ellington Air Force Base near MSC as the first Moon rocks arrived in Houston, beaming with pride and satisfaction as he helped to carry the first box of extraterrestrial material.

(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/gilruth_during_apollo_13_s70-35013.jpg?itok=b1mjiKTj)(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/gilruth_in_star_city_oct_25_1970.jpg?itok=IVmbcL-7)
Left: Gilruth, right, in Mission Control in April 1970 being briefed on the makeshift carbon dioxide removal system following the accident aboard Apollo 13.
Right: Gilruth, third from right, with Soviet and American delegates during a visit to Star City in October 1970.


(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/img_2056.jpg?itok=-6g_Kr4J)
Gilruth (in brown suit) greeting the Apollo 15 crew aboard the USS Okinawa in August 1971.

Gilruth’s next leadership challenge took place in April 1970, after an explosion crippled the Apollo 13 spacecraft on its way to the Moon and endangering its crew. After several days of outstanding teamwork between Mission Control and the onboard crew, the astronauts splashed down safely in the Pacific Ocean. Looking beyond the Moon landing missions, Gilruth embarked on negotiations with Soviet counterparts that ultimately led to the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), the first docking between American and Soviet spacecraft in 1975. One of the lasting legacies from ASTP is a derivative of the docking system designed for that mission is used aboard the International Space Station. In August 1971, instead of watching the splashdown from Mission Control, Gilruth flew to the USS Okinawa, the prime recovery ship for Apollo 15, to meet the crew returning from the fourth Moon landing.

(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/gilruth_w_model_of_boat_he_buit_feb_4_1972_s72-19081.jpg?itok=hY0QrOPj)(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/gilruth_launching_boat_he_built_dec_4_1973_s73-37748.jpg?itok=3lkg7tTT)
Left: Gilruth in February 1972 with a model of the boat he was building.
Right: Gilruth and guests in December 1973 aboard the boat Outrigger that he built.


(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/gilruth_w_cohen_griffin_kraft_rotary_awards_1991_s91-30618.jpg?itok=hBQGAQK5)(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/gilruth_and_wife_jo_1991_s91-30118.jpg?itok=R3RIUpcA)
Left: Gilruth, second from right, in 1991 with three of his successors as Johnson Space Center director, left to right, Aaron Cohen (1986-1993), Gerald D. Griffin (1982-1986), and Christopher C. Kraft (1972-1982).
Right: Bob and Jo Gilruth in 1991.


On Jan. 14, 1972, NASA Administrator James C. Fletcher appointed Gilruth to the new position of director of key personnel development, with Kraft, Gilruth’s deputy, succeeding him as the MSC director. Although reporting to NASA Deputy Administrator George M. Low at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC, Gilruth remained in Houston.  In this new capacity, he had the responsibility for identifying near and long range potential candidates for key positions across the agency. He retired from NASA in December 1973, the same month he christened his multihull 52-foot sailboat Outrigger, a craft he designed and built himself. He remained active as a consultant after this retirement and continued to participate in NASA related activities for many years. He was 86 when he died, survived by his wife Jo and daughter Barbara Jean Wyatt.

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/20-years-ago-remembering-robert-gilruth
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 30, 2020, 02:52
IN MEMORIAM: JOHN D. BARROW (1952 – 2020)
SEPTEMBER 28, 2020   TEMPLETON PRIZE

(https://www.templeton.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Barrow-headshot-bw-414x519.jpg)

The Templeton Philanthropies mourn the passing of cosmologist, mathematician, and physicist John D. Barrow, the 2006 Templeton Prize Laureate.  He died on September 26 at his home in Cambridge, England at the age of 67 due to complications from cancer.

(https://www.templetonprize.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Palace-2006-scaled.jpg)

Barrow was the Professor of Mathematical Sciences at Cambridge University when he was awarded the Templeton Prize in 2006.  From 2003 to 2007 he served as Gresham Professor of Astronomy at Gresham College in London, founded in 1597. At the time of his death he was Dean of Clare Hall, Cambridge University.

He received his DPhil in astrophysics from the University of Oxford in 1977, and first caught wide attention with his 1986 book, The Anthropic Cosmological Principle, co-authored with Frank J. Tipler.  He authored or co-authored more than 25 books, written in accessible, lively prose, which were translated into more than two dozen languages; wrote more than 550 scientific papers; and delivered numerous popular lectures and podcasts, which illuminated the understanding of the universe and cast the intrinsic limitations of scientific inquiry into sharp relief.  His writings also gave theologians and philosophers inescapable questions to consider when examining the very essence of belief, the nature of the universe, and humanity’s place in it.

“Astronomy has transformed the simple-minded, life-averse, meaningless universe of the skeptical philosophers.  It breathes new life into so many religious questions of ultimate concern and never-ending fascination,” said Barrow at the March 15, 2006 news conference at the Church Center for the United Nations in New York at which he was announced as the Prize Laureate.  “Many of the deepest and most engaging questions that we grapple with still about the nature of the universe have their origins in our purely religious quest for meaning.  The concept of a lawful universe with order that can be understood and relied upon emerged largely out of religious beliefs about the nature of God.”

He added, “Our scientific picture of the universe has revealed time and again how blinkered and conservative our outlook has often been, how self-serving our interim picture of the universe, how mundane our expectations, and how parochial our attempts to find or deny the links between scientific and religious approaches to the nature of the universe.”

Thomas Torrance, the 1978 Prize Laureate, wrote in his nomination of Barrow, “The hallmark of his work is a deep engagement with those aspects of the structure of the universe and its laws that make life possible and which shape the views that we take of that universe when we examine it.  The vast elaboration of that simple idea has led to a huge expansion of the breadth and depth of the dialogue between science and religion.”

Professor Barrow participated in many conferences and symposia sponsored by the John Templeton Foundation, such as “Singularities and the History of Efforts to Model the Origin of the Universe,” at the Royal Society in May 2008 in honor of that year’s Prize Laureate, physicist and Catholic priest Michael Heller.  He was also present along with six other previous Prize Laureates at the June 1, 2011 Buckingham Palace ceremony honoring that year’s Laureate, cosmologist and astrophysicist Sir Martin Rees, which marked the final year that HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, presented the Prize upon his retirement from most public duties.

Barrow’s books explored a huge range of subjects on the science and religion interface at a level that spoke to lay readers and specialists alike.  Topics included the nature and utility of mathematics (Pi in the Sky, 1992), the links between the universe and human aesthetic appreciation (The Artful Universe, 1995 and The Artful Universe Expanded, 2005), and how the universe is peculiarly characterized by what cannot be known about it (Impossibility: the limits of science and the science of limits, 1998).

In 1989, Professor Barrow delivered the Gifford Lectures at Glasgow University during the centennial year of the program, and, at the time, was the youngest Gifford Lecturer ever.

“While John’s notable achievements will be remembered for decades to come, he was also a good friend with a gracious spirit who could move easily between discussions about math and science to matters of religion and faith and detailed statistical analysis of soccer,” said Heather Templeton Dill, president of the John Templeton Foundation. “He was impressive across every domain of life, and we will miss him.”

The Templeton Prize is administered by the John Templeton Foundation, based in West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, with support from the Templeton World Charity Foundation and Templeton Religion Trust, based in Nassau, The Bahamas.

The Templeton Philanthropies extend their condolences to Professor Barrow’s wife, Elizabeth, their three children and their families, and mourn the loss of one of the world’s great mathematical minds.

https://www.templeton.org/news/in-memoriam-john-d-barrow-1952-2020

Jonathan McDowell@planet4589 https://twitter.com/planet4589/status/1310248157813649409
Cytuj
The cosmologist John Barrow has died of colon cancer at age 67. Very sorry to hear this, I met him in the 1980s when I was a grad student and found him inspirational.  His book on the anthropic principle is worth reading.

Martin Rees@LordMartinRees · 27 wrz
The  inspirational cosmologist John Barrow died  at  his Cambridge home yesterday, aged 67.He was a polymath -- engaging  with  philosophy and  history,  as well as science -- and internationally  influential through books and lectures. His terminal illness came decades too soon.

Conversation with John Barrow
4339 wyświetleń•16 cze 2012 Templeton Prize

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ThPukdQ6djc
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ThPukdQ6djc

Cosmology and The Constants of Nature (John Barrow)
25 556 wyświetleń•4 cze 2014

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=INdSQ_otxqg
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=INdSQ_otxqg

The Origin and Evolution of Universes
1149 wyświetleń•18 maj 2017  Society of Catholic Scientists

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uebCOzdUIZk
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uebCOzdUIZk

https://sciencebookaday.com/2014/11/07/science-book-a-day-interviews-john-d-barrow/
Tytuł: Odp: Osobistości - wątek zbiorczy
Wiadomość wysłana przez: Orionid w Wrzesień 30, 2020, 02:53
„Ich würde gerne zum Anfang der Zeit reisen“
Publiziert am 10.11.2019 Interview: Robert Czepel

Sind Zeitreisen aus physikalischer Sicht möglich? „Prinzipiell ja“, sagt der britische Physiker und Kosmologe John Barrow. „Aber daraus folgt nicht, dass man in der Zeit zurückgehen und den Verlauf der Geschichte ändern könnte.“

(https://tubestatic.orf.at/static/images/site/tube/20190835/barrow_si_n.5909421.jpg)
John D. Barrow ist theoretischer Physiker an der University of Cambridge und Autor zahlreicher Fachbücher, darunter etwa: „Das Buch der Universen“ und „Einmal Unendlichkeit und zurück“. Am 26. Juli hielt er an der Universität Wien den Vortrag: „100 Years of Universes“

Herr Barrow, Zeitreisen sind ein beliebtes Motiv in der Science-Fiction-Literatur. Aber so phantastisch ist das möglicherweise gar nicht, oder?

John Barrow: Vor genau 70 Jahren hat der Österreicher Kurt Gödel eine neuartige Lösung für Einsteins Relativitätstheorie entdeckt: Diese Lösung beschreibt ein Universum, das geschlossene Zeitlinien enthält. Wen man so einem Pfad folgt, landet man irgendwann wieder dort, wo man in der Vergangenheit war. Das ist nicht das Gleiche wie die Zeitreisen aus der Science-Fiction-Literatur. Hätte man eine Zeitmaschine, wie sie zum Beispiel H.G. Wells in seinem gleichnamigen Roman beschrieben hat, dann könnte man in die Vergangenheit reisen und allerlei Paradoxien erzeugen. Zum Beispiel könnte ich mich selbst als Baby ermorden. Das führt zu einem Widerspruch.

Eine geschlossene Zeitlinie – was ist das überhaupt?

Denken sie sich die Zeit als eine Gruppe von Soldaten, die in einer Reihe marschieren, einer nach dem anderen. Da gibt es eine klare Ordnung: Jeder weiß, wer vor ihm ist und wer hinter ihm kommt. Doch wenn die Soldaten in einem großen Kreis marschieren, ist im Prinzip jeder vor allen anderen – und gleichzeitig hinter allen anderen. Gödel hat gezeigt, dass geschlossene Schleifen der Geschichte möglich sind. Aber daraus folgt nicht, dass man in der Zeit zurückgehen und den Verlauf der Dinge ändern könnte. Die Geschichte muss konsistent bleiben.

Was könnte in so einer Schleife passieren?

Nehmen wir das Beispiel von vorhin: Ich will mich selbst ermorden und reise daher mit einem Gewehr in die Vergangenheit. Dort angekommen sehe ich meine Mutter, wie sie mich als Baby im Arm hält, hebe das Gewehr, ziele – doch just in dem Moment, da ich abdrücken will, fühle ich in der Schulter den stechenden Schmerz einer alten Verletzung. Ich verreiße also das Gewehr, die Kugel verfehlt ihr Ziel. Doch der Knall erschreckt meine Mutter so, dass sie das Baby fallen lässt. Woraufhin sich das Baby an der Schulter verletzt.


(https://tubestatic.orf.at/static/images/site/tube/20190835/einstein_goedel_big_pd.5909416.jpg)
Kurt Gödel und Albert Einstein in PrincetonEMILIO SEGRE VISUAL ARCHIVES / Science Photo Library / picturedesk.com
Albert Einstein war von Kurt Gödels Entdeckung schockiert


Was hat die gegenwärtige Physik zu solchen Szenarien zu sagen?

Gödels Zeitschleifen sind zwar prinzipiell möglich, aber sie treten in unserem Universum nicht auf. Zumindest ist es extrem unwahrscheinlich. Es gibt viele Dinge, die physikalisch prinzipiell erlaubt, aber nicht real sind. Schauen Sie etwa auf diesen Tisch: Es wäre durchaus möglich, dass er plötzlich zu schweben beginnt. Dafür müssten sich sämtliche Luft- und Holzmoleküle gleichzeitig nach oben bewegen. Das könnten sie – doch die Wahrscheinlichkeit dafür ist so unglaublich klein, dass Sie so etwas niemals beobachte werden. Ich denke, mit den Zeitreisen verhält es sich sehr ähnlich.

Was ist der Unterschied zwischen dem Gödel-Universum und dem realen Universum, so wie es sich den Kosmologen heute darstellt?

Die Möglichkeit der Zeitreisen in Gödels Universum entsteht dadurch, dass es rotiert. Und Gödels Universum dehnt sich nicht aus – im Gegensatz zu unserem Universum. So gesehen sind Gödels Lösungen keine Beschreibung der physikalischen Wirklichkeit, sondern nur eine Möglichkeit, von der die Natur Gebrauch machen hätte können. Aber es wären auch andere Versionen des Gödel-Universums denkbar. Solche, die gleichzeitig expandieren und rotieren. Der deutsche Physiker Engelbert Schücking hat etwa nach solchen Lösungen der Relativitätstheorie gesucht. Das Thema beschäftigt die Wissenschaft immer noch.

Rotiert unser Universum?

Ich habe in den 1980er Jahren mit meinen Kollegen Roman Juszkiewicz und David Sonod berechnet, wie groß so eine Rotation sein könnte. Sie wissen vermutlich, dass die Erde wegen ihrer Drehung um die eigene Achse an den Polen ein bisschen abgeflacht und am Äquator ein bisschen ausgebuchtet ist. Bei einem rotierenden Universum wäre das ähnlich: Die Strahlung aus der Region der kosmischen Pole würde einen kürzeren Weg zu uns zurücklegen und käme daher bei uns mit höherer Temperatur an als die Strahlung vom kosmischen Äquator. Doch Messungen zeigen: Die Temperaturschwankungen sind winzig. Wenn unser Universum rotiert, dann tut es das extrem langsam.


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Illustration: Raumschiff rast auf ein Wurmloch zuLes Bossinas/NASA
Zeitreisen - theoretisch möglich, sofern das Universum rotiert


Was bedeutet das für Gödels Zeitschleifen?

Dass sie in unserem Universum nicht möglich sind. Die Rotation müsste mindestens eine Million Mal schneller sein, damit sich solche Effekte einstellen. Gödel hat jedenfalls gezeigt, dass geschlossene Zeitlinien innerhalb der Allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie möglich wären – und dass sie im Einklang mit den Gesetzen der Physik stehen. Einstein war lange gegenteiliger Ansicht. Er war von Gödels Ergebnissen schockiert.

Angenommen, eine Zeitmaschine wie die von H.G. Wells würde existieren: In welches Zeitalter würden Sie reisen?

Leider ist der Ort, der mich am meisten interessieren würde, keiner, den man einfach so betreten könnte. Ich würde gerne wissen: Hatte die Zeit einen Beginn? Zumindest kann man sich die Frage stellen: Wenn das Universum seit 13,7 Milliarden Jahren existiert - was würde passieren, wenn ich mit einem Raumschiff 15 Milliarden Jahre in die Vergangenheit reise? Wäre da überhaupt etwas?


https://science.orf.at/v2/stories/2990700/