Autor Wątek: STS-1 Columbia  (Przeczytany 9929 razy)

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Offline Orionid

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Odp: STS-1 Columbia
« Odpowiedź #30 dnia: Październik 26, 2017, 14:52 »
Nagranie ze świętowania 25-lecia:
<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7HVd2Xh98uw" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7HVd2Xh98uw</a>

Link do materiału: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7HVd2Xh98uw

L+25 Years: STS-1's Young and Crippen


STS-1 pilot Robert Crippen and commander John Young sit before a mockup of a space shuttle at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida during an April 7, 2006 celebration of the 25th anniversary of their April 12, 1981 flight. (NASA)

April 10, 2006 — Twenty-five years ago this week, two men embarked upon an unprecedented mission. Aboard the world's first spacecraft designed to be reusable, the experienced commander and rookie pilot would set many firsts over the two day space flight, setting the stage for the next chapter in U.S. space activities after the Apollo lunar program had come to an end. First however, STS-1 needed to prove that the winged Space Shuttle Columbia could safely launch into space as a rocket and return as an engine-less glider.

collectSPACE.com recently spoke with STS-1 Commander John Young and Pilot Robert Crippen via the phone about the 25th anniversary of their mission, their memories of the flight and its legacy. Although their conversations were separate, the following combines both of their comments:

Your mission has been described as "the boldest test flight in history." What made it such?

John Young (JY): "I think if you look at all the things we had to do, flying a winged launch vehicle into space without any previous unmanned test, it probably was very bold and we thought we knew a lot more than we did."

Did you realize it was "the boldest" at the time?

Robert Crippen (RC): "Some of my test pilot friends might challenge it — because there have been lots of important test flights — however the Space Shuttle was a unique test flight and both John and I knew that.

"It was the first that we had ever flown on a vehicle that hadn't been launched unmanned before into space, so that was truly unique. And then we were flying with the first solid rockets that had ever been used for human space flight. We were flying on a winged vehicle that would do reentry different than we had ever done before and come back in and land on a runway. So all of those were firsts — and test pilots truly love firsts — so it was a big deal for both John and I."
(...)
http://www.collectspace.com/news/news-041006a.html

25 years in – MAF role essential
April 12, 2006 by Chris Bergin
https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2006/04/25-years-in-maf-role-essential/

35-lecie lotu: http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=800.msg91719#msg91719

Offline mss

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Odp: STS-1 Columbia
« Odpowiedź #31 dnia: Maj 24, 2020, 22:33 »
STS-1 Columbia "Resource Tape" (FULL Flow, Arrival, Launch, Post-Landing):

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cl2Ko6NgFEA" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cl2Ko6NgFEA</a>

Link do materiału: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cl2Ko6NgFEA
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Offline juram

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Odp: STS-1 Columbia
« Odpowiedź #32 dnia: Maj 24, 2020, 23:09 »
Pamiętam ten pierwszy start Columbii 12 kwietnia 1981 r. - pierwszy start wahadłowca w ogóle i od razu pełny sukces. Niebywałą odwagę i profesjonalność tych ludzi podziwiam do dziś. Weteran lotów orbitalnych John Young poleciał z astronautą nowicjuszem - Robertem Crippenem nowym ogromny statkiem kosmicznym. Wtedy to było niesamowite osiągnięcie, wielka chwila.  ;D

Offline Orionid

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Odp: STS-1 Columbia
« Odpowiedź #33 dnia: Maj 25, 2020, 00:13 »
Pamiętam ten pierwszy start Columbii 12 kwietnia 1981 r. - pierwszy start wahadłowca w ogóle i od razu pełny sukces.
Sukces tym większy, że jak potem przeanalizowano dane po locie, to oceniono prawdopodobieństwo utraty załogi jak 1 do 12.
Ciekawe czy Bob Crippen, mimo pandemii, będzie obecny przy starcie Crew Dragon ?

Polskie Forum Astronautyczne

Odp: STS-1 Columbia
« Odpowiedź #33 dnia: Maj 25, 2020, 00:13 »

Offline Ergosum

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Odp: STS-1 Columbia
« Odpowiedź #34 dnia: Maj 25, 2020, 11:03 »

Sukces tym większy, że jak potem przeanalizowano dane po locie, to oceniono prawdopodobieństwo utraty załogi jak 1 do 12.

Ciekawe jakie czynniki tak wysoko wywindowały ryzyko tego lotu? Są może dostępne jakieś przystępne analizy? Swoją drogą rzeczywisty wskaźnik ryzyka – ok. 1:67 też okazał się niemały.
« Ostatnia zmiana: Maj 25, 2020, 11:06 wysłana przez Ergosum »

Offline mss

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Odp: STS-1 Columbia
« Odpowiedź #35 dnia: Maj 25, 2020, 17:17 »
https://twitter.com/waynehale/status/1256348518429622272

Cytuj
Wayne Hale @waynehale (2 maja 2020)

Several media people have asked me about how risky STS-1 was. There were a lot of uninformed guesses circulating in 1981. Thirty years later, based on everything we knew, we back calculated the probability of loss of crew and vehicle to be 1 in 9. That is pretty risky.
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Odp: STS-1 Columbia
« Odpowiedź #36 dnia: Maj 25, 2020, 17:28 »
Biorąc pod uwagę jak dużo elementów zostało uszkodzonych w trakcie startu oraz misji STS-1, to wcale nie takie dziwne, że ta misja była naprawdę ryzykowna. Kolejne w latach 80. - w zasadzie wcale wyraźnie bezpieczniejsze nie były...

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Odp: STS-1 Columbia
« Odpowiedź #37 dnia: Sierpień 30, 2020, 05:02 »
40 Years Ago: Preparations Continue for STS-1
Aug. 25, 2020


Employees and their families view Columbia’s main engines during KSC’s Open House

In August 1980, while much work still remained to prepare Space Shuttle Columbia for its first flight to usher in a new era of a reusable crewed space transportation system, NASA managers confirmed March 1981 as the target launch date for STS-1. Significant recent accomplishments included the reinstallation of the main engines on Columbia after their recertification, continued installation of heat shield tiles on the vehicle’s surfaces, and tests of the orbiter as well as of the solid rocket boosters. The prime crew for the first Shuttle flight, John W. Young and Robert L. Crippen along with their backups Joe H. Engle and Richard H. Truly, continued to train for the mission and participated in some phases of the test activities such as a crew interface test and a full mission duration simulation. (...)
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/40-years-ago-preparations-continue-for-sts-1-1

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Odp: STS-1 Columbia
« Odpowiedź #38 dnia: Październik 07, 2020, 17:04 »
Oct. 7, 2020
40 Years Ago: Six Months until the STS-1 Launch

Preparations for space shuttle Columbia’s first mission continued in October 1980, and managers remained optimistic that the initial flight could take place by March 1981, although April seemed like a more realistic possibility. The prime crew for STS-1, John W. Young and Robert L. Crippen, spent time in Columbia’s cockpit and mission simulators maintaining their proficiency for the historic mission. Multiple tests of the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) progressed toward certifying them for flight. Engineers in the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC) made minor modifications to Columbia’s SSMEs and continued installing the orbiter’s thermal protection system tiles, with only a few hundred remaining to be attached. Young and Crippen practiced landing the space shuttle using a modified airplane at KSC. Mission controllers at NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston completed another full mission simulation and a ship used to recover the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB) began sea trials.


Left: STS-1 crew members Robert L. Crippen, left, and John W. Young, in Columbia’s
cockpit. Right: The motion-base shuttle simulator at NASA’s Johnson Space Center.


...

Significant world events in October 1980:

October 9 – First consumer use of home banking by computer by United American Bank in Knoxville, Tennessee

October 11 – Soviet cosmonauts Leonid I. Popov and Valeri V. Ryumin return to Earth after a record-setting 185-day mission aboard Salyut-6 space station

October 14 – Republican presidential candidate Ronald W. Reagan promises to name a woman to the U.S. Supreme Court

October 21 – Philadelphia Phillies win their first World Series in their 98-year history

October 24 – John Lennon releases “(Just Like) Starting Over” in the United Kingdom

October 24 – Polish government legalizes Solidarity independent labor union

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/40-years-ago-six-months-until-the-sts-1-launch
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Odp: STS-1 Columbia
« Odpowiedź #39 dnia: Luty 23, 2021, 02:01 »
40 Years Ago: Five Months Until STS-1 Launch
Nov 18, 2020 John Uri NASA Johnson Space Center

Preparations for space shuttle Columbia’s first mission made significant progress in November 1980, and managers remained optimistic that the initial flight could take place by March or April of 1981. Significant milestones accomplished included the stacking of the vehicle’s major components at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida in preparation for rollout to the launch pad before the end of the year. The prime crew for STS-1, John W. Young and Robert L. Crippen, and their backups Joe H. Engle and Richard H. Truly, participated in integrated tests of the assembled vehicle while strapped into their seats in Columbia’s cockpit. NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston inaugurated a new underwater facility for to train space shuttle astronauts for spacewalks.


Left: Workers in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center lower the External Tank (ET) before mating it with the two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) on the Mobile Launch Platform (MLP).
Right: The mated ET/SRB stack on the MLP await the addition of the space shuttle orbiter Columbia.


Inside KSC’s cavernous Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), workers continued to assemble the large components of the space shuttle stack to prepare for Columbia’s first flight. They had stacked the twin Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) on the Mobile Launch Platform in January 1980. Beginning Nov. 2, they lowered the External Tank (ET) between the two SRBs and bolted them together, an operation that took about two days. In the nearby Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF), engineers reinstalled the three Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) onto Columbia and bonded the final 300 heat-resistant thermal protection system tiles to the orbiter’s exterior. Prime crew members Young and Crippen thanked workers in the OPF after the tile work was completed. Said Young, “We’ve come to pay tribute and give a word of thanks and a hardy well done to the people who worked on this spaceship. It’s a beautiful vehicle.”


Left: Workers towing space shuttle Columbia from the Orbiter Processing Facility to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
Right: Space shuttle Columbia about to enter the VAB
.


Space shuttle Columbia in the VAB transfer aisle.

After a stay of 20 months in the OPF, on the evening of Nov. 24, workers backed Columbia out of the OPF and rolled it over to the VAB, the transfer taking 30 minutes. A large crowd of KSC employees cheered the move. The next morning, workers grappled Columbia with a crane and lifted it from the transfer aisle, hoisting it more than 190 feet in the air to transfer it to High Bay 3 before lowering again to join it to the already assembled ET and SRBs. By early Nov. 26, workers completed all the connections to Columbia as engineers activated the orbiter to prepare the assembled vehicle for a series of tests. As part of the two-week shuttle interface test, on Dec. 4, engineers powered up the entire stack for the first time. Additional tests ensured that all systems operated as expected in the overall vehicle and ground systems. The prime and backup crews participated in ascent and entry simulations, strapped in their seats in the orbiter. Successful completion of the tests led to the next major milestone, the rollout of Columbia to Launch Pad 39A in late December.


Left: Right: Workers begin lifting space shuttle Columbia in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center.
Right: Workers in the VAB continue lifting Columbia from the transfer aisle into High Bay 3.



Left: Workers lower Columbia in High Bay 3 to mate it with its External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters.
Right: In High Bay 3 of the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center, workers lower space shuttle Columbia to mate it with its External Tank (ET) and Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs).



Left: With the crane still attached, workers finish mating Columbia to its ET/SRB stack.
Right: Columbia mated with its ET and SRBs, standing on its Mobile Launch Platform.


To help space shuttle astronauts train for extravehicular activities (EVAs), or spacewalks, JSC inaugurated the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) on Nov. 21, 1980. The WETF, essentially a swimming pool 33 feet wide, 78 feet long, and 25 feet deep, replaced the smaller Water Immersion Facility used to train Gemini and Apollo astronauts. Neutral buoyancy simulations, used by astronauts since 1966, provides a more effective method of training for EVAs than the short periods of simulated weightlessness afforded by parabolic aircraft flights. The larger size of the WETF allowed astronauts, dressed in training versions of new spacesuits, to train using full-scale mockups of the space shuttle cargo bay. The Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the spacesuit developed for space shuttle missions, improved over previous suits with added flexibility and mobility, making it easier for astronauts to operate in weightlessness. The two-piece suit came in different sizes to better fit the larger range of astronauts selected for space shuttle missions.


Left: The Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, shortly before becoming operational.
Right: Engineers lower STS-1 backup astronaut Richard L. Truly into the WETF for a spacewalk training session.


To be continued…

Significant world events in November 1980:

November 4 – Sadaharu Oh, all-time pro-baseball home run record holder with 868, retires

November 4 – Republican candidate Ronald W. Reagan is elected President of the United States

November 12 – Voyager 1 passes within 78,000 miles of Saturn

November 17 – John Lennon releases “Double Fantasy” album in the United Kingdom

November 21 – “Who Done It?” episode of the series Dallas airs on CBS-TV, revealing the identity of J.R. Ewing’s shooter

November 25 – Sugar Ray Leonard regains World Boxing Council welterweight boxing crown

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/40-years-ago-five-months-until-sts-1-launch

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Odp: STS-1 Columbia
« Odpowiedź #40 dnia: Luty 27, 2021, 01:44 »
40 Years Ago: Space Shuttle Columbia Rolls Out to Launch Pad 39A
Dec 15, 2020 John Uri NASA Johnson Space Center

Preparations for the inaugural flight of space shuttle Columbia passed a major milestone at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center on Dec. 29, 1980, with the rollout of the vehicle stack from the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) to its seaside Launch Pad 39A. The prime crew for STS-1, John W. Young and Robert L. Crippen, and their backups Joe H. Engle and Richard H. Truly, had carried out complex interface tests to verify mechanical and electrical connections of the mated vehicle while still in the VAB. A few days after observing the rollout, the astronauts participated in emergency egress drills and rehearsed procedures to quickly evacuate Columbia. Senior NASA managers remained optimistic that the initial flight could take place as early as March 1981. 


Left: Space shuttle Columbia on its Mobile Launch Platform inside the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center.
Right: STS-1 astronauts John W. Young, left, and Robert L. Crippen pose in front of Columbia in the VAB.



STS-1 backup crew of Joe H. Engle, left, and Richard H. Truly pose in front of Columbia in the VAB.

Following the Nov. 26, 1980, mating of Columbia with its external tank and solid rocket boosters on the Mobile Launch Platform (MLP), the prime and backup crews carried out complex interface tests to verify mechanical and electrical connections of the mated vehicle. Engineers powered up the entire stack for the first time on Dec. 4. The interface tests involved the astronauts, strapped into Columbia’s cockpit in its vertical orientation, flying simulated launch, abort, and reentry profiles using the orbiter’s five general-purpose computers. The vehicle was connected to KSC’s launch control system and flight controllers at the Mission Control Center at the agency’s Johnson Space Center in Houston also received the data during the tests.


Left: In the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center, workers retract the work platforms away from the space shuttle Columbia stack prior to rollout.
Right: Columbia begins the rollout from the VAB to Launch Pad 39A.


At 8 a.m. on Dec. 29, Columbia began its slow rollout from the VAB, the stack and MLP riding atop the Mobile Transporter, also known as the crawler. Young, Crippen and KSC Director Richard G. “Dick” Smith addressed the 5,000 visitors, including 200 reporters from around the world, assembled to view the rollout. Young expressed what a great event the rollout represented for the United States, and Crippen called the space shuttle “a technological marvel.” Columbia arrived at Launch Pad 39A by mid-afternoon, completing the 3.5-mile journey down the crawlerway without incident. By that evening, workers secured the stack to the pad.


Left: View of Columbia as the stack exits the VAB.
Right: View from the top of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center as space shuttle Columbia begins its journey to Launch Pad 39A.



Left: View from atop the VAB as Columbia begins the journey down the crawlerway.
Right: Columbia approaches Launch Pad 39A.



Space shuttle Columbia arriving at Launch Pad 39A.


Left: Columbia nearly in position at Launch Pad 39A.
Right: Columbia in place on Launch Pad 39A.


Once at the pad, workers began readying Columbia for its next major milestone, the Flight Readiness Firing (FRF), a 20-second final certification test of the orbiter’s main engines, on Feb. 20, 1981. Successful completion of the FRF allowed managers to more precisely schedule Columbia’s launch date. At the pad, crews moved the orbiter crew access arm into position, allowing astronauts and ground support personnel to enter the vehicle.


Space shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39A with the orbiter crew access arm rotated into place.


Left: View from the launch tower of space shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39A showing the orbiter crew access arm.
Right: Technicians install elements of Columbia’s avionics after the orbiter’s arrival at Launch Pad 39A.


Six days into the new year of 1981, the STS-1 prime and backup crews received a demonstration of the crew emergency escape system at Launch Pad 39A. Commonly known as the slide wire, the system consisted of open baskets that pairs of astronauts and support personnel would use in case of an emergency requiring immediate evacuation from the crew access level of the launch tower, located 195 feet above the ground. The baskets with the personnel aboard would ride down to the ground on slide wires, a total distance of 1,200 feet, reaching speeds of up to 60 miles per hour. A system of cable brakes and netting slowed the basket to a stop at ground level. A nearby bunker would provide shelter for the personnel, who could also evacuate using armored personnel carriers. For this demonstration, the astronauts did not actually ride the baskets down the slide wire.


Left: STS-1 astronauts Robert L. Crippen, left, and John W. Young arrive at Launch Pad 39A for a demonstration
of the crew emergency escape system.
Right: STS-1 backup astronauts Joe H. Engle, left, and Richard H. Truly arrive at Launch Pad 39A for emergency egress training.



Left: Crippen, left, and Young practice getting into the emergency slide baskets.
Right: Young, left, Crippen, Truly, and Engle inspect the slidewire escape basket at the base of Launch Pad 39A.


To be continued…

Significant world events in December 1980:

December 4 – The rock band Led Zeppelin announces that it will disband, following the death of drummer John Bonham

December 8 – John Lennon is murdered in New York City

December 10 – Three-person Soyuz T3 crew returns to Earth after a 13-day flight to the Soviet Salyut-6 space station

December 11 – The United States Congress passes the Superfund Act

December 11 – “Magnum, P.I.,” starring Tom Selleck, premieres on CBS-TV

December 12 – Computer-maker Apple makes its initial public offering on the U.S. stock market

December 27 – Calvin Murphy of the Houston Rockets begins longest free throw streak (78) in the NBA

December 30 – Final performance of “The Wonderful World of Disney” on NBC-TV

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/40-years-ago-space-shuttle-columbia-rolls-out-to-launch-pad-39a

https://historycollection.jsc.nasa.gov/JSCHistoryPortal/history/oral_histories/CrippenRL/crippenrl.htm

https://historycollection.jsc.nasa.gov/JSCHistoryPortal/history/oral_histories/EngleJH/englejh.htm

https://historycollection.jsc.nasa.gov/JSCHistoryPortal/history/oral_histories/NASA_HQ/Administrators/TrulyRH/trulyrh.htm
« Ostatnia zmiana: Luty 27, 2021, 01:48 wysłana przez Orionid »

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Odp: STS-1 Columbia
« Odpowiedź #41 dnia: Luty 28, 2021, 02:07 »
40 Years Ago: Three Months to STS-1
Jan 13, 2021 John Uri NASA Johnson Space Center

The new year of 1981 opened with optimism regarding the first launch of the Space Shuttle Program. Workers had rolled space shuttle Columbia to its seaside launch pad on Dec. 29, 1980, where engineers began testing the entire system to prepare the vehicle for STS-1, the first mission of the program. NASA astronauts John W. Young and Robert L. Crippen, the prime crew for STS-1, held a press conference to describe their mission to assembled reporters. They participated in a full-mission duration simulation with the teams of controllers at the Mission Control Center. The space shuttle’s main engines passed their final critical test, and engineers filled and emptied the external tank with cryogenic propellants, clearing the way for the Flight Readiness Firing (FRF) in February.


Left: Flight Director Neil B. Hutchinson during an STS-1 simulation.
Right: Flight Director Charles R. “Chuck” Lewis during a simulation for STS-1.



Right: Flight Director Donald R. Puddy during an STS-1 simulation.

Flight controllers in the Mission Control Center at NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston completed the sixth and second to last full-duration 54-hour simulation of the STS-1 mission Jan. 20-22. Under the leadership of flight directors Neil B. Hutchinson, Charles R. “Chuck” Lewis, and Donald R. Puddy, three teams of controllers followed the STS-1 flight plan, with simulated anomalies introduced by the simulation team. Young and Crippen participated from the fixed-base Shuttle Mission Simulator at JSC and responded successfully to all the anomalies presented to them.


Left: Prime crew for STS-1 John W. Young, left, and Robert L. Crippen, in a lighthearted moment during a preflight press conference at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston.
Right: Crippen, left, and Young pose for photographers with a model of space shuttle Columbia following the press conference.


Young and Crippen held a press conference with reporters at JSC on Jan. 23. The two outlined the plans for their 54-hour mission and their remaining activities until the launch, including one more full-mission duration simulation following the FRF and participation in the terminal countdown demonstration test about two weeks before launch.


Left: The space shuttle Main Propulsion Test Assembly during a three-engine test firing at NASA’s National Space Test Laboratories in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi.
Right: Space shuttle Columbia on Launch Pad 39A.


The Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) passed their final critical test on Jan. 17 at NASA’s National Space Testing Laboratories in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. During this 12th static firing using the Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA), consisting of three flight-like SSMEs, an aft space shuttle fuselage, and a full-size external tank, all three engines ignited as planned. As per the plan, engine number 3 shut down after 235 seconds, and the remaining two engines continued firing until 624.5 seconds, completing the longest firing in the test program. All major objectives were met, including gimbaling of the engines and completing a full duration run using flight nozzles. Completing this test cleared the engines for the FRF in mid-February at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center’s Launch Pad 39A of the three engines installed on Columbia, a key milestone before the orbiter’s first launch. Other work at the pad included a series of pad validation tests, completed on Jan. 5, to verify all the interfaces between the launch pad and the vehicle. A weeklong so-called “plugs-out” test began on Jan. 10, and included a mock countdown to verify orbiter and ground systems. Backup STS-1 crew members Joe H. Engle and Richard H. Truly participated in the latter stages of the tests, seated in Columbia’s cockpit. Between Jan. 22-24, engineers successfully completed another milestone by filling and emptying the large external tank with cryogenic propellants – 384,000 gallons of liquid hydrogen and 140,000 gallons of liquid oxygen. A readiness review on Jan. 30 set Feb. 17 as the date for the FRF, with an estimated launch date on April 5.


Left: NASA Acting Administrator Alan M. Lovelace.
Middle: Outgoing NASA Administrator Robert A. Frosch.
Right: Incoming NASA Administrator James M. Beggs.


During the presidential transition, outgoing President James E. “Jimmy” Carter and incoming President Ronald W. Reagan agreed to name NASA Deputy Administrator Alan M. Lovelace as the agency’s acting administrator, effective Jan. 20, 1981, the day of President Reagan’s inauguration. In October 1980, Administrator Robert A. Frosch informed President Carter that he was resigning from the agency effective Jan. 20, 1981. Lovelace served as acting administrator until the Senate confirmed President Reagan’s choice for administrator, James M. Beggs, on July 10, 1981.

To be continued…

Significant world events in January 1981:

January 11 – British team completes the longest and fastest crossing of Antarctica, 2,500 miles in 75 days

January 12 – “Dynasty” premieres on ABC

January 15 – “Hill Street Blues” premieres on NBC

January 19 – The United States and Iran sign an agreement for the release of 52 American hostages

January 20 – Ronald W. Reagan inaugurated as the 40th President of the United States

January 25 – Oakland Raiders beat Philadelphia Eagles 27-10 in Super Bowl XV

January 31 – “The Tide is High” by Blondie hits No. 1

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/40-years-ago-three-months-to-sts-1
« Ostatnia zmiana: Luty 28, 2021, 02:10 wysłana przez Orionid »

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Odp: STS-1 Columbia
« Odpowiedź #42 dnia: Marzec 01, 2021, 01:53 »
40 Years Ago: Two Months Away From STS-1, the First Space Shuttle Mission
Feb 19, 2021 John Uri NASA Johnson Space Center

In February 1981, the Space Shuttle Program passed major milestones to prepare for the orbiter Columbia’s first flight. Teams at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida and Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston successfully completed the wet countdown demonstration test and the flight readiness firing (FRF) of Columbia’s main engines. The Mission Control Center (MCC) at JSC completed the seventh and final full-duration simulation of the inaugural space shuttle mission, with the STS-1 crew of John W. Young and Robert L. Crippen. Young and Crippen continued training for the flight, including practicing shuttle landings at an alternate landing site in New Mexico. These milestones provided NASA with confidence in an April 1981 first launch.


Left: At NASA’s Kennedy Space Center’s (KSC) Launch Pad 39A, space shuttle Columbia awaits the Flight Readiness Firing, with the full Moon behind it.
Right: Sunrise at KSC with space shuttle Columbia on Launch Pad 39A.


Successful completion of a critical static test firing of a cluster of three space shuttle main engines on Jan. 17, 1981, at the agency’s National Space Testing Laboratories in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, cleared the way for the FRF. The wet countdown demonstration test leading up to the FRF began in the evening of Feb. 16 at the T-53-hour mark. Controllers in Firing Room 1 of KSC’s Launch Complex 39, led by STS-1 Launch Director George F. Page, monitored all aspects of the countdown, as did engineers in JSC’s MCC. Several delays attributed to the learning process rather than any significant hardware or software problems with the vehicle or ground systems resulted in the FRF slipping one day to Feb. 20.


Left: In NASA’s Kennedy Space Center’s (KSC) Firing Room 1, controllers monitor the wet countdown demonstration test leading to the Flight Readiness Firing.
Right: In Firing Room 1, KSC Director Richard G. Smith, left, George F. Page, STS-1 Launch Director, Graydon F. “Bo” Corn, cryogenics branch chief, and Robert Reed, orbiter project engineer, monitor the progress of the wet countdown demonstration test.


At Launch Pad 39A, at T-5 hours, engineers began loading the external tank with 225,000 pounds of liquid hydrogen and 1.4 million pounds of liquid oxygen. At T-9 minutes, the ground launch sequencer computer took over controlling the final steps of the countdown.  At T-3.8 seconds, the main engine start sequence began, with the engines coming to life at 120-millisecond intervals, quickly reaching 100 % thrust. To simulate events during an actual launch, the computer gimballed or swiveled each engine, and for one second, reduced their thrust to 94 % before throttling to full power. After 20 seconds, the sequencer commanded all three engines to shut down. The first rocket ignition on Launch Pad 39A since the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project liftoff in 1975 was a success and cleared one major hurdle toward the launch of STS-1. Young and Crippen watched the test from separate aircraft flying above KSC, prompting Young to comment, “Well, it looks like it was successful.” Acting NASA Administrator Alan M. Lovelace went a bit further, saying, “This was just a superb test,” and KSC Director Richard G. Smith compared the test to “the final playoff game before the Super Bowl.”




Three views of space shuttle Columbia during the 20-second Flight Readiness Firing.

At JSC, flight controllers in the MCC completed the seventh and final full-duration 54-hour simulation of the STS-1 mission Feb. 24-26. Under the leadership of Flight Directors Neil B. Hutchinson, Charles R. “Chuck” Lewis, and Donald R. Puddy, three teams of controllers followed the STS-1 flight plan, with the simulation team introducing anomalies. Young and Crippen participated in the fixed-base Shuttle Mission Simulator at JSC and responded successfully to all the anomalies presented to them. In case inclement weather at the prime landing site at Edwards Air Force Base in California resulted in a diversion to an alternate landing site, STS-1 astronauts Young and Crippen practiced making approaches and landings at JSC’s facilities at the Northrup Strip, now White Sands Space Harbor, in New Mexico. They flew the Shuttle Training Aircraft, a Grumman Gulfstream II heavily modified to respond like a descending space shuttle orbiter, during these training exercises.


Left: The space shuttle fixed-based simulator at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston.
Right: STS-1 astronauts John W. Young and Robert L. Crippen simulating shuttle landings in a Shuttle Training Aircraft at Northrup Strip, now the White Sands Space Harbor, in New Mexico.


To be continued…

Significant world events in February 1981:

February 5 – Largest Jell-O ever made, 9,246 gallons of watermelon flavor, in Brisbane, Australia

February 6 – Former Beatles Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr, and George Harrison record “All Those Years Ago,” a tribute to John Lennon

February 15 – Richard Petty wins a record seventh title at the Daytona 500

February 24 – Prince Charles announces his engagement to Lady Diana Spencer

February 27 – Stevie Wonder and Paul McCartney record “Ebony and Ivory”

February 28 – Calvin Murphy of the Houston Rockets sets an NBA record with 78 consecutive free throws

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/40-years-ago-two-months-away-from-sts-1-the-first-space-shuttle-mission

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