Autor Wątek: STS-1 Columbia  (Przeczytany 10878 razy)

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Odp: STS-1 Columbia
« Odpowiedź #45 dnia: Kwiecień 06, 2021, 01:50 »
40 Years Ago: The Launch of STS-1 Just Two Weeks Away
Mar 29, 2021 John Uri NASA Johnson Space Center

With the first launch of the Space Transportation System (STS), better known as the space shuttle, fast approaching, workers at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida continued to prepare Columbia for its historic mission. Engineers completed tests to verify the integrity of the external tank’s foam insulation. Managers from NASA Headquarters and several field centers met at KSC to hold a final review to assess the readiness of the vehicle, ground systems, and crew training for the upcoming mission and set April 10, 1981, as the target launch date. The STS-1 crew of Commander John W. Young and Pilot Robert L. Crippen participated in a press conference to review their mission and answer reporters’ questions. Mission managers assessed concerns with the runway at the primary landing site following recent unseasonably heavy rains.


Left: Space shuttle Columbia on Launch Pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, where ground crews successfully completed two tanking tests to verify the external tank’s foam insulation.
Right: Acting NASA Administrator Alan M. Lovelace, standing at left, and John F. Yardley, NASA associate administrator for Space Transportation Systems, answer reporters’ questions after the conclusion of the Flight Readiness Review that cleared Columbia for launch.


Engineers successfully completed two tanking tests on March 25 and 27 to verify repairs to the external tank’s foam insulation, damaged during a tanking test in January. Workers spent two weeks earlier in March repairing three areas of debonded foam. During the two tanking tests, technicians loaded super cold liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen into the external tank to determine if flexing from the sudden temperature change caused any foam debonding. Post-test inspections revealed no issues, clearing the tank for the first launch. Senior managers from NASA Headquarters, KSC, Johnson Space Center in Houston, and Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, met at KSC on March 31 to review the readiness of all aspects of the mission, including the flight vehicle, ground support systems, mission operations support, and crew training. At the conclusion of the flight readiness review, managers targeted shortly after dawn on April 10, 1981, as the launch time for STS-1, with the initial countdown beginning late on April 5. John F. Yardley, NASA associate administrator for Space Transportation Systems, commented to reporters after the review, “Frankly, I’ve never seen a vehicle that’s so clean before its first flight.”


STS-1 astronauts Robert L. Crippen, left, and John W. Young during the final preflight crew press conference in the main auditorium of NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston.


Left: Crippen answering a reporter’s question.
Right: Young explaining an aspect of their mission to a reporter.


Young and Crippen met with reporters on March 9, providing a brief overview of their 54-hour, 36-orbit mission – the first time that astronauts would be aboard a crewed spacecraft’s very first flight. The first of four orbital test flights, STS-1 planned to address 130 of the 170 overall objectives of the operational test flight program, including verification of all major spacecraft systems. The astronauts addressed reporters’ concerns about the shuttle’s thermal protection system, or tiles, given the difficulties encountered during the spacecraft’s preflight preparations. Neither Young nor Crippen foresaw any major issues occurring with the tiles during the mission. They also addressed the various contingencies that could occur during the mission and the training they’d received to deal with them. As Crippen said, because of the delays, he and Young “have the dubious honor of being the crew that’s trained the longest for any single flight.”


Left: STS-2 backup astronauts Joe H. Engle and Richard H. Truly pilot two Gulfstream Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA) in formation above space shuttle Columbia on Launch Pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
Right: STS-1 astronauts John W. Young and Robert L. Crippen piloting the STA, practicing landing at Northrup Strip, now the White Sands Space Harbor, in New Mexico –  note the steep angle of attack and the landing gear lowered to increase drag to better simulate the shuttle’s flying characteristics.


At the end of the mission, Young and Crippen planned to bring Columbia in for a landing at the Dryden Flight Research Center, now NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center, at Edwards Air Force Base in California. For the first landing of the reusable spacecraft, mission managers believed the 5.2-mile long Runway 23 on Rogers Dry Lake provided the greatest margin of safety. The lakebed runway, normally dry and offering a solid surface for the shuttle to land on, had turned soggy due to unseasonably heavy rains earlier in March. The wet conditions caused concerns whether the runway could dry in time to support an April landing. For that reason, mission managers began to consider making Northrup Strip, now the White Sands Space Harbor in New Mexico, as the prime target for STS-1’s landing. Young and Crippen had already practiced landing at Northrup Strip as a designated alternate landing site, as well as at Dryden and KSC’s Shuttle Landing Facility, flying the Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA), a Gulfstream II highly modified to simulate the flying characteristics of the space shuttle. By the time of launch, Young and Crippen will have flown about 1,330 landing approaches in the STA.

To be continued…

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/40-years-ago-the-launch-of-sts-1-just-two-weeks-away

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Odp: STS-1 Columbia
« Odpowiedź #46 dnia: Kwiecień 08, 2021, 01:55 »
40 Years Ago: The Countdown Begins for STS-1; First Launch Attempt Scrubbed
Apr 5, 2021 John Uri NASA Johnson Space Center

The countdown for the first launch of the space shuttle program began on April 5, 1981, targeting liftoff five days later. Following their arrival at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on April 8, the STS-1 crew of Commander John W. Young and Pilot Robert L. Crippen practiced landings and reviewed their mission timelines. Mission managers scrubbed the first launch attempt on April 10 due to a computer software problem. The crew and the rest of the team prepared for a second attempt two days later.


Left: STS-1 prime and backup crew members John W. Young, left, Robert L. Crippen, Joe H. Engle, and Richard H. Truly during a teleconference briefing at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston two days before their departure for NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
Right: Young, left, and Crippen studying the briefing material.


At 11:30 p.m. ET on April 5, 1981, support crew astronauts Loren J. Shriver and Ellison S. Onizuka in the cockpit of Columbia on KSC’s Launch Pad 39A prepare the vehicle for Young and Crippen’s flight established communications between the shuttle and the Mission Control Center (MCC) at NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston. Thus beginning the more than 4-day-long countdown for the launch of STS-1, planned to occur shortly after dawn on April 10. With the Rotating Service Structure (RSS) rolled into place around the shuttle on the pad, workers prepared the vehicle for its first flight by removing protective covers from windows and thrusters. Meanwhile, Young and Crippen, and their backups Joe H. Engle and Richard H. Truly, held their final briefings at JSC before departing for KSC for prelaunch preparations. Traveling in separate T-38 Talon aircraft, on April 8 they flew from Ellington Air Force Base (AFB) near JSC to Patrick AFB in Melbourne, Florida, near KSC.


Left: Space shuttle Columbia on Launch Pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, with the Rotating Service Structure (RSS) in place to allow workers to access the vehicle.
Right: Working inside the RSS, technicians Mike Parrish, left, and Albert Baumgartner remove the protective coverings from Columbia’s cockpit windows. Image credit: Ed Hengeveld.



Inside the RSS, technicians Don Murray and Don Porterfield remove protective covers from the forward thruster nozzles in Columbia’s nose. Credit: Image courtesy of Ed Hengeveld


Left: STS-1 Commander John W. Young arrives at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB), Melbourne, Florida, in a T-38 Talon
for the STS-1 launch.
Right: STS-1 Pilot Robert L. Crippen arrives at Patrick AFB in a separate T-38 for the STS-1 launch.



Young, left, and Crippen speak to reporters after arriving at Patrick AFB, as George W.S. Abbey, director of flight crew operations at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, climbs down the ladder. Credit: Image courtesy of Ed Hengeveld

The day after their arrival at KSC, Young and Crippen attended final briefings, and each flew about a dozen simulated landings at the Shuttle Landing Facility. They flew the Shuttle Training Aircraft, a Gulfstream II modified to simulate the handling characteristics of an orbiter during its final approach to the landing site. That evening, with much of the work on the shuttle vehicle completed, ground crews rolled back the RSS, revealing the space shuttle, its white external tank, and two solid rocket boosters.


Left: STS-1 Commander John W. Young practicing landings using the Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA), a Gulfstream II modified to handle like a space shuttle, at the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
Right: With the Rotating Service Structure rolled back, the space shuttle stack is visible on Launch Pad 39A, the evening before the first launch attempt. Credit: Image courtesy of Ed Hengeveld


As the countdown proceeded smoothly, and engineers filled the large external tank with super cold liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, Launch Test Director Norman Carlson instructed personnel in the crew quarters in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building to awaken Young and Crippen. After receiving a brief physical examination, they ate a traditional breakfast of steak and eggs with fellow astronauts and managers. Assisted by technicians, they donned their pressure suits and walked out of the O&C Building to the waiting astronaut van for the 15-minute ride out to Launch Pad 39A.


STS-1 astronauts John W. Young, left, and Robert L. Crippen enjoying the traditional prelaunch breakfast on the morning of April 10, 1981, the first launch attempt.


Left: Crippen, left, and Young donning their pressure suits prior to the first launch attempt.
Right: Young, front, and Crippen leaving the Operations and Checkout Building for the ride to the launch pad for the first launch attempt.


Young and Crippen arrived at the pad about two and a half hours before the scheduled liftoff, took the elevator to the crew access arm level and entered the White Room, where technicians assisted them into Columbia. Support astronaut Shriver, inside the vehicle to ensure all the control switches were in the correct settings, helped Young and Crippen strap into their seats in the cockpit.


Left: Space shuttle Columbia on Launch Pad 39A awaiting its crew for the first launch attempt on April 10, 1981.
Right: In the Mission Control Center at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, capsule communicators Terry J. Hart, left, and Daniel C. Brandenstein react to the decision to scrub the launch attempt at T minus 9 minutes.



Flight Director Neil B. Hutchinson, left, and data processing system officer Brock R. “Randy” Stone discuss the launch scrub decision with reporters.

When the countdown resumed after the planned hold at the T-minus 20-minute mark, controllers switched Columbia’s computers to launch mode. Data Processing System (DPS) Officer Brock R. “Randy” Stone noticed that the four primary computers transitioned properly, as did the fifth backup computer, but the backup computer couldn’t communicate with two of the primary units. Columbia could not launch in that configuration. At first thinking the problem lay with the backup computer, engineers recycled all five units to their previous mode, and all the computers communicated well. But Stone didn’t understand what caused the problem and therefore couldn’t rule out it recurring during the flight. He informed ascent Flight Director Neil B. Hutchinson that DPC was no-go for launch, even if the computers worked well when they transitioned back to flight mode. And in fact, during the second transition to the flight mode, the computers once again did not communicate properly. The countdown clock held at the T-minus 9-minute mark as engineers worked to resolve the problem, but without an immediate solution, Hutchinson called for a scrub, and KSC Launch Director George F. Page halted the countdown a little more than three hours after the original liftoff time. After nearly six hours in the cockpit, a disappointed Young and Crippen climbed out of Columbia and returned to the O&C Building. It took engineers one day to determine that the primary computers had a 40-millisecond timing problem –easily fixed by updating the software. Young and Crippen spent the next day practicing more landings with the STA and prepared for the second launch attempt on April 12.


Left: Suit technician Jim Schlosser greets STS-1 astronauts John W. Young, left, and Robert L. Crippen as they exit the astronaut van upon their return to the Operations and Checkout Building following the April 10, 1981 launch scrub.
Right: Young, left, and Crippen pose in front of the Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA) the day after the launch scrub.



Young leaving the STA, already thinking about the next day’s second launch attempt.

To be continued…

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/40-years-ago-the-countdown-begins-for-sts-1-first-launch-attempt-scrubbed

https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/atoms/files/young_john.pdf
https://historycollection.jsc.nasa.gov/JSCHistoryPortal/history/oral_histories/ShriverLJ/shriverlj.htm
https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/atoms/files/onizuka_ellison.pdf
https://historycollection.jsc.nasa.gov/JSCHistoryPortal/history/oral_histories/HartTJ/harttj.htm

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« Odpowiedź #49 dnia: Kwiecień 12, 2021, 14:41 »
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Odp: STS-1 Columbia
« Odpowiedź #50 dnia: Kwiecień 12, 2021, 15:51 »
40 Years Ago: Preparations for STS-1
Feb 13, 2020

Space Shuttle Columbia arrived at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) from its North American Rockwell Corporation manufacturing facility in Palmdale, California, on March 24, 1979. Bolted atop its Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA), the orbiter completed its four-day transcontinental ferry flight, making three overnight stops along the way in Texas and Florida. The next day, after removing the orbiter from the back of the SCA, workers towed it into the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF), where Columbia spent the next 19 months preparing for its first flight. In parallel, engineers readied the other components of the Space Shuttle system, the External Tank (ET) and Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs), while the crewmembers and mission controllers held simulations to rehearse various phases of the mission designated STS-1, for Space Transportation System. In February 1980, mission managers planned for a launch in November of that year but anticipated that it might slip into early 1981.


Columbia atop the SCA touching down at KSC


Columbia in the OPF.

(...)
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/40-years-ago-preparations-for-sts-1

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Odp: STS-1 Columbia
« Odpowiedź #51 dnia: Kwiecień 12, 2021, 15:52 »
40 Years Ago: Preparations Continue for STS-1
Apr 22, 2020

In April 1980, preparations to launch the first Space Shuttle continued. NASA hoped to launch STS-1, the first flight of Columbia, by November 1980 although even senior managers agreed that the date might slip into early 1981. The Space Shuttle constituted the most complex human space flight system ever designed and unexpected delays could not be avoided. Engineers at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) continued testing the flight hardware that had arrived there over the previous months. The prime crew of John W. Young and Robert L. Crippen, along with their backups Richard H. Truly and Joe H. Engle, trained on the various aspects of their upcoming mission. In Mission Control at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, flight controllers carried out simulations to prepare their teams for the first flight of the reusable space vehicle.


Left: The two SRBs for STS-1 stacked on the MLP in the VAB.
Right: The ET for STS-1 in a test cell in the VAB.



Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia undergoing testing in the OPF.

(...)
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/40-years-ago-preparations-continue-for-sts-1

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Odp: STS-1 Columbia
« Odpowiedź #52 dnia: Kwiecień 12, 2021, 15:52 »
40 Years Ago: Preparations Continue for STS-1
Jun 11, 2020

In June 1980, much work still remained to prepare Space Shuttle Columbia for its first flight to usher in a new era of a reusable crewed space transportation system. Senior NASA managers believed March 1981 to be a realistic launch date for STS-1 as several key milestones were completed including the recertification of the orbiter’s main engines. Work on strengthening and re-attaching the orbiter’s thermal protection system tiles still remained the major pacing item for meeting the projected launch date. The prime crew for STS-1, John W. Young and Robert L. Crippen along with their backups Joe H. Engle and Richard H. Truly, continued to train for the mission and participated in some phases of the test activities.


Left: Flight certification test firing of a SSME at NSTL.
Right: Engineers re-installing SSMEs on Columbia in KSC’s OPF.


(...)
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/40-years-ago-preparations-continue-for-sts-1-0

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« Odpowiedź #53 dnia: Kwiecień 12, 2021, 15:55 »
Training for the Trip of a Lifetime
Apr 12, 2018



The STS-1 crew, Robert Crippen (center) and John Young (right) train for their upcoming mission--the first flight of space shuttle Columbia--in this photo from March 17, 1981. The flight occurred on April 12, 1981, thirty-seven years ago today, and began a new era in spaceflight. Then-Vice President George H.W. Bush joined the crew as they all jogged around NASA's Kennedy Space Center, during Bush's whirlwind tour of the center and launch facilities for the shuttle's first flight.

Today is also the United Nations International Day of Human Spaceflight, in accordance with resolution A/RES/65/271 of April 7, 2011. The resolution celebrates "the international level the beginning of the space era for mankind, reaffirming the important contribution of space science and technology in achieving sustainable development goals and increasing the well-being of States and peoples, as well as ensuring the realization of their aspiration to maintain outer space for peaceful purposes.”

On April 12, 1961, the era of human spaceflight began when the cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human to orbit the Earth in his Vostok spacecraft. The flight lasted 108 minutes. Twenty years later, on the morning of April 12, 1981, two astronauts sat strapped into their seats on the flight deck of Columbia, a radically new spacecraft known as the space shuttle.


Image Credit: NASA
https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/training-for-the-trip-of-a-lifetime

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Odp: STS-1 Columbia
« Odpowiedź #54 dnia: Kwiecień 12, 2021, 19:07 »
40 Years Ago: Columbia Takes Flight!
Apr 12, 2021

Following the first launch attempt, halted by a computer glitch, STS-1 astronauts Commander John W. Young and Pilot Robert L. Crippen lifted off on April 12, 1981, aboard space shuttle Columbia, ushering in a new era of reusable spacecraft. Their launch came exactly 20 years after Soviet cosmonaut Yuri A. Gagarin’s inaugural human spaceflight. During the two-day test flight, Young and Crippen successfully tested the spacecraft’s systems, encountering very few problems and accomplishing all planned mission objectives.


Left: Official crew photo of the STS-1 crew of John W. Young, left, and Robert L. Crippen.
Right: Official crew patch of the STS-1 mission.


Following the April 10 scrub, engineers corrected the computer timing error, and controllers in the Launch Control Center’s (LCC) Firing Room 1 at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC) recycled the countdown for another launch attempt on April 12. The countdown proceeded smoothly, and engineers refilled the large external tank with super cold liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. Repeating the activities of two days earlier, launch test director Norman Carlson instructed personnel in the crew quarters in KSC’s Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building to awaken Young and Crippen. Following a brief physical examination, they ate their traditional breakfast with fellow astronauts and managers. Assisted by technicians, they donned their pressure suits and walked out of the O&C Building to the waiting astronaut van for the 15-minute ride to Launch Pad 39A. Young and Crippen arrived at the pad about two and a half hours before the scheduled liftoff, took the elevator to the crew access arm level, and entered the White Room, where technicians assisted them into Columbia. Support astronaut Loren J. Shriver, inside the orbiter to ensure all the control switches were in the correct settings, helped Young and Crippen into their seats in the cockpit.


STS-1 astronauts John W. Young, left, and Robert L. Crippen enjoying the traditional prelaunch breakfast on the morning of April 12, 1981 – the day of the second launch attempt.


Left: Following breakfast, Young, left, and Crippen walk down the hall to don their pressure suits.
Right: Crippen, left, and Young donning their pressure suits prior to launch.


(...)
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/40-years-ago-columbia-takes-flight

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Odp: STS-1 Columbia
« Odpowiedź #55 dnia: Kwiecień 12, 2021, 19:07 »
40 lat od misji STS-1
BY KRZYSZTOF KANAWKA ON 12 KWIETNIA 2021


Relacja stacji CBS – lądowanie promu Columbia – misja STS-1 / Credits – CBS

Ten zapis pokazuje jak dużo technologii związanych z promami kosmicznymi zmieniło się przez dekady programu STS. Przede wszystkim doszło do znacznego rozwoju technologii komunikacyjnych – podczas ostatnich misji wahadłowców możliwe było oglądanie “na żywo”, także poprzez internet widoku z perspektywy pilota prowadzącego wahadłowiec do lądowania. (...)
https://kosmonauta.net/2021/04/40-lat-od-misji-sts-1/

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« Odpowiedź #56 dnia: Kwiecień 12, 2021, 19:19 »
Space Shuttle Flight 1 (STS-1) Post Flight Presentation
19 538 wyświetleń•10 maj 2011 National Space Society


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« Odpowiedź #58 dnia: Kwiecień 13, 2021, 10:07 »
Przypomnę materiał sprzed 40 lat w jakości HQ, razem z reakcją publiczności:

The Dark Side of the Moon

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« Odpowiedź #59 dnia: Wczoraj o 02:00 »
40 Years Ago: Space Shuttle Columbia Returns Home
Apr 14, 2021

Following their spectacular launch and two days of successful orbital operations, on April 14, 1981, STS-1 Commander John W. Young and Pilot Robert L. Crippen brought space shuttle Columbia back to Earth. During their last day in space, they completed a few more tests of the world’s first reusable spacecraft before closing Columbia’s payload bay doors. They maneuvered the vehicle to the reentry attitude and fired its engines to drop them out of orbit. Following an automated descent through the atmosphere, Young took over manual control and flew Columbia to a precise touchdown on the lakebed runway at NASA’s Dryden Flight Research Center, now NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center, at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB) in California’s Mojave Desert.


Left: Naples and Mt. Vesuvius, Italy, photographed by the STS-1 crew.
Right: The Great Kavir Salt Desert, Iran, photographed by the STS-1 crew.



Photograph taken by the STS-1 crew of the Mojave Desert region of California, including the Rogers Dry Lake at NASA’s Dryden Flight Research Center, now NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center, Columbia’s landing site, at the center of the photograph.
(...)
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/40-years-ago-space-shuttle-columbia-returns-home
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