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Odp: Apollo 11
« Odpowiedź #195 dnia: Lipiec 29, 2019, 18:56 »
Miejsce lądowania Apollo 11 z orbity
BY KRZYSZTOF KANAWKA ON 29 LIPCA 2019 6 SIERPNIA 2019

(...) Aktualnie najlepszymi możliwościami obserwacyjnymi dysponuje Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), krążąca wokół Księżyca od 2009 roku. Rozdzielczość najlepszych ujęć sięga 0,5 metra na piksel. Poniżej prezentujemy dwa przykłady serii spojrzeń na obszar lądowania misji Apollo 11.

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZniunXBx3sc" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZniunXBx3sc</a>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZniunXBx3sc

Spojrzenie na teren lądowania misji Apollo 11 na podstawie danych z LRO / Credits – NASA/LRO

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MYtii-u_VGw" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MYtii-u_VGw</a>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MYtii-u_VGw

Trójwymiarowa mapa otoczenia lądowania misji Apollo 11 / Credits – NASA
(...)
https://kosmonauta.net/2019/07/miejsce-ladowania-apollo-11-z-orbity/
https://kosmonauta.net/2019/08/miejsce-ladowania-apollo-11-z-orbity/

LRO: zdjęcia lądowników z czasów Apollo
BY KRZYSZTOF KANAWKA ON 17 LIPCA 2009
https://kosmonauta.net/2009/07/2009-07-17-lro/

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Simulates View from Lunar Module
July 16, 2019


In this image, the Lunar Module descent stage and astronaut tracks are clearly visible — something Armstrong did not see during the landing. The incidence (solar) angle on the Narrow Angle Camera image is within a degree as when Apollo 11 landed (just after sunrise), so you see the same dramatic shadows. Credits: NASA/Goddard/Arizona State University

The only visual record of the historic Apollo 11 landing is from a 16mm time-lapse (6 frames per second) movie camera mounted in Buzz Aldrin’s window (right side of Lunar Module Eagle or LM). Due to the small size of the LM windows and the angle at which the movie camera was mounted, what mission commander Neil Armstrong saw as he flew and landed the LM was not recorded. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) team reconstructed the last three minutes of the landing trajectory (latitude, longitude, orientation, velocity, altitude) using landmark navigation and altitude call outs from the voice recording. From this trajectory information, and high resolution LROC Narrow Angle Camera (LROC NAC) images and topography, we simulated what Armstrong saw in those final minutes as he guided the LM down to the surface of the Moon. As the video begins, Armstrong could see the aim point was on the rocky northeastern flank of West crater (190 meters diameter), causing him to take manual control and fly horizontally, searching for a safe landing spot. At the time, only Armstrong saw the hazard; he was too busy flying the LM to discuss the situation with mission control. (...)

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cwNDRY-ZthE" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cwNDRY-ZthE</a>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cwNDRY-ZthE
This video compares film from the landing of Apollo 11 (left) with a simulated reconstruction (right) based on data from NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Credits: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center/Arizona State University
https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/goddard/2019/lro-camera-simulates-view-from-lunar-module
« Ostatnia zmiana: Sierpień 07, 2019, 07:00 wysłana przez Orionid »

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Odp: Apollo 11
« Odpowiedź #196 dnia: Sierpień 02, 2019, 12:14 »
Rozmowa z szefem NASA

Apollo 11 to Now
July 12, 2019



(...) Host: It's truly fascinating. And, actually, you're one of them. So what are some of your memories of learning about the Moon landing and even just getting interested in space?

Jim Bridenstine: Yeah. So I remember in first grade we had an assembly where we brought in -- back then we had the tubes, television sets. A big television was rolled in and we watched the Moon landing in first grade. And, of course, at the time, the shuttle was brand-new. And so we were all inspired by the shuttle program. The International Space Station wasn't even a thought in that era. We're talking about 1981. Actually, it might've been a thought, just not implemented. I think Ronald Reagan announced that the Space Station Freedom would become the International Space Station in 1984. So I guess it had probably been a thought of somebody. But, anyway, we were inspired, of course, by those beautiful pictures of the space shuttle and -- but watching somebody walk on the Moon with kind of a different level of enthusiasm. I will also say that one of my earliest memories of spaceflight in general was in fifth grade. I was in Ms. Powers fifth grade English class, and she came in the classroom crying. And I remember thinking what's going on here, and then the teachers all huddled up and they were all just kind of like flustered. And then they brought in their own television, and we all watched the space shuttle Challenger incident. And, of course, that was a big deal because Christa McAuliffe was on board and she was a teacher. So this was something all teachers were involved in. This was an effort to inspire children all across the United States. And on this mission, it ultimately was a failure. I remember that like yesterday. It was -- there are certain things that happen in the course of your life where you remember right where you were, and that's one of those things. What we have to do now, though, the shuttle program was amazing. The International Space Station is amazing. We need a new monumental achievement, a new stunning achievement where somebody remembers exactly where they were when that achievement occurred, and it's a positive achievement. And that's why going back to the Moon with the next man and the first woman under the Artemis Program is so important. (...)

Jim Bridenstine: So we have now amended the President's budget request to accelerate the Moon program. There's two risks. One risk is technical. NASA can deal with the technical. The other risk that is more important at least initially is the political risk. The President adjusted his budget to include an additional $1.6 billion for the Artemis Program to accelerate the Moon landing. And the reason we accelerate is because it reduces the political risk. The longer these programs go, the more administrations change, Congresses change, priorities change, budgets change; and they get canceled. So we retire the political risk by accelerating. So we have now got some new money in the budget request for an accelerated lunar program with keeping our eyes on Mars. (...)

https://www.nasa.gov/johnson/HWHAP/apollo-11-to-now

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Odp: Apollo 11
« Odpowiedź #197 dnia: Sierpień 02, 2019, 12:14 »
O ratowaniu dziedzictwa wspomnień ludzi zaangażowanych w misję Apollo 11

Lesser Known Stories of Apollo 11
July 19, 2019



(...) Jennifer Ross-Nazzal: because they both worked for the landing and recovery division. They're both young guys who came in and they're both actually on the ship, the USS Hornet, which is the ship that's going to pick up the crew coming back from the moon for the first time. And so they both work for the landing and recovery division. They're both engineers. Randy Stone is the lead engineer for the folks outside of the mobile quarantine facility. And John Hirasaki is actually going to be quarantined with the crew that's coming back inside the mobile quarantine facility. And so I want to just talk a little bit about Randy Stone first because I think it kind of gives an idea of what's happening and then we can talk about John. We'll probably go back and forth between the two.

Host: Sure.

Jennifer Ross-Nazzal: But he was on the ship for a while. You know they were practicing things. They knew that President Nixon was going to be coming on board and so they were practicing maneuvers and routines and trying to get things ready for when the crew was coming and for when the president was coming. When the president comes, he actually models the biologic isolation garment for the president which I wish I'd seen a picture of it. I haven't been able to find a photo of it. But I, you know I think that's kind of interesting that he would be working on these things. And John Hirasaki is placed on board but he's placed inside of the mobile quarantine facility. They actually drew straws. There were four guys who were interested in being in that mobile quarantine facility. Even though, you know, there were fears about maybe bringing back a lunar bug and you know nobody knew what they might be bringing back and what impact that might have. He was actually a newlywed. He had married someone about six months earlier and so of course "The Andromeda Strain" is on her mind. But you know people wanted to make a contribution. People were willing to say, you know, hey I'll participate. I would like to do that task. And so he got the short straw and was in the mobile quarantine facility. He was put in early because there were concerns that, you know, he might catch something from some of the crew on the Hornet and they didn't want him to have any sort of cold or virus and give that to the crew themselves. And there was another person who was in the mobile quarantine facility and that was Dr. Carpentier, their physician at that time. So like you said, you know there were some concerns that they had but he's, you know he's got a front row seat. When the crew comes back he's got a front row seat to hearing the stories that the crew would tell about landing on the moon for the first time which is really exciting of course because when you go somewhere exciting and interesting you want to come back you want to tell people all about it. And they're locked in this quarantine facility because people are concerned, hey maybe you brought back a lunar bug. Maybe you're going to infect humanity as we know it. So they've got a chance to actually sit and talk with the crew and they tell their stories. So here, we need to go back now to Randy Stone because John Hirasaki is in the mobile quarantine facility. They bring back the crew, they go into the mobile quarantine facility but they also need to bring back the command module. And inside the command module are things like the rocks, as you talked about. There are also photos that they need to get back here to Houston to process. And Hirasaki, that's going to be one of his tasks. Well, Randy Stone is in charge of sort of safing the command module and, you know, there's a lot of toxins on board and so they need to make sure that the reaction control system jets are safed. And they also need to attach the command module to the mobile quarantine facility which is a trailer essentially that they're living in. And so they sort of snap it on but then he talks about how they've got hundreds of rolls of yellow tape. He said they used to joke that they couldn't go to the moon without yellow tape. He said it's like duct tape is today. You know-- (...)

https://www.nasa.gov/johnson/HWHAP/lesser-known-stories-of-apollo-11

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Odp: Apollo 11
« Odpowiedź #198 dnia: Sierpień 02, 2019, 12:14 »
The Next First Steps
July 26, 2019



(...) Host: There are some leaders of human spaceflight in America today who are too young to remember Apollo 11, like Lara Kearney, the deputy manager of the Gateway program, and Steve Koerner, the director of flight crew operations at JSC.

Lara Kearney: Yeah, I was about seven months old when Apollo 11 happened, so I don't have a direct memory of Apollo 11. But I do -- by the time the Apollo program was coming to the end, they were flying their last few flights, I was about three, three-and-a-half. And I do remember that.


Deputy Manager of the Gateway Program, Lara Kearney Credits: NASA / Robert Markowitz

Host: Really?

Lara Kearney: I remember watching on the television with my family, and seeing something that looked really cool on the television. I -- you know, looking back at it now, I had no concept of what a significant achievement it was at the time, but I definitely remember watching it on television with the family. (...)

https://www.nasa.gov/johnson/HWHAP/the-next-first-steps

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Odp: Apollo 11
« Odpowiedź #199 dnia: Sierpień 04, 2019, 16:53 »
O ratowaniu danych  zapisanych na przestarzałych  nośnikach.

The Heroes Behind the Heroes
April 19, 2019



(...) John Hansen: But we couldn't go to 9/11, let's say, New York City. You couldn't go to, like, you know, Hurricane Katrina events and things like this because many of the audio that we could get access to could potentially not be released. In addition to that, none of them were synchronized, so it's very hard to understand who was doing what and at what time if you don't have a common time frame. And so those challenges actually NASA solved for us because when we went back, we started doing some homework in looking at Apollo. And we saw, well, lo and behold, NASA recorded all this with timecode. That was the big plus.

Host: How did you become aware that that had even happened? If you had gone to the National Science Foundation and were looking for help but didn't know where there was, you know, what turns out to be a recording of many people talking all over each other all at the same time, how did you know that that was even there?

John Hansen: We knew that NASA recorded the audio. A lot of the Air to Ground, called Capcom, that's been released. And so at least that communication we knew was there. However, most of the audio that involved Mission Control, a lot of the back room discussions, support staff that were providing support to Mission Control, most of that audio had never really been released. And we thought, well, this actually would be an interesting space to look at. You know, the average, you know, K-12 type student pretty much knows hopefully most of the astronauts, at least the 12 Moon walkers. But most do not know who was working behind the scenes. (...)
https://www.nasa.gov/johnson/HWHAP/heroes-behind-the-heroes

The Heroes Behind the Heroes: Part 2
April 26, 2019



(...) Pat Ryan: Let me stop you for a second. The tapes that we're talking about, physical audio tapes that were recorded in 1969, in the case of Apollo 11. And 30 tracks, there are 30 different sources being recorded at the same time? Actually recorded at the same time? So they're already synced up in time because they were recorded that way?

John Hansen: Exactly. That is correct. And so—

Pat Ryan: What were the 30 sources? Did you know? Were they always the same?

John Hansen: No. Interestingly enough, NASA, when they recorded this, they had two historical recorders called HR1, HR2. Historical recorder one, historical recorder two. For each of these two recorders there's an upper and a lower recorder or a tape system; right? And the reason for that is, you know, if you're kind of recording on one historical recorder, you can't tell everyone, hey, stop. We got to switch the tapes right now. So they have two tapes. And so they'll record on the lower system. And then, when the tape's starting to run out, they'll start running tape on the other. (...)
https://www.nasa.gov/johnson/HWHAP/the-heroes-behind-the-heroes-part-2

The Heroes Behind the Heroes: Part 3
May 3, 2019



(...) Host: If you're there majoring in biomedical engineering, how did you get involved with John Hansen and his work?

Tuan Nguyen: Okay, so I was doing my senior project at the time. And Dr. Hansen was pretty much my project mentor. He managed about eight groups, senior project at the time. So, I mean, I didn't really get to hear about all this project that he's been proposing until my last day at the expo. That my last, second semester. So, I mean, you know, he had eight teams. So I was kind of shocked and surprised that he looked at me. You know, he was telling, oh, yeah we have this thing going on with NASA. And, you know, it's Apollo 11 project and stuff like that. He looked at me, Tuan, would you want it be a part of it? You know, I was surprised. Like I don't even know, I mean, you know, you have eight teams. I mean, that's a lot of, you know, students under him. But I guess he saw something in me that I really didn't see in me so.

Host: Explain to me what the project was. How did he present it to you? What was he trying to do?

Tuan Nguyen: So he, I mean, he say something about historical events, that we're trying to preserve these Apollo 11 tapes. Because, I mean, it's been locked up in a vault for about, over 40-some years. So he afraid that the tape's going to get decay. And, you know, forever be gone with the historic event, you know, the first man on the moon. So, I mean, what he's trying to do. So I'm like the last guy that he really recruited to be sent down to NASA and kind of get, you know, get all these tapes done for him. And for NASA. I mean, you know, it's really for the public interest. It wouldn't be for engineers or researchers, yeah. (...)
https://www.nasa.gov/johnson/HWHAP/the-heroes-behind-the-heroes-part-3

The Heroes Behind the Heroes: Part 4
May 10, 2019



(...) The University of Texas of Dallas Professor, who is the universities distinguished Chair in Telecommunications Engineering and the founder and Director of the Center for Robust Speech Systems, he had a plan, he and his team of students were going to salvage the audio recorded in NASA's Mission Control Center in Houston during the first a Apollo moon landing and do a comprehensive study of the language used by a large group of people while they were collaborating to solve a problem. The researchers were going to advance speech and language technology by developing the mechanical systems that could better understand the jumble of human speech, as compared to a single voice. Their plan did not include solving a major engineering problem to get the only available piece of hardware that could possibly play the audio off of analog tapes, get that equipment into operating condition so that they can digitize these sounds of history. Completely off plan, they designed and fabricated brand new hardware components. And then they oversaw the playback of more than sixty audio tapes running some, fourteen hours each, just to get the raw material with which to do the science they came here to do in the first place. (...)
https://www.nasa.gov/johnson/HWHAP/the-heroes-behind-the-heroes-part-4/

NASA, University of Texas at Dallas Reveal Apollo 11 Behind-the-Scenes Audio
July 24, 2018

(...) While the 19,000 hours of tape data from Apollo 11 are a significant accomplishment that will provide greatly improved access to that mission, they represent only 25 percent of the audio record for all of Project Apollo. The rest -- which still remain to be digitized and transcribed -- cover the early Apollo test flights in orbit around the Earth, the two test missions that sent Apollo 8 around the Moon in December 1968, put Apollo 10 in orbit around the Moon in May of 1969, the five later Apollo missions that landed on the Moon, and the “successful failure” that saw Apollo 13 crippled by an oxygen tank explosion and required Mission Control to use all of the innovation it could muster to bring the crew of three home safely to Earth. (...)
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/nasa-university-of-texas-at-dallas-reveal-apollo-11-behind-the-scenes-audio

Not-Unsolved Mysteries: The “Lost” Apollo 11 Tapes
July 8, 2019

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0D7SldhB-dk" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0D7SldhB-dk</a>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0D7SldhB-dk
Video: July 16, 2009 press conference on the search for and restoration of the Apollo 11 video.

With the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing approaching, reports have resurfaced that NASA lost some precious video footage of that first moonwalk.

Before diving into the details of two distinct events that seem to have become conflated, it’s worth emphasizing three key points:

- NASA searched for but could not locate some of the original Apollo 11 data tapes – “original” in the sense that they directly recorded data transmitted from the Moon. An intensive search of archives and records concluded that the most likely scenario was that the program managers determined there was no longer a need to keep the tapes — since all the video and data were recorded elsewhere — and they were erased and reused.

- The data on those tapes, including video data, were relayed to the Manned Spacecraft Center (now the Johnson Space Center), during the mission. The video was recorded there and in other locations; there is no missing video footage from the Apollo 11 moonwalk.

- The search discovered high-quality broadcast versions of the footage. NASA worked with Lowry Digital, a premier film restoration company, to process the video using techniques unavailable in 1969. The restored video was released in HD as part of the 40th anniversary of Apollo 11.

Further explanation means diving into the details of how Apollo sent data back to Earth and how NASA collected it. (...)
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/not-unsolved-mysteries-the-lost-apollo-11-tapes
« Ostatnia zmiana: Sierpień 05, 2019, 02:20 wysłana przez Orionid »

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Odp: Apollo 11
« Odpowiedź #200 dnia: Sierpień 05, 2019, 03:59 »
Historyczna Apollo Mission Control Center na rocznicę lotu Apollo 11 została odrestaurowana.

Time Travel Back to 1969
June 28, 2019



OK, so maybe you won’t be able to exactly do that … But now you can achieve something close to that because the Apollo Mission Control Center is restored in time for the 50th anniversary of Apollo 11.

That giant leap, which was unforgettable to moonwalkers Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, was also unforgettable to all of humankind—especially the flight controllers living it. The Apollo control center is where one of the biggest moments in the history of our nation and, quite possibly, the entire world, unfolded. (...)
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/time-travel-back-to-1969

Apollo Mission Control Reopens in All Its Historic Glory
June 25, 2019


On June 28, 2019, NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine and Apollo Flight Director Gene Kranz participated in a ribbon-cutting ceremony to reopen the restored Apollo Mission Control Center. Credits: NASA/Robert Markowitz

(...) Throughout the years, some work was done to partially restore the facility to its Apollo-era configuration, but the full restoration project did not begin until 2017, after five years of planning and fundraising. Space Center Houston, Johnson’s official visitor center operated by the nonprofit Manned Space Flight Education Foundation Inc., spearheaded an effort to raise the $5 million needed for the project, of which the nearby city of Webster, Texas, donated $3.5 million.

“Thanks to the City of Webster and worldwide support, the treasured landmark is now restored, preserving it for future generations,” said William Harris, president and CEO of Space Center Houston. “We can gain incredible insight through the accomplishments of the Apollo era and the room will continue to inspire people and innovators to chase their dreams.” (...)
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/apollo-mission-control-reopens-in-all-its-historic-glory

Restoring the Apollo Mission Control Center
June 14, 2019



(...)
Sandra Tetley: So the room -- about in the mid 90s after they moved to Building 30 South the room was just unoccupied. The consoles were not lit up or anything. There was nothing on the consoles, no documents or anything. And it was open to whoever could get into 30 could go and sit at the consoles and dial the phones, press the buttons, you know, do whatever they wanted to. Visitors from Space Center Houston went in the viewing room, and then level 9 tours and VIP tours would go on the floor. And so it was not really ever maintained as far as upkeep. The did do some maintenance when chairs would break or something like that. But it was really not kept in any sort of fashion that it should have been. (...)


The Apollo Mission Control Room in January 2018 before the restoration project began. Credits: NASA / Norah Moran
https://www.nasa.gov/johnson/HWHAP/restoring-the-apollo-mission-control-center

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Odp: Apollo 11
« Odpowiedź #201 dnia: Sierpień 05, 2019, 04:11 »
Rocket Fuel in Her Blood: The Story of JoAnn Morgan
July 12, 2019


JoAnn Morgan was the only woman in the launch firing room during the launch of Apollo 11. Credits: NASA

(...) The room was crowded with men in white shirts and dark ties, watching attentively as the rocket thrust into the sky. But among them sat one woman, seated to the left of center in the third row in the image below. In fact, this was the only woman in the launch firing room for the Apollo 11 liftoff.

This is JoAnn Morgan, the instrumentation controller for Apollo 11.

Today, this is what Morgan is most known for. But her career at NASA spanned over 45 years, and she continued to break ceiling after ceiling for women involved with the space program. In addition to being the first woman at NASA to win a Sloan Fellowship, she was the first woman division chief, the first woman senior executive at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), the first woman associate director for KSC, the first woman director of Safety and Mission Assurance…and the list goes on, as this feature will show. (...)


STS-112 Pilot Pamela Melroy (left) and Mission Specialist Sandra Magnus (center) talk to Acting Deputy Director JoAnn Morgan (right) after the crew's return to KSC. A flawless landing of Space Shuttle Atlantis completed a 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Credits: NASA
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/the-story-of-joann-morgan

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Odp: Apollo 11
« Odpowiedź #202 dnia: Sierpień 05, 2019, 04:11 »
NASA Armstrong Suits Up for the 50th Apollo Anniversary
July 11, 2019


Flight engineers Marta Bohn-Meyer and Bob Meyer, and pilots Ed Schneider and Rogers Smith, flew the triple-sonic SR-71 for high-speed research experiments wearing their pressure suits. Credits: NASA Photo

(...) The life support team also educates the public on why their job is so important. One of the best ways to do this is by bringing a real pressure suit to events around the country. The suit provides hands-on learning as to why pressure suits are so important for high-altitude pilots and astronauts. (...)
https://www.nasa.gov/centers/armstrong/features/afrc-suits-up-for-50th-apollo-anniversary.html

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Odp: Apollo 11
« Odpowiedź #203 dnia: Sierpień 05, 2019, 04:11 »
Solving Combustion Instability and Saving America’s First Trips to the Moon
July 12, 2019


An earlier rocket engine held the answer to solving the combustion instability problem in the F-1 engine. The curved injector plate -- as seen on this engine on display at the U.S. Space & Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama -- contained small pods through which liquid oxygen and rocket fuel were introduced into the combustion chamber, resulting in smoother combustion. Credits: NASA/Will Bryan

(...) Bigger rockets with more powerful engines than the small Mercury-Redstone rocket, that launched the first two Americans into space, were needed. Bigger engines meant more complexity and unknown problems to the young engineers in charge of developing them.

One of those young engineers was 28-year-old Sonny Morea, and one of those challenges was called combustion instability -- a problem that plagued the massive F-1 engine led by program manager Morea.

“It was a disaster because once we had that instability, it would burn through the thrust chamber in milliseconds. The hardware went all over the place,” said Morea. Five F-1 engines powered the Saturn V’s first stage and were tasked with launching the 36-story-tall, 6.5-million pound rocket.

In the simplest view, combustion instability can be thought of as pressure swings in the engine caused by the multiple streams of liquid oxygen and rocket fuel combining and igniting at extremely high pressures in such a way that causes violent vibrations. In the Saturn V’s first stage engine, those pressure swings could cause destruction in fractions of a second.

Morea helped form a team of combustion experts from across the country to solve the problem. After more than three years, they had an answer. (...)
https://www.nasa.gov/centers/marshall/history/solving-combustion-instability-and-saving-americas-first-trips-to-the-moon.html

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Odp: Apollo 11
« Odpowiedź #204 dnia: Sierpień 05, 2019, 04:31 »
Rozmowa o mniej znanych, którzy przyczynili się do sukcesu programu Apollo

Apollo and The Moon
Nov. 16, 2018



(...) Dr. Jennifer Ross-Nazzal: Well, yeah.  I mean, we needed, we needed a large rocket.  And Marshall Space Flight Center was heavily involved in developing that Saturn rocket.  And you know what, it didn't need to be as large as that Nova rocket that we talked about for Direct Ascent.  But that was, that was something that they, they worked on.  The German engineers out there at Marshall Space Flight Center.  Here at, at JSC, we were more focused on things like building the spacecraft itself.  So the command module that you see the astronauts working and living in.  As they go to the moon and return back home.  That's really the only thing that gets to come back also from the moon.  And also working on that lunar lander, the lunar module that ends up traveling down to the moon's surface.  And the astronauts live in while they're on the lunar surface.  So you know there's a lot of work that needs to be done.  And there's a lot of contractor all across the United States that were working on this program.  And also universities.  People like at MIT who were working on different projects.

So there, there were thousands of people who worked on the Apollo program.  You know, just people that, that you might not associate with the Apollo program.  People—seamstresses who were sewing space suits for instances, and gloves that the astronauts wore on the moon.

Host: Oh yeah.

Dr. Jennifer Ross-Nazzal: So you know, there are, there are a lot of people involved in this program.  I think a lot of the, the people that we often think of and associate with Apollo are the people that get the most attention.  Who appear on these magazine covers like the astronauts, of course, on life magazine.  Or you might see Chris Kraft who was on the cover of Time Magazine.  All the Mission Control folks before we had TV.  And on the spacecraft we would see what was happening in Mission Control.  That's where all the action was.  But you know we don't often think about all the engineers and the scientists and all the other people who made this program successful.  (...)

https://www.nasa.gov/johnson/HWHAP/apollo-and-the-moon

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Odp: Apollo 11
« Odpowiedź #205 dnia: Sierpień 09, 2019, 04:15 »
10 stycznia 1969 NASA ogłosiła skład załogi Apollo 11, ale bez wskazania, kto pierwszy postawi stopę na powierzchni Księżyca.

50 Years Ago: NASA Names Apollo 11 Crew
Jan. 30, 2019


Astronauts (left to right) Aldrin, Armstrong, and Collins pose for reporters on Jan. 10, 1969, after their announcement as the prime crew for the Apollo 11 Moon landing mission.

On Jan. 9, 1969, NASA formally announced the crew for the Apollo 11 mission, scheduled for July of that year. Planned as the fifth crewed Apollo mission, if all went well on the two flights preceding it, Apollo 11 would attempt the first human lunar landing, fulfilling President John F. Kennedy’s goal of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth. The next day, NASA introduced the Apollo 11 crew during a press conference at the Manned Spacecraft Center, now the Johnson Space Center in Houston.

The prime crew consisted of Commander Neil A. Armstrong, Command Module Pilot (CMP) Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot (LMP) Edwin E. “Buzz” Aldrin. All three were experienced astronauts, each having flown one Gemini mission. Armstrong and Aldrin had served on the backup crew for Apollo 8 the previous December and Collins was initially a member of that crew until a bone spur in his spine requiring surgery sidelined him.  Fully recovered from the operation, NASA added him to the Apollo 11 crew. The Apollo 11 backup crew of Commander James A. Lovell, CMP William A. Anders, and LMP Fred W. Haise, would be ready to fly the mission in case something happened to the prime crew. Lovell and Anders had just completed the Apollo 8 lunar orbit mission and Haise was a backup crewmember on that flight. When Anders announced that he would retire from NASA in August 1969 to join the National Space Council (TBC), Thomas K. “Ken” Mattingly began training in parallel with Anders in case the mission slipped past that date. (...)

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/50-years-ago-nasa-names-apollo-11-crew

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Odp: Apollo 11
« Odpowiedź #206 dnia: Sierpień 09, 2019, 04:16 »
MQF  (Mobile Quarantine Facility)  służący do kwarantanny załogi po powrocie z Księżyca został na początku 1969 przetestowany

50 Years Ago: Apollo 11 Preparations
Feb. 1, 2019

In January 1969, only the most optimistic could have predicted that in just six months’ time humans would be walking on the surface of the Moon. NASA was making preparations for that historic mission while also preparing for the two missions, Apollo 9 and 10, that would precede it and complete critical tests in Earth and lunar orbit. Early in the month, NASA announced the crew for Apollo 11, the first mission that would attempt a lunar landing – Commander Neil A. Armstrong, Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. “Buzz” Aldrin, and Command Module Pilot Michael Collins. Components of their spacecraft and rocket arrived at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in January and February. At the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), now the Johnson Space Center in Houston, facilities were being prepared to receive the first humans to return from the Moon. (...)


Left: The MQF being loaded onto a C-141 cargo plane at Ellington Air Force Base.
Middle: Workers hoist the MQF onto the USS Guadalcanal.
Right: Aboard the USS Guadalcanal, workers have set up the flexible tunnel between the MQF and a mockup Apollo Command Module.


An integral component of the back-contamination prevention process was the Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). Following lunar landing missions, the MQF housed astronauts and support personnel from their arrival onboard the prime recovery ship shortly after splashdown through transport to the LRL. Under contract to NASA, Melpar, Inc., of Falls Church, Virginia, converted four 35-foot Airstream trailers into MQFs, delivering the first unit in March 1968 and the last three in the spring of 1969. The first unit was used extensively for testing, with lessons learned incorporated into the later models. On Jan. 21, 1969, the first MQF was loaded aboard a U.S. Air Force C-141 cargo plane at Ellington Air Force Base near the MSC and flown to the Norfolk Naval Air Station in Norfolk, Virginia. Six recovery specialists from the MSC spent 10 days inside the MQF, first aboard the helicopter landing-platform USS Guadalcanal and then the destroyer USS Fox, including attaching a flexible tunnel to a mockup of an Apollo Command Module. The overall exercise was a rehearsal to test all MQF systems aboard ships and aircraft as would be done during recovery operations after a lunar landing mission.

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/50-years-ago-apollo-11-preparations

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Odp: Apollo 11
« Odpowiedź #207 dnia: Sierpień 09, 2019, 04:17 »
50 Years Ago: Apollo 11 Preparations February 1969
Feb. 20, 2019


Stacking of the three stages of the Apollo 11 Saturn V in the VAB: (left to right) S-IC first stage, S-II second stage, and S-IVB third stage.

(...) In preparation for the launch of Apollo 11, workers in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Center began stacking the stages of the Saturn V rocket that would take the spacecraft off the planet and send it on its way to the Moon. Workers first mounted the S-IC first stage on its Mobile Launch Platform on Feb. 21, then stacked the S-II second stage on Mar. 4 and the S-IVB third stage the next day. While this work was underway, the Saturn V for Apollo 9 was already on Launch Pad 39A awaiting its flight, and the rocket for Apollo 10 was in another high bay in the VAB, awaiting its rollout to Launch Pad 39B in mid-March. Elsewhere at KSC, the Apollo 11 CSM and LM were undergoing testing in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building. (...)


Left: Apollo 11 prime crewmembers Armstrong (left) and Aldrin during the geology field trip in West Texas.
Right: Apollo 11 backup crewmembers Haise (left) and Lovell during the West Texas geology field trip.


https://www.nasa.gov/feature/50-years-ago-apollo-11-preparations-february-1969

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Odp: Apollo 11
« Odpowiedź #208 dnia: Sierpień 09, 2019, 04:18 »
W marcu 1968 pierwszy stopień Saturna V został dostarczony do Mississippi Test Facility

This Week in NASA History: Saturn S-IC-6 Arrives at the Mississippi Test Facility – March 1, 1968
Feb. 27, 2019



This week in 1968, the Saturn S-IC-6 arrived at the Mississippi Test Facility -- today’s NASA Stennis Space Center -- from the Michoud Assembly Facility. The S-IC, or first, stage of the Saturn rocket was powered by five F-1 engines, each producing 1.5 million pounds of thrust. The S-IC-6 was employed on the Apollo 11 Saturn V launch vehicle. Here, the S-IC-6 booster was lifted onto its mobile launcher in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center.  (...)

https://www.nasa.gov/centers/marshall/history/this-week-in-nasa-history-saturn-s-ic-6-arrives-at-the-mississippi-test-facility-march.html

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Odp: Apollo 11
« Odpowiedź #209 dnia: Sierpień 09, 2019, 04:19 »
50 Years Ago: Apollo 11 Preparations March 1969
March 19, 2019

(...) To certify the LM for lunar landings, engineers at MSC conducted drop tests with Lunar Module-2 (LM-2) in the Vibration and Acoustics Test Facility (VATF).  The series of five drop tests began March 21 and were completed in early May. NASA originally built LM-2 for a second unpiloted test flight of the spacecraft, but the first test during the Apollo 5 mission in January 1968 was so successful that NASA deemed a second flight unnecessary. By using LM-2, a flight-like vehicle with all subsystems installed, engineers evaluated the durability of those systems. Engineers dropped LM-2, instrumented with accelerometers, from heights of eight to 24 inches onto pedestals of varying heights and slopes to simulate landings on rough lunar terrain. The vehicle passed with flying colors and was certified for the first lunar landing. (...)


Left: NASA pilot Algranti ejecting from LLTV-1 seconds before it crashed.
Right: First flight of LLTV-2 after resumption of flights, with pilot Ream at the controls.


On March 5, in a White House ceremony President Richard M. Nixon announced that he was nominating Thomas O. Paine, Acting NASA Administrator since October 1968, to be NASA’s third Administrator. The Senate confirmed the nomination on March 20 and Paine assumed the role the next day, being sworn in by Vice President Spiro T. Agnew. On March 28, the nation learned of the death of former President Dwight D. Eisenhower at the age of 78. As President, Eisenhower was instrumental in the establishment of NASA in 1958 and supporting the Agency in its formative years.


Left: In the White House, President Nixon (left) announced the nomination of Paine (middle) as NASA’s third Administrator, as Vice President Agnew looked on.
Right: Official portrait of former President Eisenhower taken in 1959.


https://www.nasa.gov/feature/50-years-ago-apollo-11-preparations-march-1969