Autor Wątek: Saturn V - pierwszy start 50 lat temu.  (Przeczytany 1965 razy)

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Offline juram

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Saturn V - pierwszy start 50 lat temu.
« dnia: Listopad 09, 2017, 00:18 »
Doczekaliśmy się pięćdziesiątej rocznicy pierwszego startu Saturna V - największej jak dotąd udanej rakiety nośnej, którą zaprojektowano dla realizacji programu APOLLO i dotarcia ludzi na Księżyc. Start odbył się rankiem 9 Listopada 1967r z ośrodka KSC na Florydzie.

Pierwszy lot testowy tego giganta w ramach bezzałogowej misji APOLLO-4 przebiegł bez problemów. Na LEO został wyniesiony moduł dowodzenia CSM, który następnie wykonał manewr podwyższenia apogeum orbity do wysokości ponad 18 tysięcy km, po czym oddzielił się od niej moduł powrotny CM, który wytracił prędkość w ziemskiej atmosferze i pomyślnie wodował na Pacyfiku.

Przebieg misji AS-4 ukazuje film dokumentalny.


Offline Orionid

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Odp: Saturn V - pierwszy start 50 lat temu.
« Odpowiedź #1 dnia: Listopad 09, 2017, 06:40 »
Dokładnie 9 listopada 1967 o 12:00:01 UTC nastąpił pierwszy start RN Saturn V z misją bezzałogową Apollo 4 (AS-501).
Był to też pierwszy start z wyrzutni LC-39A.
W czasie misji Apollo 4 osiągnął apogeum  18 092 km.
W czasie lotu była testowana makieta LM.
Statek wykonał trzy pełne okrążenia Ziemi. Lot trwał  8 godzin, 36 minuty, 59 sekundy i zakończył się wodowaniem kapsuły powrotnej na północny zachód od wyspy Midway na Północnym Pacyfiku.

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Link do materiału:

'Without Breaking the Shell': 50 Years Since the Saturn V's Maiden Launch
By Ben Evans November 5th, 2017

“T-minus-25…,” came the calm, measured tones of the launch announcer in the pre-dawn darkness of Thursday, 9 November 1967. “Stages reporting Ready for Launch…”

Fifty years ago, the largest and most powerful rocket ever brought to operational status thundered into the clear Florida sky, shaking windows, dislodging roof-tiles and making spectators wonder if the Sunshine State had sunk into the ground. Standing 363 feet (110.6 meters) tall, the Saturn V would fly 13 times between 9 November 1967 and 14 May 1973, supporting three unmanned missions, testing the entire Apollo spacecraft in manned capacity in low-Earth orbit and despatching nine crews of human explorers towards the Moon. Although the Soviet Union’s ill-fated N-1 booster had a greater thrust at liftoff, the Saturn V has retained its admirable record for raw, naked power for a half-century. It is a record unlikely to be broken until the Space Launch System (SLS) and other super-heavylift boosters enter operational status, later this decade and into the 2020s.

“…Twelve, eleven, ten…”

From a height, weight and payload-to-orbit standpoint, the Saturn V far surpasses any other operational rocket in history. It evolved from a series of heavylifting launch vehicles, originally identified as “Saturn C-1” through “Saturn C-5”, of which NASA declared its intent to build the latter in January 1962. The rocket would comprise three stages, with five F-1 engines at on the S-IC first stage, five J-2 engines on the S-II second stage and a single J-2 on the S-IVB third stage. In terms of capability, it could deliver up to 310,000 pounds (140,000 kg) into low-Earth orbit or up to 107,100 pounds (48,600 kg) towards the Moon. Early in 1963, the C-5 was renamed “Saturn V”. (...)

Apollo 4 capsule from first Saturn V launch lands at Infinity Science Center

The Apollo 4 command module is seen still under wraps in its new display home at the Infinity Science Center in Mississippi. (Infinity)

October 31, 2017 — The first Apollo spacecraft to launch atop a Saturn V rocket has landed in a new display, just in time for its trailblazing mission's 50th anniversary.

The Apollo 4 command module, which flew on the maiden flight of NASA's towering Saturn V rocket on Nov. 9, 1967, debuted at its new permanent home at the Infinity Science Center in Mississippi on Tuesday (Oct. 31). The spacecraft was moved from NASA's nearby Stennis Space Center on Sunday (Oct. 29) to join the displays at the space center's official visitor center. (...)

W monstrum na Księżyc – Saturn V
dnia 22/01/2017


NASA's Mighty Saturn V Moon Rocket Explained (Infographic)
By Karl Tate, Infographics Artist | November 9, 2012


An Apollo Saturn V rocket on the launch pad. Image Credit: NASA
Artykuły astronautyczne
« Ostatnia zmiana: Listopad 09, 2017, 09:05 wysłana przez Orionid »

Offline Orionid

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Odp: Saturn V - pierwszy start 50 lat temu.
« Odpowiedź #2 dnia: Listopad 09, 2017, 06:44 »
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Offline Orionid

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Odp: Saturn V - pierwszy start 50 lat temu.
« Odpowiedź #3 dnia: Listopad 09, 2017, 06:58 »
50 years ago: The First Flight of the Saturn V
Nov. 8, 2017

In November 1967, with the Space Age barely 10 years old, NASA was about to take one giant leap forward:  the first flight of the Saturn 5 Moon rocket.  For the mission known as Apollo 4, the 363-foot tall Saturn 5 had rolled out to Pad 39A at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida on August 26, 1967.  There it underwent several months of testing including a Countdown Demonstration Test, concluded on October 13, leading to many lessons learned that resulted in an essentially trouble-free countdown for the actual launch.  Apollo 4 was to be an all-up test flight, meaning all three stages of the rocket would be flown together for the first time, as well as the Apollo Command and Service Module (CSM). It would be the first Apollo flight since the fire in January 1967 that took the lives of astronauts Gus Grissom, Ed White and Roger Chaffee.

Launch of Apollo 4 atop the first Saturn 5 Moon rocket.

Controllers in the Launch Control Center Firing Room at KSC monitored the three-day countdown.  At 7 AM on November 9, the five F-1 engines roared to life, generating 7.5 million pounds of thrust, and a few seconds later the Saturn 5 began to climb slowly skyward.  Scientists calculated that the noise created by the launch was one of the loudest ever, natural or man-made, and the vibrations rattled the press site several miles away.  As the rocket cleared the launch tower, control of the flight was transferred to Mission Control at the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, where the mission was monitored by Flight Director Glynn Lunney and his team of controllers.

Coastal Brazil, Atlantic Ocean, West Africa, Sahara, Antarctica, looking west, as photographed by an automatic camera aboard the unpiloted Apollo 4 command module. The Earth photographed by Apollo 4 from a distance of 11,214 miles.

President Lyndon B. Johnson said of the flight:  “The whole world could see the awesome sight of the first launch of what is now the largest rocket ever flown.  This launching symbolizes the power this nation is harnessing for the peaceful exploration of space.”  Apollo Flight Director Gene Kranz remembered:  “In Mission Control, all of us felt elated as America resumed its voyage to the Moon.”

The Apollo 4 Command Module is currently on display at the INFINITY Science Center at the NASA Stennis Space Center in Mississippi.

Relative size of the Saturn 5 rocket compared to other US human space flight rockets (left to right): Mercury-Redstone, Mercury-Atlas, Gemini-Titan, Apollo-Saturn 1B, and Apollo-Saturn 5

Apollo 4 was First-Ever Launch from NASA's Kennedy Space Center
Nov. 3, 2017 By Bob Granath
NASA's Kennedy Space Center, Florida

Fifty years ago this month, NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida experienced the roar of a rocket from Launch Complex 39 for the first time. Looking ahead to that milestone, President John F. Kennedy spoke to a crowd at Rice University in Houston on the hot afternoon of Sept. 12, 1962, explaining some of the challenges of going to the Moon.

In the early evening of Nov. 8, 1967, the 363-foot tall Saturn V launch vehicle stands ready for liftoff. The first uncrewed flight test of the Saturn V. Apollo 4 also was the first rocket to liftoff from the Florida spaceport.
Credits: NASA

"If we shall send to the Moon, 240,000 miles away ... a giant rocket, ... made of new metal alloys, some of which have not yet been invented, capable of withstanding heat and stresses several times more than have ever been experienced, fitted together with a precision better than the finest watch -- then we must be bold."

On the morning of Nov. 9, 1967, the ambitious effort to develop that rocket was achieved. The first flight test of the 363-foot-tall Saturn V lifted off as the uncrewed Apollo 4 mission. The rocket's power of 7.5 million pounds of thrust reached the Launch Control Center (LCC), Press Site and spectators, all three miles away, shocking even veteran launch viewers.

From his broadcast structure, CBS News commentator Walter Cronkite reported that the building was shaking and that he and a producer were holding the glass window behind him.

NASA's Public Information chief, Jack King, who served as countdown commentator, expressed a similar reaction.

"At liftoff, the vibration from the Saturn V showered us with dust and debris from the ceiling of the Launch Control Center which was brand new at the time," he said.

Dr. Hans Greune, director of Kennedy Launch Vehicle Operations, also was in the LCC.

"I hope the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) doesn't get any cracks," he said afterward. "It rattled pretty hard and a cheer went up in the control room after liftoff."

The celebration followed years of development for the launch vehicle required to meet President Kennedy's goal to land on the Moon. With it, humankind could take its first trips beyond low-Earth orbit, expanding the frontiers of knowledge and opportunities in space.

The three-stage rocket was stacked in the VAB and was the first to take off from the new Launch Complex 39.

After the successful liftoff, Kennedy's director, Dr. Kurt Debus, spoke of that achievement.

"After long years of preparing, designing, building and constructing a new type facility, it was put to the test for the first time and it was done extremely well," he said.

The Saturn V's third stage, or S-IVB, and Apollo command/service module were placed into a nearly circular 115-mile orbit, as would be the case on lunar missions. After two orbits, the S-IVB's first re-ignition put the spacecraft into an elliptical orbit with a high point of 11,200 miles.

The command module's service propulsion system engine then fired to increase re-entry speed to about 24,900 miles per hour, simulating a return from the Moon. After 8 hours and 36 minutes of flight, the command module splashed down in the Pacific Ocean, approximately 10 miles from the U.S. Navy aircraft carrier, USS Bennington, the prime recovery ship.

The Apollo 4 command module and one of its parachutes float in the Pacific Ocean following splashdown near the U.S. Navy aircraft carrier, USS Bennington. The Apollo 4 mission yielded flight information on the Saturn V launch vehicle and Apollo spacecraft's structural integrity, compatibility and subsystem operation. Additionally, the Apollo command module's heat shield was tested under conditions similar to those that would be encountered during a return from the Moon. Credits: NASA

"It was really an expert launching all the way through from lifting off exactly on time to performance of every single stage," said Dr. Wernher von Braun, director NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

NASA's Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, Dr. George Mueller, noted that the successful flight of Apollo 4 showed that NASA was back on track to land on the Moon following the Apollo 1 fire earlier in 1967.

"The maiden voyage of the Saturn V dramatically increased the confidence of people across the nation in the management of the largest research and development undertaking in which the western world has ever engaged," he said.

Less than two years after Apollo 4, the crew of Apollo 11 achieved President Kennedy's goal, landing on the moon July 20, 1969. Five more missions landed by the end of 1972.

That spirit of deep-space exploration continues as NASA prepares for flights of the Space Launch System rocket with the Orion spacecraft, also lifting off from Kennedy's Launch Complex 39, as astronauts will again travel beyond low-Earth orbit.
« Ostatnia zmiana: Listopad 09, 2017, 07:27 wysłana przez Orionid »

Offline Orionid

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Odp: Saturn V - pierwszy start 50 lat temu.
« Odpowiedź #4 dnia: Listopad 09, 2017, 07:38 »
This Week in NASA History: Apollo 4 Launches – Nov. 9, 1967
Nov. 8, 2017

This week in 1967, Apollo 4 launched from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. The uncrewed mission was the first "all-up" test of the three stages of the Saturn V rocket and was designed to test all aspects of the launch vehicle. Rather than traditional methods of testing rockets, "all-up" called for a rocket comprised entirely of live stages from the very first launch. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center designed, developed and managed the production of the Saturn V rocket that took astronauts to the Moon. Today, Marshall is developing NASA's Space Launch System, the most powerful rocket ever built, capable of sending astronauts to Mars and deeper into space than ever before. The NASA History Program is responsible for generating, disseminating and preserving NASA’s remarkable history and providing a comprehensive understanding of the institutional, cultural, social, political, economic, technological and scientific aspects of NASA’s activities in aeronautics and space.