Autor Wątek: Bruce McCandless II (1937-2017)  (Przeczytany 743 razy)

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Offline mss

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Bruce McCandless II (1937-2017)
« dnia: Grudzień 22, 2017, 22:19 »
NASA oficjalnie poinformowała o śmierci byłego astronauty Bruce'a McCandless'a w wieku 80 lat.

Znany jest on z udziału w 2 misjach wahadłowca: Challenger w roku 1984 (misja STS-41B) i Discovery w roku 1990 (misja STS-31).

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Odp: Bruce McCandless II (1937-2017)
« Odpowiedź #1 dnia: Grudzień 22, 2017, 23:28 »
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Odp: Bruce McCandless II (1937-2017)
« Odpowiedź #2 dnia: Grudzień 22, 2017, 23:54 »
NASA astronaut, first to fly untethered in space, dies at 80
December 22, 2017

McCandless died Thursday in California, NASA's Johnson Space Center announced Friday. No cause of death was given.

He was famously photographed in 1984 flying with a hefty spacewalker's jetpack, alone in the cosmic blackness above a blue Earth. He traveled more than 300 feet away from the space shuttle Challenger during the spacewalk.

McCandless said he wasn't nervous about the historic spacewalk.

"I was grossly over-trained. I was just anxious to get out there and fly. I felt very comfortable ... It got so cold my teeth were chattering and I was shivering, but that was a very minor thing," he told the Daily Camera in Boulder, Colorado, in 2006.


McCandless helped develop the jetpack and was later part of the shuttle crew that delivered the Hubble Space Telescope to orbit.

McCandless also served as the Mission Control capsule communicator in Houston as Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walked on the moon in 1969.


https://phys.org/news/2017-12-nasa-astronaut-untethered-space-dies.html

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Odp: Bruce McCandless II (1937-2017)
« Odpowiedź #3 dnia: Grudzień 23, 2017, 02:55 »
<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=92ZRVlKuc0U" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=92ZRVlKuc0U</a>

Link do materiału: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=92ZRVlKuc0U&t=5s

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Odp: Bruce McCandless II (1937-2017)
« Odpowiedź #4 dnia: Grudzień 23, 2017, 02:56 »
Astronaut Bruce McCandless II Dies at 80
Dec. 22, 2017 MEDIA ADVISORY J17-017



Former NASA astronaut Bruce McCandless II, mission specialist on the STS-41B and STS-31 missions, died Dec. 21, 2017, at the age of 80.

McCandless is perhaps best remembered as the subject of a famous NASA photograph flying alongside the space shuttle in the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) – the first astronaut to fly untethered from his spacecraft. His time as an astronaut encompassed much more than that mission, including serving as the mission-control communicator for Neil Armstrong's and Buzz Aldrin's moonwalk on the Apollo 11 mission.

"Our thoughts and prayers go out to Bruce's family," said Robert Lightfoot, NASA's acting administrator. "He will always be known for his iconic photo flying the MMU."

McCandless, a retired U. S. Navy captain, was one of the 19 astronauts selected by NASA in April 1966. He was a member of the astronaut support crew for the Apollo 14 mission and was backup pilot for the first crewed Skylab mission. He flew as a mission specialist on two space shuttle missions. On STS-41B in 1984, he performed the famous spacewalk and on STS-31 in 1990 he helped deploy the Hubble Space Telescope.

Of his famous spacewalk, he wrote in 2015: "My wife [Bernice] was at mission control, and there was quite a bit of apprehension. I wanted to say something similar to Neil [Armstrong] when he landed on the moon, so I said, 'It may have been a small step for Neil, but it’s a heck of a big leap for me.' That loosened the tension a bit."

Born June 8, 1937, in Boston, McCandless graduated from Woodrow Wilson Senior High School, Long Beach, California. He received a bachelor of science degree from the United States Naval Academy in 1958, a master of science degree in Electrical Engineering from Stanford University in 1965, and a master’s degree in Business Administration from the University of Houston at Clear Lake City in 1987.

He was a co-investigator on the M-509 astronaut maneuvering unit experiment flown in the Skylab Program and collaborated on the development of the MMU. He was responsible for crew inputs to the development of hardware and procedures for the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), the Hubble Space Telescope, the Solar Maximum Repair Mission, and the Space Station Program. McCandless logged more than 312 hours in space, including four hours of flight time using the MMU.

Among the awards and honors received by McCandless are the Legion of Merit (1988); Department of Defense Distinguished Service Medal (1985); National Defense Service Medal; American Expeditionary Service Medal; NASA Exceptional Service Medal (1974); American Astronautical Society Victor A. Prather Award (1975 & 1985); NASA Space Flight Medal (1984); NASA Exceptional Engineering Achievement Medal (1985); National Aeronautic Association Collier Trophy (1985); Smithsonian Institution National Air and Space Museum Trophy (1985). He was awarded one patent for the design of a tool tethering system that was used during shuttle spacewalks.

Captain McCandless was the son of the late Rear Admiral (USN) and Mrs. Bruce McCandless. Admiral McCandless received the Congressional Medal of Honor for the naval battle of Guadalcanal, December 12-13, 1942. He passed away in 1968. His paternal grandfather, Commodore (later Rear Admiral) Byron McCandless, USN, received the Navy Cross for World War I, and his maternal grandfather, Captain Willis Winter Bradley, USN, was the first recipient of the Congressional Medal of Honor in World War I.

Capt. McCandless is survived by his wife, Ellen Shields McCandless of Conifer, Colorado; his son, Bruce McCandless III of Austin, Texas, and his wife, Patricia; his daughter, Tracy McCandless, of Islamorada, Florida, and two granddaughters, Emma Rose and Carson Clare McCandless of Austin. He is also survived by a brother, Douglas M. McCandless of Washington, D.C.; and two sisters, Sue M. Woodridge of Texas, and Rosemary V. McCandless of Dallas, Texas.

https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/astronaut-bruce-mccandless-ii-dies-at-80

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Odp: Bruce McCandless II (1937-2017)
« Odpowiedź #5 dnia: Grudzień 23, 2017, 02:57 »
Bruce McCandless, astronaut who donned jetpack on first tetherless spacewalk, dies

December 22, 2017 — The first astronaut to become his own spacecraft, strapping on a jet-powered backpack and flying tether free during a historic spacewalk, has died. (...)

The youngest member (at 28) of the fifth group of NASA astronauts selected in 1966, McCandless waited 18 years to make his first of two flights aboard the space shuttle. He logged 13 days and 31 minutes off the planet, including 12 hours and 12 minutes conducting two spacewalks. (...)

"That may have been one small step for Neil but it's a heck of a big leap for me!" exclaimed McCandless, floating free for the first time on Feb. 7, 1984, and invoking Armstrong's first words on the moon 15 years earlier.

McCandless, who helped develop the MMU prior to testing it in orbit, used its gas thrusters to back away to a distance of 320 feet (98 meters) from Challenger. (...)

NASA ultimately retired the MMU after six astronauts used it on three shuttle missions, but crew members using U.S. spacesuits at the International Space Station don a smaller jetpack for emergency use if they become separated from the orbiting laboratory.

McCandless launched on board his second spaceflight on April 24, 1990, on a mission to deploy the Hubble Space Telescope. The STS-31 crew released the observatory into Earth orbit, but not before McCandless was almost called upon to do a third spacewalk. (...)

Years later, after the Hubble Telescope's flawed optics had been corrected and a fifth and final servicing mission was briefly canceled by NASA, McCandless became a leading advocate for a robotic servicing mission to extend the life of the astronomical instrument on orbit.

"I'm a proponent for extending the Hubble Telescope's use to until the James Webb Space Telescope is launched and confirmed as operating," McCandless told collectSPACE in 2005. "I support either a manned or robotic approach."

The Hubble Space Telescope was upgraded once again in 2009 and remains in operation. The JWST is scheduled for launch in 2019. (...)

http://www.collectspace.com/news/news-122217a-astronaut-bruce-mccandless-obituary.html

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Odp: Bruce McCandless II (1937-2017)
« Odpowiedź #6 dnia: Grudzień 23, 2017, 02:58 »
Former astronaut Bruce McCandless dies
December 22, 2017 William Harwood


Astronaut Bruce McCandless II pictured during a spacewalk from the space shuttle Challenger in 1984. Credit: NASA

Photos of McCandless, floating alone in the deep black of space above the brilliant limb of Earth became iconic emblems of the space shuttle program and among the most widely reproduced. The Challenger crew also launched two communications satellites before returning to Earth, making the program’s first shuttle landing at the Kennedy Space Center. (...)

Ironically, MMUs would be used by two astronauts later in 1984 to retrieve the satellites McCandless’ crew deployed after they were stranded in useless orbits due to problems with their booster rockets. The satellites were returned to Earth, repaired and eventually relaunched.

McCandless flew a second time in April 1990 to help launch the Hubble Space Telescope. He and astronaut Kathryn Sullivan donned spacesuits and were standing by in the shuttle Discovery’s airlock for an emergency spacewalk if needed.

As it turned out, a spacewalk was not needed — problems with the telescope’s mirror were discovered later — and Discovery’s crew returned to Earth after a five-day mission. (...)

https://spaceflightnow.com/2017/12/22/former-astronaut-bruce-mccandless-dies/

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Odp: Bruce McCandless II (1937-2017)
« Odpowiedź #7 dnia: Grudzień 23, 2017, 19:04 »
Greetings from Bruce McCandless II (July 2009)

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Odp: Bruce McCandless II (1937-2017)
« Odpowiedź #8 dnia: Grudzień 23, 2017, 20:36 »
That’s me in the picture: Bruce McCandless, 47, in the world’s first untethered space flight, February 1984

‘I wanted to say something similar to Neil [Armstrong] when he landed on the moon, so I said, “It may have been a small step for Neil, but it’s a heck of a big leap for me.” That loosened the tension a bit’


‘It was a wonderful feeling, a mix of personal elation and professional pride.’ Photograph: Getty

Bruce McCandless Fri 10 Jul ‘15 16.00 BST

The main aim of our nine-day mission on Challenger was the release and deployment of two communications satellites; the walk would follow that. It was a long time in the making: decades earlier, I helped develop the jet-propelled backpack I’m wearing, an MMU, or Manned Manoeuvring Unit. We were still testing and tweaking it six weeks before we went up. I was delighted to have been picked for the mission: it was a murky selection process, lots of back and forth between mission command and management.

The day before my walk, we reduced the pressure and increased the oxygen in the shuttle to get the nitrogen out of my bloodstream, otherwise I’d get the bends. Where I live now, outside Denver at an altitude of 8,300ft, has lower oxygen levels than the cabin did that day.

On the day itself, I put on my underwear, complete with airducts and flexible tubing filled with water to cool me down, and my pressure suit. The crew said, “You’re ready. Go, go, go!” so I stepped into the airlock, closed the hatch, depressurised it, opened it – and away I went.

I don’t like those overused lines “slipped the surly bonds of Earth”, but when I was free from the shuttle, they felt accurate. It was a wonderful feeling, a mix of personal elation and professional pride: it had taken many years to get to that point. Several people were sceptical it would work, and with 300 hours of flying practice, I was over-trained. My wife was at mission control, and there was quite a bit of apprehension. I wanted to say something similar to Neil [Armstrong] when he landed on the moon, so I said, “It may have been a small step for Neil, but it’s a heck of a big leap for me.” That loosened the tension a bit.

I’d been told of the quiet vacuum you experience in space, but with three radio links saying, “How’s your oxygen holding out?” “Stay away from the engines!” “When’s my turn?” it wasn’t that peaceful.

My walk lasted six hours 45 minutes, and I stayed alongside the shuttle the whole time, moving 100 yards one way, 100 yards back. I was travelling at more than 18,000 miles an hour, but wasn’t aware of it, because the shuttle was going at the same speed. It was only when I looked at the Earth that I could tell we were moving fairly rapidly. At one point, I noticed we were over the Florida peninsula: it was reassuring to see something I recognised.

An untethered space walk like this would be unlikely today, with the shuttle programme wound up, though Nasa is now working on an advanced version of the MMU for the exploration of asteroids. You can’t walk on them – there’s nothing to hold on to, they’re like big lumpy potatoes – but what you can do is fly around them, push up against them.

This photograph, taken by Robert Gibson from the shuttle, is beautiful, partly because the sun is shining directly on me. That’s why I have my visor down (although if you look closely, you can make out a few of my features). It’s also one of its attractions: my anonymity means people can imagine themselves doing the same thing. At visitor centres, they often have life-sized cardboard versions with the visor cut out, so people can peep through. Like Neil said in 1969, I was representing mankind up there.

Interview by Hannah Booth
Guardian  2015
https://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/jul/10/bruce-mccandless-first-untethered-space-walk-challenger

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Odp: Bruce McCandless II (1937-2017)
« Odpowiedź #9 dnia: Grudzień 23, 2017, 22:01 »
Zmarł Bruce McCandless. Pierwszy uniósł się w przestrzeni kosmicznej
 23.12.2017, 07:47

Były astronauta Bruce McCandless, pierwszy człowiek, który unosił się bez asekuracji na orbicie okołoziemskiej, zmarł w czwartek w Kaliforni – poinformowało w piątek Centrum Lotów Kosmicznych NASA w Houston. McCandless miał 80 lat. Nie podano przyczyny zgonu.

McCandless stał się znany na całym świecie ze słynnej fotografii wykonanej w 1984, na której widać jak unosi się swobodnie w przestrzeni kosmicznej w skafandrze wyposażonym w plecak z odrzutowymi silniczkami rakietowymi. Na dole widać niebieskawą Ziemię a tło stanowiła czerń kosmosu.

Astronauta oddalił się wówczas od promu kosmicznego Challenger na odległość ok. 200 metrów.

Po powrocie na Ziemię McCandless opowiadał, że nie czuł zdenerwowania przed historycznym spacerem kosmicznym. – Miałem za sobą zdecydowanie za dużo treningów. Czekałem tylko niecierpliwie na lot i wyjście w przestrzeń. Czułem się znakomicie...Było tak zimno, że szczękałem zębami i trząsłem się, ale to były głupstwa – mówił.

Projektant „odrzutowego plecaka”

Astronauta był jednym z projektantów „odrzutowego plecaka”, który wypróbował w kosmosie. Później był jeszcze członkiem załogi wahadłowca, która umieściła na orbicie teleskop kosmiczny Hubble.

W 1969 r. McCandless pracował w Centrum Kontroli Lotów w Houston, m. in. podczas pierwszego historycznego lotu na Księżyc Neila Armstronga, Buzza Aldrina i Michaela Collinsa. Dwaj pierwsi byli pierwszymi ludźmi na Księżycu.

Zanim został astronautą, McCandless był pilotem marynarki wojennej USA. Uczestniczył m. in. w blokadzie Kuby w 1962 r. podczas kryzysu rakietowego, kiedy świat stanął na krawędzi wojny nuklearnej.

McCandless został wybrany przez NASA do udziału w programie lotów kosmicznych w ramach programu Gemini. Był pilotem rezerwowym podczas misji pierwszej załogi stacji orbitalnej Skylab w 1973 r.

(PAP)
https://www.tvp.info/35327366/zmarl-bruce-mccandless-pierwszy-uniosl-sie-w-przestrzeni-kosmicznej

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Odp: Bruce McCandless II (1937-2017)
« Odpowiedź #10 dnia: Grudzień 23, 2017, 22:57 »



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Odp: Bruce McCandless II (1937-2017)
« Odpowiedź #11 dnia: Grudzień 23, 2017, 23:00 »
Uczestnik dwóch bardzo znaczących misji kosmicznych.



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Odp: Bruce McCandless II (1937-2017)
« Odpowiedź #12 dnia: Grudzień 24, 2017, 23:00 »
Czy to też zdjęcie Bruce'a?

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Odp: Bruce McCandless II (1937-2017)
« Odpowiedź #13 dnia: Grudzień 24, 2017, 23:51 »
Dokładnie ;)
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Odp: Bruce McCandless II (1937-2017)
« Odpowiedź #14 dnia: Grudzień 24, 2017, 23:57 »
Oto fotografia obu astronautów: McCandlessa (z lewej) i Stewarta (z prawej) z obu jednostkami MMU w ładowni promu Challenger:

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