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60 YEARS AND COUNTING: President Dwight D. Eisenhower Signed NASA Into Existence July 29, 1958
By NASA  //  July 28, 2018

U.S. GOVERNMENT SAW SPACE AS IMPORTANT NEW POLITICAL, IF NOT MILITARY, BATTLEFIELD



Although NASA is best known for 60 years of engineering and scientific achievements, it originally came into being as a matter of national security. Above are Hugh L. Dryden, left, and T. Keith Glennan, right, with President Dwight D. Eisenhower. (NASA image)

(NASA) – Although NASA is best known for 60 years of engineering and scientific achievements, it originally came into being as a matter of national security as President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act on July 29, 1958.

After the Soviets flew the first two Sputniks in 1957 and Sputnik 3 in 1958, the U.S. government saw space as important new political, if not military, battlefield and began to lay the course for a long-term space plan.

“It was almost as if a bomb had fallen” on Capitol Hill, Congressional staffer Eilene Galloway said in a 2000 oral history interview, “because we were so surprised that the Soviet Union was first.

Both the United States and the Soviet Union had space projects in the International Geophysical Year, but our project was very small. It was a satellite that weighed a little more than three pounds, and the Soviet satellite [weighed 184 pounds and] really opened up outer space as the new environment, added to land, sea and air.”

Scientists pushed President Eisenhower to make any new agency charged with overseeing space exploration a civilian agency, fearing military control would mean research only into military priorities

Congressional hearings on the matter, chaired by Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson (D-TX), began in November 1957 and continued for six weeks. Johnson asked Galloway, a defense analyst with the Legislative Reference Service, to summarize the Congressional testimony.

Her report, titled “The Problems of Congress in Formulating Outer Space Legislation,” recommended several options including creation of a new civilian agency to lead America’s space efforts.

On April 2, 1958, President Eisenhower sent a draft law to Congress that called for a civilian National Aeronautics and Space Agency, based on the existing National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), to oversee the U.S. space program.

Twelve days later both the Senate and the House introduced versions of a bill to establish such an organization, with hearings beginning the next day.

Galloway successfully lobbied to designate the new organization an Administration rather than an Agency to give it broader authority to coordinate with many other government agencies.


President Dwight D. Eisenhower addressing Congress. (NASA image)

The House bill passed on June 2 and the Senate version on June 16. Senator Johnson chaired a bipartisan panel to produce a joint version of the bill, and met with the President following the July 4th holiday to resolve the remaining issues. Congress passed the final version of the bill, the National Aeronautics and Space Act, on July 16 and President Eisenhower signed it into law on July 29, 1958.

The bill established eight objectives for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA):

1. The expansion of human knowledge of phenomena in the atmosphere and space;

2, The improvement of the usefulness, performance, speed, safety, and efficiency of aeronautical and space vehicles; Tea

3. The development and operation of vehicles capable of carrying instruments, equipment, supplies, and living organisms through space;

4. The establishment of long-range studies of the potential benefits to be gained from, the opportunities for, and the problems involved in the utilization of aeronautical and space activities for peaceful and scientific purposes;

5.The preservation of the role of the United States as a leader in aeronautical and space science and technology and in the application thereof to the conduct of peaceful activities within and outside the atmosphere;

6. The making available to agencies directly concerned with national defense of discoveries that have military value or significance, and the furnishing by such agencies, to the civilian agency established to direct and control nonmilitary aeronautical and space activities, of information as to discoveries which have value or significance to that agency;

7. Cooperation by the United States with other nations and groups of nations in work done pursuant to this Act and in the peaceful application of the results thereof;

8. The most effective utilization of the scientific and engineering resources of the United States, with close cooperation among all interested agencies of the United States in order to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort, facilities and equipment

Although the Act has been amended over the years, these eight objectives still describe the major functions of NASA today.


Hugh L. Dryden, left, and T. Keith Glennan, second from right, being sworn in as President Dwight D. Eisenhower looks on. (NASA image)

On Aug. 8, President Eisenhower nominated T. Keith Glennan, President of Case Institute of Technology in Cleveland, Ohio, and Hugh L. Dryden, Director of the NACA, to be NASA Administrator and Deputy Administrator, respectively.

The Senate confirmed them a week later and they were sworn in at the White House on Aug. 19. NASA officially opened for business on Oct. 1, 1958, with its Headquarters at first occupying temporary office space at the Dolley Madison House in Washington, DC.

Source: 60 YEARS AND COUNTING: President Dwight D. Eisenhower Signed NASA Into Existence July 29, 1958

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Benchmarks: July 29, 1958: The Birth of NASA
Sunday, July 29, 2018 By Bethany Augliere


U.S. astronaut Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin climbs down the ladder of the lunar lander during the July 1969 Apollo 11 moon landing, which effectively ended the space race. Credit: NASA.U.S. astronaut Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin climbs down the ladder of the lunar lander during the July 1969 Apollo 11 moon landing, which effectively ended the space race. Credit: NASA.

Growing up in the suburbs of Washington, D.C., meant that my house was often frequented by guests who wanted to visit our nation’s capital. Without fail, this meant my family and I would be taking a trip to one of the Smithsonian’s most popular attractions, the National Air and Space Museum. I can’t count the number of times I visited the museum before I left for college, but it was a lot. Although glimpsing the museum’s collection of aircraft and spacecraft was cool at first, I would much rather have spent those afternoons wandering the halls of the National Museum of Natural History.

But my journey through space history didn’t stop in my own backyard. In middle school I took a private tour at the John F. Kennedy Space Center in Florida because my cousin worked there as an aerospace engineer. Although this behind-the-scenes tour would be riveting for some, the truth is, the giant alligators soaking up the sun on the grassy banks nearby stole my attention.

It wasn’t until I was a young adult that I developed an interest in stars and space. My grandfather, with whom I first began stargazing, shared his awe of space with me. Until his death in 2016, he would always call to tell me if there was a conjunction in the sky. As I learned to recognize the night sky, my curiosity for the entire field grew. Eventually, I peered through telescopes to learn the features of the moon or glimpse Jupiter’s moons, and researched the things I was seeing, like red giants and nebulae. Now, as a science writer, I regularly explore space, covering topics such as the 20-year-long Cassini Mission.

Sixty years ago this month, on July 29, 1958, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, officially establishing NASA. In the ensuing years, NASA has regularly pushed the boundaries of scientific and technological achievements in air and space, as with the moon landings of the Apollo Program, the deployment of the Hubble Space Telescope, and exploration of Mars with increasingly intelligent spacecraft. The agency has also made countless discoveries about the cosmos, and continues to do so — the recent launch of TESS (Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite) to survey our space neighborhood, likely discovering thousands of new planets outside our solar system.

For the American public — and perhaps worldwide — the mention of NASA likely brings to mind popular figures like astronauts Alan B. Shepard, Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong. Yet, if the 2016 biographical drama “Hidden Figures” taught us anything, it’s that there are many important figures who worked behind the scenes throughout the agency’s history.

The Race Is On

In the late 1940s, the United States worked to establish itself as a world leader in technological development. Coming out of World War II, the Department of Defense pursued research and rocketry. Other nations followed suit, and in 1952, the International Council of Scientific Unions designated the International Geophysical Year (IGY) from July 1, 1957, to Dec. 31, 1958. The IGY was part of a collaborative effort among 69 countries, including the U.S., to further understanding of Earth’s gravity, aurorae, ionosphere and geomagnetism, among other characteristics.

In July 1955, President Eisenhower announced a plan to launch a scientific satellite into orbit as part of the IGY. The president put out a call for proposals, and ultimately chose the Naval Research Laboratory’s Project Vanguard on Sept. 9, 1955. In response, the Soviet Union also announced plans to put its own satellite into orbit, sparking the space race. On Oct. 4, 1957, the Soviets launched Sputnik I.

Sputnik I was the world’s first artificial satellite. About the size of a beach ball and weighing a mere 83.6 kilograms, it spent a total of 98 minutes orbiting Earth. Then, just one month later, the Soviets launched Sputnik II, carrying a stray dog from Moscow named Laika into space.

The successful launch of Sputnik I caused widespread concern in the U.S. and among its allies, about a perceived technology gap between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. There was also fear that the Soviets could send missiles with nuclear weapons to Europe and America. Rumblings that the Eisenhower administration had neglected the American space program emerged among the general populace. The so-called “Sputnik Crisis” even prompted the Democratic governor of Michigan, G. Mennen Williams, to write a poem:

Oh little Sputnik, flying high
with made-in-Moscow beep.
You tell the world it’s a Commie sky
and Uncle Sam’s asleep.
You say on fairway and on rough
the Kremlin knows it all.
We hope our golfer knows enough
to get us on the ball.



After the moon landing, NASA’s mission expanded to include the shuttle and space station programs, Earth observation, and the exploration of other planets in our solar system — missions on which many women worked behind the scenes. In 1972, Patricia “Patsy” Conklin assembled a mosaic of Mars’ surface from photos taken by Mariner 9. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech.After the moon landing, NASA’s mission expanded to include the shuttle and space station programs, Earth observation, and the exploration of other planets in our solar system — missions on which many women worked behind the scenes. In 1972, Patricia “Patsy” Conklin assembled a mosaic of Mars’ surface from photos taken by Mariner 9. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech.
 
Ultimately, in response to Sputnik, the U.S. poured more funding and resources into aerospace endeavors, technical and scientific educational programs, and the chartering of new federal agencies to manage air and space research and development.

The U.S. was determined to pull ahead in the space race, but the initial attempt to send a satellite into space failed on Dec. 6, 1957, when the Vanguard launch rocket exploded shortly after takeoff.

Eisenhower then directed the U.S. Army Ballistic Missile Agency to orbit a satellite using a Jupiter-C rocket under the leadership of Wernher von Braun, often considered the father of American rocket science. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif., received the assignment to design, build and operate the artificial satellite that would serve as the rocket’s payload, an effort directed by William H. Pickering. In less than three months, JPL completed the job.

On Jan. 31, 1958, the U.S. successfully launched the Jupiter-C rocket, carrying the country’s first satellite, Explorer I, into outer space. It was also the first satellite to carry a scientific instrument, which had been designed by James A. Van Allen of the University of Iowa. That instrument helped scientists discover the radiation belts — now named for Van Allen — that encircle Earth.

In July 1958, about a year after Sputnik entered space, Congress passed legislation establishing NASA, which absorbed the earlier National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. NASA started with 8,000 employees, an annual budget of $100 million, and three research laboratories: Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Ames Aeronautical Laboratory and Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, as well as two small test facilities. Within three months of its creation, the agency began space missions.

NASA’s first administrator was Thomas Keith Glennan, who had previously served as president of the Case Institute of Technology (CIT) in Cleveland, where he was credited with turning CIT into one of the nation’s top 20 technical institutes and where he’d planned to spend the remainder of his career. However, in August 1958, Glennan was flown to the nation’s capital, where Eisenhower asked him to consider becoming administrator of the new agency. “The meeting with President Eisenhower was brief and very much to the point,” Glennan wrote in his diary. “He said he wanted to develop a program that would be sensibly paced and vigorously prosecuted.” Glennan took the job.

Trailblazing Women

Since NASA’s inception 60 years ago, the list of people who have contributed to its success is lengthy, from engineers to pilots to research scientists and beyond. Although astronauts capture most of the limelight, it is the work of many unseen heroes that also drives successful missions.

Nancy Roman joined NASA in 1959 and started the agency’s astronomy program shortly thereafter. She was the first chief of astronomy in the Office of Space Science at NASA’s Headquarters in Washington, D.C., and the first woman to hold an executive position in the agency.

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NASA’s first chief astronomer, Nancy Grace Roman, was nicknamed “Mother of Hubble” for her work on the Hubble Space Telescope. Credit: NASA.NASA’s first chief astronomer, Nancy Grace Roman, was nicknamed “Mother of Hubble” for her work on the Hubble Space Telescope. Credit: NASA.

Throughout her career with NASA, Roman worked on the planning and development of various programs, including the Hubble Space Telescope, which earned her the nickname “Mother of Hubble.”

“What I liked most about being the chief of these programs was the many contacts I had with researchers that were on the forefront of astronomical research and with the broad astronomical community in this country and abroad,” Roman said in an interview posted on NASA’s website.

Her observations led to the knowledge that common stars are not all the same age — a discovery that was a favorite moment in her career, she recalled. Roman credits her parents for inspiring her, including her mother, who “took me out at night and showed me the constellations and the aurorae.”

In 1962, Roman was listed by Life magazine as one of the 100 Most Important Young People. She has an asteroid named in her honor and, in 2017, the “Women of NASA” LEGO set included a mini figurine of her, as well as four other women.


Humanity’s knowledge of the cosmos has expanded exponentially since the founding of NASA in 1958. This image of an active star-forming region in the Eagle Nebula, named the Pillars of Creation, was taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, which launched in 1990. Credit: NASA, ESA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA).Humanity’s knowledge of the cosmos has expanded exponentially since the founding of NASA in 1958. This image of an active star-forming region in the Eagle Nebula, named the Pillars of Creation, was taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, which launched in 1990. Credit: NASA, ESA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA).

Another important woman in NASA’s history is Anngienetta Johnson, whose career with the agency spanned 40 years. Johnson received a bachelor of arts in mathematics with a minor in chemistry from Texas Woman’s University in 1971. While in school, she began working with NASA through a cooperative education program at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston. “Every emotion one can think of welled up inside of me — fear being the most prominent. How could I work with those geniuses?” she recalled about her start with NASA during a speech at her 40th high school reunion.

Yet, she thrived. Despite lacking formal training in computer science, Johnson, early in her NASA career, taught herself FORTRAN, a programming language developed by IBM in the 1950s, which she used to write programs for, and process data from, the Apollo missions.

In 1981, Johnson worked as a payload officer on the second NASA Space Shuttle mission, STS-2. The historic second flight of the orbiter Columbia marked the first time a manned orbital vehicle returned to space. Johnson was the first African-American to manage a console position in mission control, and she later became the information technology lead for the International Space Station.

For her accomplishments, Johnson was recognized by NASA and the federal government, and named Woman of the Decade in 1977 and Volunteer of the Year in 1996. In 2005, Johnson co-authored a chapter in “Success Strategies for Women in Science,” and today, she remains an advocate for women and minorities in science and technology.

Johnson capped her time at NASA as the senior advisor for safety and mission assurance, but also worked as the assistant associate administrator for education. After retiring from NASA in 2011, Johnson became the senior disaster program manager for the American Red Cross, where she had previously volunteered for years.

The Space Race Ends, But the Mission Continues

Today, NASA employs more than 18,000 people and comprises 10 field centers and many other facilities around the country, which carry out different aspects of research and development. The successful landing of Apollo 11 team members on the moon in July 1969 — 11 years to the month after NASA had been established — may have ended the space race that Sputnik started, but NASA’s mission has long outlived its Cold War origins.

The next 20 years will surely bring more NASA discoveries, thanks to advancing technology in human and robotic exploration of both space and Earth. For example, the agency will explore deeper into space than ever before with spacecraft like the James Webb Space Telescope, set to launch in 2020; and it will continue investigating how the space environment affects humans and other life by conducting experiments and observing astronauts living in space for prolonged periods. The Mars 2020 mission will send a new rover to the Red Planet to conduct the agency’s most in-depth search yet for signs of life, and a mission to visit Jupiter’s ocean-bearing moon Europa is also in the works.

Each of these endeavors may well capture the wonder of a new generation. The moon landing made a lasting impression on everyone who witnessed that momentous event — including my mother. She recalls watching the landing with her parents while camping in the Smoky Mountains — some neighbors at the campground hooked up a little black-and-white television outside their recreational vehicle so everyone could watch.

As I look up at the night sky now, it occurs to me that those visits to the Air and Space Museum as a kid might have left a bigger impression on me than I thought.

Augliere is a freelance writer and photographer and a former editorial intern with EARTH. She is a graduate of the science communication program at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and holds a master’s degree in marine biology from Florida Atlantic University. For more of her work visit http://www.bethanyaugliere.com.

Source: Benchmarks: July 29, 1958: The Birth of NASA

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At 60, NASA shoots for revival of moon glory days
July 27, 2018


Credit: CC0 Public Domain

Sixty years ago, spurred by competition with the Soviet Union, the United States created NASA, launching a journey that would take Americans to the moon within a decade.

Since then, the US space agency has seen glorious achievements and crushing failures in its drive to push the frontiers of space exploration, including a fatal launch pad fire in 1967 that killed three and two deadly shuttle explosions in 1986 and 2003 that took 14 lives.

Now, NASA is struggling to redefine itself in an increasingly crowded field of international space agencies and commercial interests, with its sights set on returning to deep space.

These bold goals make for soaring rhetoric, but experts worry the cash just isn't there to meet the timelines of reaching the moon in the next decade and Mars by the 2030s.

And NASA's inability to send astronauts to space—a capacity lost in 2011 when the space shuttle program ended, as planned, after 30 years—is a lasting blemish on the agency's stellar image.

While US private industries toil on new crew spaceships, NASA still must pay Russia $80 million per seat for US astronauts to ride to space on a Soyuz capsule.

How it started

In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first satellite into space with Sputnik 1, while US attempts were failing miserably.

The US government was already working on reaching space, but mainly under the guise of the military.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower appealed to Congress to create a separate, civilian space agency to better focus on space exploration.

He signed the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act into law on July 29, 1958.

NASA opened its doors in October 1958, with about 8,000 employees and a budget of $100 million.

Space race

The Soviets won another key part of the space race in April 1961 when Yuri Gagarin became the first person to orbit the Earth.

A month later, John F. Kennedy unveiled plans to land a man on the moon by decade's end.

"No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-range exploration of space; and none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish," the US president said.

The Apollo program was born.

In 1962, astronaut John Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth. In 1969, NASA astronaut Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the moon.

American astronauts of the era were national heroes—military pilots with the combination of brains, guts and grit that became known famously as "The Right Stuff," the title of the classic Tom Wolfe book.

Armstrong's words as he set foot on the lunar surface—"one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind"—were heard by millions around the world.

"Apollo was a unilateral demonstration of national power," recalled John Logsdon, professor emeritus at George Washington University's Space Policy Institute.

"It was Kennedy deciding to use the space program as an instrument of overt geopolitical competition that turned NASA into an instrument of national policy, with a very significant budget share," he told AFP.

A total of five percent of the national budget went to NASA in the Apollo era.

Now, NASA gets about $18 billion a year, less than a half percent of the federal budget, "and it is no longer the same instrument of national policy," Logsdon said.

New era

More glory days followed in the 1980s with the birth of NASA's shuttle program, a bus-sized re-usable spacecraft that ferried astronauts into space, and eventually to the International Space Station, which began operation in 1998.

But what is NASA today?

President Donald Trump has championed a return to the moon, calling for a lunar gateway that would allow a continuous stream of spacecraft and people to visit the moon, and serve as a leaping off point for Mars.

Trump has also called for the creation of a "Space Force," a sixth branch of the military that would be focused on defending US interests.

NASA has long been viewed as a global leader in space innovation, but today the international field is vastly more populated than 60 years ago.

"Now you have something like 70 countries that are one way or another involved in space activity," said Logsdon.

Rather than competing against international space agencies, "the emphasis has shifted to cooperation" to cut costs and speed innovation, said Teasel Muir-Harmony, curator at the National Air and Space Museum.

'How can NASA take advantage of this?'

NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine told a recent panel discussion he is keen to work with other countries that are striving toward space.

He mentioned the possibility of boosting cooperation with China, and how he recently traveled to Israel to meet with commercial interests that are at work on a moon lander.

Bridenstine said the reason for his visit was to find out "how are you doing this, what are you doing and is there a way NASA can take advantage of it?"

NASA is backing away from low Earth orbit, looking to hand the space station over to commercial interests after 2024, and spending millions in seed money to help private companies like SpaceX and Boeing build capsules to carry humans to space in the coming years.

In this environment, Bridenstine said figuring out what NASA does, versus what it buys as a service from commercial providers, will be "one of the fundamental challenges I think I am going to face over my tenure."

Bridenstine said Trump's budget requests for NASA have been "very generous."

With its eyes on a crew mission to the moon in just five years' time, NASA plans to devote about $10 billion of its nearly $20 billion budget for 2019 to lunar exploration.

Bridenstine's predecessor at NASA's helm, retired astronaut Charles Bolden, sounded a note of caution against repeating the mistakes of the shuttle era, when the United States ended its human exploration program without another spacecraft ready to take its place.

"We cannot tolerate another gap like that," Bolden said.

"It is really critical for NASA to facilitate the success of commercial entities to take over" in low Earth orbit, some 250 miles (400 kilometers) above the planet.

"And then for NASA to do what it does so well. Be the leader in lunar orbit."

Source: At 60, NASA shoots for revival of moon glory days