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« Odpowiedź #60 dnia: Wrzesień 16, 2020, 04:52 »
Walentin Ignatjewicz Fiłatjew 1930-1990

Валентин Игнатьевич Филатьев

(...) Космическая подготовка:
25 марта 1960 года приказом Главкома ВВС №363 зачислен слушателем-космонавтом в отряд космонавтов ЦПК ВВС.

С марта 1960 по декабрь 1961 года проходил общекосмическую подготовку. По программе теоретической подготовки изучал системы и материальную часть КК «Восток».

3 апреля 1961 года успешно сдал выпускные экзамены по теоретической части ОКП, после чего продолжил тренировки.

По завершению тренировок 16 декабря 1961 года был зачислен на должность космонавта ЦПК ВВС.

17 апреля 1963 года приказом Главкома ВВС №089 отчислен из отряда космонавтов «за нарушение воинской дисциплины и режима космонавтов».
Дата и причина смерти:
Умер 15 сентября 1989 года от рака легкого (по другим сообщениям - от рака горла). Похоронен на Троицком кладбище в г.Орел.

Первый отряд космонавтов: Филатьев Валентин Игнатьевич

После ухода из отряда космонавтов продолжил службу в авиационных частях ПВО СССР.

В 1969 г. уволен из Вооруженных сил в отставку по состоянию здоровья.

В 1970-1977 гг. работал в г. Орле в Государственном институте "Гипроприбор", где занимался проектированием приборов строительных заводов. 1977-1987 гг. преподавал на областных курсах по гражданской обороне. С 1987 г. на пенсию.

Умер 15 сентября 1990 г. и похоронен в г. Орле.

Walentin Ignatjewicz Fiłatjew od 25.03.1960 r. do 17.04.1963 r. - zmarł 15.09.1980 r.;

Филатьев, Валентин Игнатьевич
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« Odpowiedź #61 dnia: Wrzesień 16, 2020, 07:56 »
Space Station 20th: Hispanic Heritage Month (1)
Sept. 15, 2020

In honor of Hispanic Heritage Month, we recognize Hispanic astronauts who have flown to the International Space Station (ISS) and contributed to its assembly, operations, and research activities. They were preceded in space by other pioneers. The first person in space of Hispanic heritage was Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez of Cuba who spent eight days aboard the Salyut-6 space station in 1980 as part of the Soviet Union’s Interkosmos program to fly cosmonauts from friendly socialist countries. The first Hispanic-American in space was Franklin R. Chang-Díaz when he flew as a mission specialist aboard Space Shuttle Columbia’s STS-61C mission in 1986. He flew in space a record-tying six more times, including one visit to the Russian space station Mir and one to ISS.

Left: Portrait of Tamayo Méndez. Right: Portrait of Chang-Díaz.

In this article, we recognize the American astronauts of Hispanic heritage who have flown aboard ISS, contributing to its construction and operation and conducting the world-class research for which the station is known. The table below lists these individuals and others of different nationalities who have similarly shared in this remarkable international adventure.

Table of Hispanic astronauts who have visited ISS.

The honor of being the first Hispanic astronaut to fly to ISS belongs to Ellen L. Ochoa, selected by NASA in 1990 as the first female Hispanic astronaut. She had already completed two spaceflights, STS-56 in 1993 and STS-66 the following year, before making her first visit to ISS in 1999 as a mission specialist aboard Discovery’s STS-96. The goals of the mission, only the second shuttle flight to ISS that at the time comprised only two modules, included the transfer of two tons of logistics to the station, launched inside a Spacehab double module, and the delivery of the Russian Strela cargo crane.

Left: ISS as seen from STS-96.
Middle: Ochoa, lower right, with the STS-96 crew in the Unity Node 1.
Right: Ochoa, bottom, with fellow STS-96 crewmembers Julie Payette in the Zarya module.

Ochoa returned to a much-enlarged ISS aboard Atlantis in April 2002 during the STS-110 mission that delivered the 13-ton S0 truss, the center segment section to which future truss segments were attached. Ochoa operated the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) also known as Canadarm2 to lift S0 from the shuttle’s payload bay and attach it atop the Destiny module. The S0 truss also contained the Mobile Transporter to allow the SSRMS to translate up and down the trusses. Ochoa was named as the Johnson Space Center’s (JSC) Deputy Director in 2007, then as JSC’s first Hispanic Director in 2013.  She served in that position until her retirement from NASA in 2018.

Left: Ochoa operating Canadarm2 in the Destiny module.
Middle:  ISS as seen from the departing STS-110, showing the S0 truss mounted on Destiny.
Right: Ochoa as JSC Director.

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« Odpowiedź #62 dnia: Wrzesień 16, 2020, 07:56 »
Space Station 20th: Hispanic Heritage Month (2)

NASA selected Michael E. “LA” Lopez-Alegria, born in Madrid, Spain, as an astronaut in 1992. Already a veteran of STS-73, the second mission of the United States Microgravity Laboratory, Lopez-Alegria served as a mission specialist on STS-92 during his first visit to ISS. He and his six crewmates launched aboard Space Shuttle Discovery on Oct. 11, 2000, the 100th launch of the program and the last to visit an unoccupied ISS. At the time, the station comprised just three modules: the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB), the Unity Node 1 and the Zvezda Service Module, the latest addition to the station having arrived just three months prior. During their mission, the STS-92 crew installed the Z1 Truss atop the Unity module, four Control Moment Gyros, and the third Pressurized Mating Adaptor (PMA-3). The Z1 was the first truss element added to ISS to allow for the addition of solar arrays and radiators on the subsequent assembly flight and also contained high-rate communications equipment, including the first Space-to-Ground Antenna (SGANT). Lopez-Alegria participated in two of the mission’s four Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), or spacewalks, with Peter J. “Jeff” Wisoff to complete the assembly tasks. During their last EVA, the two conducted the first flight evaluation of the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) at ISS, a propulsive backpack to be used by astronauts should they become detached from the spacecraft. The STS-92 crew undocked from ISS on Oct. 20, 2000, leaving the station ready for its first inhabitants, and indeed less than two weeks later, the first Expedition crew arrived to begin permanent occupancy of low Earth orbit.

Left: Lopez-Alegria working outside ISS during STS-92.
Middle: Lopez-Alegria, left, flies the SAFER as Wisoff looks on.
Right: ISS seen from Discovery shortly after undocking, showing the Z1 Truss with the SGANT at top and PMA-3 at bottom.

For his third flight into space, Lopez-Alegria returned to ISS in 2002 during the STS-113 mission, the station now permanently occupied and having grown significantly in the intervening two years. The primary tasks for the STS-113 crew included adding the P1 truss on the station’s port side, installing the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart, and assisting the exchange between the Expedition 5 and 6 crews. Lopez-Alegria and fellow STS-113 mission specialist John B. Harrington conducted three EVAs to complete the installation of the P1 truss and the CETA cart. After STS-113, assembly of ISS came to a temporary halt following the Columbia accident on Feb. 1, 2003, and the subsequent grounding of the space shuttle fleet and did not resume until September 2006.

Left: Lopez-Alegria during the first STS-113 EVA.
Right: Lopez-Alegria, second from right in the middle row, posing in the Destiny module with his STS-113 crewmates, as well as Expedition 5 and 6 crewmembers.

ISS as seen by the departing STS-113 crew, with the newly installed P1 truss visible at right.

Lopez-Alegria was aboard ISS again shortly after assembly resumed. He launched aboard Soyuz TMA9 on Sept. 18, 2006, from the Baykonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, his fourth and final spaceflight. Accompanying him during the 215-day mission, to that time the longest ISS expedition, was Mikhail V. Tyurin. On the station, European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Thomas A. Reiter, onboard since July 2006, became part of the Expedition 14 crew. As Commander of Expedition 14, Lopez-Alegria oversaw one of the most complex set of activities in the assembly of ISS – the reconfiguration of its power and cooling systems. A week before his arrival on ISS, the STS-115 mission had delivered the second set of solar arrays to the station as part of the P3/P4 truss segment, positioning them outboard of the P1 segment. As part of the reconfiguration, the port side P6 array mounted atop the Z1 truss needed to be retracted to prevent interference with the rotation of the new arrays, a task that was completed during the visiting STS-116 mission in December that also added the P5 short spacer to the port side truss. That mission brought Sunita L. “Suni” Williams to ISS as a new addition to Expedition 14 and returned Reiter back to Earth.  During Expedition 14, Lopez-Alegria took part in five EVAs, two in Orlan space suits to conduct work on the outside of the Russian segment with Tyurin and three in American Extravehicular Mobility Units with Williams to reconfigure the cooling system of the US segment. He accumulated a total of 67 hours and 40 minutes over 10 EVAs, still the record among American astronauts. When not busy assembling and reconfiguring ISS, Lopez-Alegria conducted a variety of scientific experiments. Lopez-Alegria and Tyurin returned to Earth on April 21, 2007, leaving Williams on board ISS with the Expedition 15 crew. Across his four missions, Lopez-Alegria spent a cumulative 258 days in space.

Left: ISS configuration when Lopez-Alegria arrived in Sept. 2006.
Right: Lopez-Alegria, back row middle, with STS-116 and Expedition 14 crewmembers.

Celebrating the holidays aboard ISS.

Left: Lopez-Alegria conducting a session of the Canadian TRAC experiment in the Destiny module.
Middle: In an Orlan suit, Lopez-Alegria conducts maintenance on the exterior of the Russian segment.
Right: The ISS configuration at the end of Lopez-Alegria’s mission – note the retracted P6 solar array.

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« Odpowiedź #63 dnia: Wrzesień 16, 2020, 07:57 »
Space Station 20th: Hispanic Heritage Month (3)

Carlos I. Noriega was the first Peruvian-born astronaut, selected by NASA in 1994. His visit to ISS in 2000 marked the second time he saw the inside of a space station. On his first spaceflight in 1997, he was a mission specialist aboard STS-84, the sixth Shuttle-Mir docking mission. On Dec. 1, 2000, he launched aboard Endeavour with his four crewmates on the STS-97 mission, their primary goal to install the P6 truss segment with the first set of solar arrays and radiators atop the Z1 truss, delivered on the previous mission. STS-97 marked the first time a shuttle visited ISS after it was occupied, but given the busy EVA schedule, the hatches between the two vehicles were only open for 24 hours. Noriega and fellow mission specialist Joseph R. Tanner conducted three EVAs to complete the P6 installation and other assembly tasks. The new solar arrays generated enough power for the arrival of the US laboratory module Destiny early in 2001 and the start of intensive research aboard ISS.

Left: Noriega waves to the camera as he installs the P6 truss and solar arrays.
Right: Noriega, center, with the STS-97 and Expedition 1 crews in the Zarya Service Module.

The ISS as seen from the departing STS-97 showing the newly deployed P6 solar arrays.

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Space Station 20th: Hispanic Heritage Month (4)

During his record-tying seventh trip into space, Costa Rica-born Franklin R. Chang-Díaz made his only visit to ISS. The main goals of Endeavour’s STS-111 mission, launching on June 5, 2002, included the exchange of the Expedition 4 and 5 crews and the resupply of ISS using the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM). Two new research facilities were among the MPLM’s cargo, the fifth Expedite the Processing of Experiments to the Space Station (EXPRESS) rack and the Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG). Chang-Díaz completed three EVAs with fellow mission specialist French astronaut Philippe Perrin to install the Mobile Base System portion of the Canadarm2’s remote manipulator system and perform maintenance tasks on the station.

Left: Chang-Díaz, left of center, with his STS-111 crewmates and the Expedition 4 and 5 crews.
Right: Chang-Díaz during the first STS-111 EVA.


Chang-Díaz in Endeavour’s middeck following undocking from ISS.

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« Odpowiedź #65 dnia: Wrzesień 16, 2020, 07:57 »
Space Station 20th: Hispanic Heritage Month (5)

Selected as a member of NASA’s Astronaut Class of 1998, John D. “Danny” Olivas has visited ISS on two occasions as a shuttle mission specialist. His first visit took place aboard Atlantis during the STS-117 mission launched on June 8, 2007. During the flight, Olivas and fellow mission specialist James F. Reilly conducted two of the four EVAs to install the S3/S4 truss segment that included the third set of solar arrays. To prevent interfering with the rotation of the new arrays, the crew retracted the starboard P6 array mounted atop the Z1 truss. That truss segment was relocated outboard of the P5 truss on a later mission. The STS-117 mission also served as a crew exchange flight, with Clayton C. Anderson replacing Suni Williams as a member of Expedition 15.

Left: Olivas during an STS-117 EVA working on the S3/S4 truss installation.
Right: Olivas, back row at right, with STS-117 and Expedition 15 crews.

ISS as seen from the departing STS-117 crew, showing the new set of starboard solar arrays at right.

On his return to ISS, Olivas found it a bit more crowded – three months earlier, the permanent crew aboard the station had expanded from three to six. He and his crewmates launched aboard Discovery on the STS-128 mission on Aug. 29, 2009. The shuttle’s payload bay contained the MPLM Leonardo bringing supplies to help maintain a 6-person crew on ISS, including three systems racks – a Crew Quarters (CQ), an Air Revitalization System (ARS) rack, and the Combined Operational Load Bearing External Resistance Treadmill (COLBERT) for crew exercise – as well as three research racks – the Fluid Integrated Rack (FIR), the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR), and the second Minus Eighty-degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI). Olivas participated in three EVAs to replace the Ammonia Tank Assembly (ATA) on the P1 truss and to retrieve two experiments from the European Columbus module’s External Payload Facility. STS-128 also completed the final shuttle-based crew exchange, with Nicole P. Stott taking Timothy L. Kopra’s place as an Expedition 20 crewmember.

Left: Olivas pauses during EVA work on the ATA to strike a pose.
Right: Olivas eating a chocolate and peanut butter snack.

Olivas, at center, with STS-128 and Expedition 20 crews.

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« Odpowiedź #66 dnia: Wrzesień 16, 2020, 07:57 »
Space Station 20th: Hispanic Heritage Month (6)

Selected as a NASA astronaut in 1998, George D. Zamka completed his first space flight as Pilot on Discovery’s STS-120 mission. Launching on Oct. 23, 2007, Zamka and his crewmates brought the Harmony Node 2 module to ISS, temporarily berthing it on the Unity Node 1’s port side until the Expedition 16 crew later relocated it to Destiny’s forward hatch. In its final location, Harmony enabled the installation of the European and Japanese elements. The crew also relocated the P6 truss segment from atop Z1 to the outboard port truss. During the redeployment of the P6 solar arrays, one of them developed a tear that required repair using a cufflink-like device to sew up the gap in the panel. STS-120 also conducted a crew exchange, with Daniel M. Tani taking Clay Anderson’s place as a member of Expedition 16. As the STS-120 Pilot, Zamka completed the undocking from ISS and the departure fly-around maneuver.

Left: Zamka holding the cufflink device used to repair the torn solar array.
Right: Zamka, lower right, with the STS-120 and Expedition 16 crews.

ISS as seen from STS-120 departing, showing the newly-delivered Harmony Node 2 temporarily berthed at the Unity Node 1 and the relocated and redeployed P6 truss segment and solar arrays at left.

When he returned to ISS, Zamka did so as Commander of Endeavour’s STS-130 mission, launched on Feb. 8, 2010. After guiding the shuttle to a successful docking with ISS, Zamka and his crewmates, along with the Expedition 22 crew, installed the Tranquility Node 3 module to Unity’s port side and activated the new element. The new module provided accommodations for life support and habitation facilities for a six-person crew on ISS. The crew removed the Cupola from its launch position at the end of Tranquility and relocated it to the module’s Earth-facing port. The Cupola’s six trapezoidal and one circular center window provide crews not only visibility for approaching visiting vehicles, but also spectacular views of their home planet passing by below.

Left: Zamka peering through one of the Cupola’s windows.
Right: Zamka, front row second from right, with the STS-130 and Expedition 22 crews.

ISS as seem from the departing STS-130, showing the Tranquility Node 3 and Cupola berthed at the Unity Node 1, left of center.

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« Odpowiedź #67 dnia: Wrzesień 16, 2020, 07:58 »
Space Station 20th: Hispanic Heritage Month (7)

Joseph M. “Joe” Acaba was selected in 2004 as part of NASA’s Educator Astronaut Program and qualified as a mission specialist. His first flight into space was aboard STS-119, launched on March 15, 2009. Discovery brought up the S6 final truss segment with the fourth and final set of solar arrays, bringing the US segment of the station’s useable power generating capability to between 42 and 60 kilowatts. Acaba completed two of the mission’s three EVAs, one with fellow mission specialist Steven R. Swanson and the other with fellow educator-astronaut and mission specialist Richard R. “Ricky” Arnold. During the STS-119 mission, Koichi Wakata replaced Sandra H. Magnus as a member of the Expedition 18 crew.

Left: Acaba during the third STS-119 EVA.
Right:  Acaba, front row at right, with the STS-119 and Expedition 18 crews.

ISS as seen from the departing STS-119, with the newly-added S6 truss segment and solar arrays, at right.

For his second visit to ISS, Acaba stayed for 125 days as part of Expeditions 31 and 32, launching from Kazakhstan aboard Soyuz TMA-04M with Gennadi I. Pakalka and Sergey N. Revin on May 15, 2012. They joined Oleg D. Kononenko, Donald R. Pettit, and André Kuipers who had been aboard ISS since the previous December. A week after their arrival, Acaba and his crewmates welcomed the first commercial vehicle to dock with ISS, the SpaceX Dragon cargo resupply vehicle on its Demo 2 mission, carrying 1,150 pounds of food, water, scientific experiments, and other items. The Expedition 31 crew loaded the Dragon spacecraft with nearly 1,500 pounds of cargo and experiment samples for return to Earth. The crew observed and photographed a rare celestial event, a transit of Venus across the Sun on June 5. Kononenko, Pettit, and Kuipers returned to Earth July 1, replaced by Suni Williams, Yuri Malenchenko, and Akihiko Hoshide on July 17 as the new members of Expedition 32. In addition to conducting numerous science experiments, Acaba helped fire prevention icon Smokey the Bear celebrate his 68th birthday. Acaba, Padalka and Revin returned to Earth on Sept. 16.

Left: Acaba, top right, with his Expedition 31 crewmates aboard the SpaceX Dragon resupply vehicle.
Right:  Acaba running on COLBERT.

Acaba reflected in a globule of water.

Left: Acaba, right, drawing a blood sample from Hoshide.
Right: Acaba with a toy Smokey the Bear in the Cupola to help celebrate the forest fire prevention icon’s 68th birthday.

Acaba, lower right, with this Expedition 32 crewmates.

Acaba returned to ISS five years later as a member of Expedition 53 and 54, launching on Sept. 12, 2017, aboard Soyuz MS-06 with Aleksandr A. Misurkin and Mark T. Vande Hei. They joined Randolph J. “Randy” Bresnik, Sergei N. Ryazanski, and Paolo A. Nespoli who had been aboard ISS since July. Acaba joined Bresnik for a nearly seven-hour EVA on Oct. 20 to lubricate the newly installed replacement Latching End Effector on the SSRMS. Bresnik, Ryazanski, and Nespoli returned to Earth on Dec. 14, replaced aboard ISS five days later by Anton N. Shkaplerov, Scott D. Tingle, and Norishige Kanai to complete the Expedition 54 crew. Acaba continued with the research program and celebrated his Puerto Rican heritage with several events. He returned to Earth with Misurkin and Vande Hei on Feb. 28, 2018, after a 168-day flight. Over his three missions, Acaba accumulated 306 days in space and nearly 20 hours in EVA time.

Left: Acaba conducting an experiment in the MSG.
Right: In the Cupola, Acaba showing Puerto Rico pride.

Left: During an EVA, Acaba is lubricating the SSRMS Latching End Effector.
Right: Acaba, left, with his Expedition 53 crewmates.

Left: Acaba working with the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) experiment.
Right: Acaba speaking with the Puerto Rico Institute of Robotics.

Left: During the holidays, Acaba participating in a parranda by video.
Right: Acaba, upper left, with his Expedition 54 crewmates.

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« Odpowiedź #68 dnia: Wrzesień 16, 2020, 07:58 »
Space Station 20th: Hispanic Heritage Month (8 )

Selected in 2004 as a NASA astronaut, José M. Hernández made his single visit to ISS during the STS-128 mission. Launched aboard Discovery on Aug. 29, 2009, Hernández operated both the shuttle and ISS robotic arms to move the MPLM Leonardo back and forth and translate astronauts during the mission’s three EVAs. He participated in the transfer and installation of the three systems racks (CQ, ARS, and COLBERT) and the three research racks (FIR, MSRR, and MELFI-2) aboard ISS. STS-128 also completed the final shuttle-based crew exchange, with Stott replacing Kopra as an Expedition 20 crewmember.

Left: Hernández operating the shuttle’s robotic arm to transfer the MPLM to ISS.
Right: Hernández operating the ISS robotic arm to return the MPLM to the shuttle’s payload bay.

Hernández, front row center, with the STS-128 and Expedition 20 crews.

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« Odpowiedź #69 dnia: Wrzesień 16, 2020, 07:59 »
Space Station 20th: Hispanic Heritage Month (9)

Serena M. Auñón-Chancellor was selected as a member of NASA’s Astronaut Class of 2009 and made her first spaceflight nine years later. Launched aboard Soyuz MS-09 with Sergei V. Prokopiev and Alexander Gerst on June 6, 2018, she joined Andrew J. Feustel, Oleg G. Artemev, and Ricky Arnold, already on board ISS since March of that year. Auñón-Chancellor began work on the more than 300 research investigations she carried out during her stay aboard ISS. Feustel, Artemev, and Arnold returned to Earth Aug. 4, and would have been replaced by Aleksei N. Ovchinin and T. Nicklaus “Nick” Hague on Oct. 11, but their booster malfunctioned during launch, forcing an emergency abort landing. The next crew of Oleg D. Konoenko, David Saint-Jacques, and Anne C. McClain didn’t arrive until Dec. 3. Auñón-Chancellor and her crewmates returned to Earth on Dec. 20 after a 197-day flight.

Left: Auñón-Chancellor conducting the AngieX Cancer Therapy experiment in the MSG.
Right: Auñón-Chancellor completing a session of the Eye Exam - Fundoscope experiment to help understand vision changes.

Auñón-Chancellor, top, posing with her Expedition 56 crewmates in the Harmony Node 2 module.

Left: Auñón-Chancellor working on the BioServe Protein Crystalography-1 (BPC-1) experiment.
Right: Expedition 57 crewmembers in their best Halloween outfits – Prokopiev, left, as Elvis, Gerst as Darth Vader, and Auñón-Chancellor as a mad scientist.

Auñón-Chancellor and her Expedition 57 crewmates in the Destiny module.

One additional crewmember deserves recognition in this tribute to Hispanic astronauts. Although he never flew to ISS, in fact, his spaceflight took place 15 years before the first crew arrived aboard the space station, he made a lasting contribution to astronaut diets aboard both the space shuttle and ISS. In November 1985, Mexican Payload Specialist Rodolfo Neri Vela, who was a crewmember aboard Atlantis during the STS-61B mission, requested that tortillas be included in his food supply. Once on orbit, his fellow crewmembers noticed that the tortillas, unlike regular bread, didn’t create crumbs and could be used to make sandwiches or hold other food items. Since that mission, tortillas have been a favorite of crewmembers of all nationalities and are standard fare aboard ISS. Crewmembers use them to make breakfast burritos, hamburgers, and even peanut butter and jelly sandwiches, as demonstrated by Expedition 50 Commander R. Shane Kimbrough.

Left: Payload Specialist Neri Vela enjoying a trend-setting tortilla aboard Atlantis in 1985.
Middle: STS-98 Pilot Kenneth D. Cockrell preparing breakfast burritos for his crewmates.
Right: Expedition 51 Commander Peggy A. Whitson showing off the hamburger she prepared using a tortilla.

To be continued…
« Ostatnia zmiana: Wrzesień 21, 2020, 03:12 wysłana przez Orionid »

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Happy 90th Birthday to General Stafford

By Noah J. Michelsohn | September 16, 2020

NASA legend Lt. Gen. Thomas P. Stafford, USAF (Ret.) is celebrating his 90th birthday today, Sept. 17, 2020. Stafford is best known for commanding Apollo 10, the first flight of the lunar module to the Moon.

Stafford also flew the first rendezvous in space on Gemini 6 and piloted Gemini 9’s path to Earth with pencil and paper when the vehicle’s guidance computer failed in space. Throughout his career in the U.S. Air Force and at NASA, Stafford flew more than 100 different types of aircraft as he pushed the envelope of our achievement in air and space.

Stafford logged his fourth space mission as commander of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project in July 1975. Apollo-Soyuz was the first international space mission, carried out jointly by the United States and the Soviet Union. The spirit of cooperation that resulted from the collaboration between the two superpowers and the historic “handshake in space,” as well as the technology, processes, and relationships developed for Apollo-Soyuz, contributed to the success of future programs such as Shuttle-Mir and the International Space Station. That nascent international partnership has now amassed 22 years of joint system operations and 20 years of joint crew operations — and counting.

Stafford continues to serve the agency as chairman of the International Space Station Advisory Committee that provides advice and recommendation to NASA on all space station aspects related to safety and operational readiness, utilization, and exploration.

    “We’re blessed to continue working with and learning from Lt. Gen. Stafford, an Apollo pioneer, who has helped guide our decision making as we push forward to the Moon as part of our Artemis program,” said Mark Geyer, director of NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston. “Gen. Stafford’s years of dedicated service and passion for human space exploration is a constant reminder of the importance of NASA’s daring missions. We wish him a very happy birthday.”

The passion that Stafford shows can serve as inspiration to each member of the Johnson Space Center team. We will leave you with a wise reflection that Stafford offered about his time in space.

"It changes you ... As you look back, you see a little blue-and-white baseball; actually, it’s smaller than a baseball. But it’s hard to envision that is where all the people you’ve known all your life are, where you went to school, your friends, your family. It’s also hard to envision that there are 3 billion people on that blue-and-white baseball."

Happy birthday, General Stafford!

Intel Core i5-2320 3GHz/8GB RAM/AMD Radeon HD 7700 Series/HD 1 TB/Sony DVD ROM...

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« Odpowiedź #71 dnia: Wrzesień 21, 2020, 01:34 »
Robert Gilruth 1913-2000

20 Years Ago: Remembering Robert Gilruth
John Uri NASA Johnson Space Center Aug. 17, 2020

Aug. 17 marks 20 years since the passing of Robert R. Gilruth, a major driving force behind NASA’s successes in its early years including the first landing on the Moon in 1969. As the first director of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), now the Johnson Space Center in Houston, he not only oversaw the design and construction of NASA’s center for the training of astronauts and the control of human spaceflights but also instrumental in the development of the first three American human spaceflight programs that led to the achievement of President John F. Kennedy’s goal of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth before the end of the 1960s.

Left: Gilruth as a NACA employee in 1946.
Right: Gilruth (eighth from right) during a NACA's Special Committee on Space Technology meeting of at Langley in May 1958.

Gilruth, right, showing the seven Mercury astronauts their form-fitting couches at Langley in 1959

Gilruth was born in Nashwauk, Minnesota, on Oct. 8, 1913. He earned a Bachelor of Science degree in 1935 and a Master of Science degree in 1936, both in aeronautical engineering and both from the University of Minnesota. Gilruth began his lengthy public service career in January 1937 at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics’ (NACA) Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in Hampton, Virginia. In 1941 he defined and published the first set of requirements for the handling characteristics of aircraft. Four years later he established an organization and facility for testing rocket-powered aircraft that became the Pilotless Aircraft Research Division and then NASA’s Wallops Station launching site, now the Wallops Flight Facility in Wallops Island, Virginia. In 1952, Gilruth was named the assistant director of the Langley laboratory.

Left: Gilruth, left, and Mercury astronaut John H. Glenn in conversation at Langley in 1959.
Right: A Space Task Group (STG) engineer, right, showing a model of a capsule to Charles J. Donlan, left, Gilruth, and Maxime A. Faget in 1959.

Left: Paul E. Purser, right, showing Gilruth the first edition of the Space News Roundup on Nov. 1, 1961, announcing the STG’s renaming to MSC and relocation to Houston.
Right: Gilruth, middle, in March 1962 and six of the seven Mercury astronauts with the sign outside the interim MSC headquarters building in Houston.

On Oct. 1, 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, or NASA, opened for business, absorbing several existing NACA facilities including Langley, that was renamed to Langley Research Center. Just five weeks later, NASA created the Space Task Group (STG) charged with putting an American in space before the Soviet Union and placed Gilruth in charge. The work of the STG led to the creation of Project Mercury that put America’s astronauts into space, first on suborbital flights and eventually into orbit. Following President Kennedy’s announcement of the Moon landing goal and with the additional work needed, the STG outgrew its facilities at Langley. Following an extensive site evaluation and selection process, NASA announced on Sep. 19, 1961, that the STG would be relocated to Houston, Texas, and on Nov. 1 renamed it the Manned Spacecraft Center, or MSC, with Gilruth as its director.

Left: President Kennedy, left, presenting Gilruth with the President’s Award for Distinguished Federal Civilian Service at the White House in August 1962.
Right: Gilruth, right, in his office at MSC’s interim headquarters in the Farnsworth-Chambers building in Houston in October 1962, presenting a 30-year service award to Kenneth S. Kleinknecht.

Gilruth, second from right, touring MSC’s new site under construction in September 1963.

While the new facility in Clear Lake was under construction, MSC employees relocated from Virginia and worked out of several leased facilities in southeast Houston. In 1962, Gilruth set up his office in the interim MSC headquarters located in the Farnsworth-Chambers Building on South Wayside Drive, today the home of the Houston Parks and Recreation Department. During this time, six crewed Mercury flights were completed and planning had begun on the two-person Gemini missions to test the critical techniques required to accomplish a Moon landing mission and the three-person Apollo spacecraft that would take astronauts to the Moon.

Left: Gilruth, second from left, hosting a delegation of U.S. Air Force officials in his new office on the ninth floor of MSC’s administration building in August 1964.
Right: Gilruth, left, in the Mission Control viewing gallery in June 1965 with Patricia McDivitt and Patricia White, right, the wives of the Gemini 4 crew then in orbit during the first mission controlled from the new center.

Gilruth, right, with Christopher C. Kraft, left, and astronaut L. Gordon Cooper in Mission Control in December 1965 celebrating the successful rendezvous between Gemini 7 and 6.

With construction still underway, the new MSC site officially opened for business on Feb. 20, 1964, and Gilruth moved into his new office on the ninth floor of the main administration building, at the time called Building 2. The new Mission Control was ready to follow the first crewed Gemini mission in March 1965 and with the flight of Gemini 4 in June it took over as the nerve center of American human spaceflights, a role it has served ever since. Gilruth played a critical role in leading the center to ensure the safe completion of the remainder of Project Gemini and his leadership guided the painful recovery of the Apollo Program following the loss of astronauts Virgil I. Grissom, Edward H. White, and Roger B. Chaffee in the Apollo 1 fire.

Left: Gilruth, right, introducing the Apollo 1 crew of Chaffee, left, White, and Grissom to the press in March 1966.
Right: Gilruth, second from right, during President Johnson’s visit to MSC in March 1968.

Gilruth, left, in Mission Control with other NASA senior managers following the successful splashdown of Apollo 8 in December 1968.

Part of that recovery included the bold decision in August 1968, before a crewed Apollo mission had been flown, to send Apollo 8 on a circumlunar flight in December of that year, a decision that Gilruth supported and advocated to NASA Headquarters. The success of Apollo 8 once and for all put the United States ahead of the Soviet Union in the race to the Moon and significantly increased the chances of achieving President Kennedy’s goal.

Left: Gilruth during the Apollo 11 Moon landing mission in July 1969.
Right: Gilruth, middle, with George M. Low, left, and astronaut John Glenn, right, in Mission Control celebrating the successful splashdown of Apollo 11.

Gilruth, right, and Low carrying the first box of Moon rocks after its arrival in Houston.

On July 20, 1969, Apollo 11 landed on the Moon, and at least the first part of President Kennedy’s goal was met. Gilruth, surrounded by the team that he helped build over the years, all watched from Mission Control as Neil A. Armstrong took that first step on the lunar surface. They all cheered four days later as they watched Apollo 11 splashdown in the Pacific Ocean, meeting the rest of President Kennedy’s goal with the three astronauts safely back on Earth. Two days later, Gilruth and other top NASA managers stood on the tarmac at Ellington Air Force Base near MSC as the first Moon rocks arrived in Houston, beaming with pride and satisfaction as he helped to carry the first box of extraterrestrial material.

Left: Gilruth, right, in Mission Control in April 1970 being briefed on the makeshift carbon dioxide removal system following the accident aboard Apollo 13.
Right: Gilruth, third from right, with Soviet and American delegates during a visit to Star City in October 1970.

Gilruth (in brown suit) greeting the Apollo 15 crew aboard the USS Okinawa in August 1971.

Gilruth’s next leadership challenge took place in April 1970, after an explosion crippled the Apollo 13 spacecraft on its way to the Moon and endangering its crew. After several days of outstanding teamwork between Mission Control and the onboard crew, the astronauts splashed down safely in the Pacific Ocean. Looking beyond the Moon landing missions, Gilruth embarked on negotiations with Soviet counterparts that ultimately led to the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), the first docking between American and Soviet spacecraft in 1975. One of the lasting legacies from ASTP is a derivative of the docking system designed for that mission is used aboard the International Space Station. In August 1971, instead of watching the splashdown from Mission Control, Gilruth flew to the USS Okinawa, the prime recovery ship for Apollo 15, to meet the crew returning from the fourth Moon landing.

Left: Gilruth in February 1972 with a model of the boat he was building.
Right: Gilruth and guests in December 1973 aboard the boat Outrigger that he built.

Left: Gilruth, second from right, in 1991 with three of his successors as Johnson Space Center director, left to right, Aaron Cohen (1986-1993), Gerald D. Griffin (1982-1986), and Christopher C. Kraft (1972-1982).
Right: Bob and Jo Gilruth in 1991.

On Jan. 14, 1972, NASA Administrator James C. Fletcher appointed Gilruth to the new position of director of key personnel development, with Kraft, Gilruth’s deputy, succeeding him as the MSC director. Although reporting to NASA Deputy Administrator George M. Low at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC, Gilruth remained in Houston.  In this new capacity, he had the responsibility for identifying near and long range potential candidates for key positions across the agency. He retired from NASA in December 1973, the same month he christened his multihull 52-foot sailboat Outrigger, a craft he designed and built himself. He remained active as a consultant after this retirement and continued to participate in NASA related activities for many years. He was 86 when he died, survived by his wife Jo and daughter Barbara Jean Wyatt.

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« Odpowiedź #72 dnia: Wrzesień 30, 2020, 02:52 »

The Templeton Philanthropies mourn the passing of cosmologist, mathematician, and physicist John D. Barrow, the 2006 Templeton Prize Laureate.  He died on September 26 at his home in Cambridge, England at the age of 67 due to complications from cancer.

Barrow was the Professor of Mathematical Sciences at Cambridge University when he was awarded the Templeton Prize in 2006.  From 2003 to 2007 he served as Gresham Professor of Astronomy at Gresham College in London, founded in 1597. At the time of his death he was Dean of Clare Hall, Cambridge University.

He received his DPhil in astrophysics from the University of Oxford in 1977, and first caught wide attention with his 1986 book, The Anthropic Cosmological Principle, co-authored with Frank J. Tipler.  He authored or co-authored more than 25 books, written in accessible, lively prose, which were translated into more than two dozen languages; wrote more than 550 scientific papers; and delivered numerous popular lectures and podcasts, which illuminated the understanding of the universe and cast the intrinsic limitations of scientific inquiry into sharp relief.  His writings also gave theologians and philosophers inescapable questions to consider when examining the very essence of belief, the nature of the universe, and humanity’s place in it.

“Astronomy has transformed the simple-minded, life-averse, meaningless universe of the skeptical philosophers.  It breathes new life into so many religious questions of ultimate concern and never-ending fascination,” said Barrow at the March 15, 2006 news conference at the Church Center for the United Nations in New York at which he was announced as the Prize Laureate.  “Many of the deepest and most engaging questions that we grapple with still about the nature of the universe have their origins in our purely religious quest for meaning.  The concept of a lawful universe with order that can be understood and relied upon emerged largely out of religious beliefs about the nature of God.”

He added, “Our scientific picture of the universe has revealed time and again how blinkered and conservative our outlook has often been, how self-serving our interim picture of the universe, how mundane our expectations, and how parochial our attempts to find or deny the links between scientific and religious approaches to the nature of the universe.”

Thomas Torrance, the 1978 Prize Laureate, wrote in his nomination of Barrow, “The hallmark of his work is a deep engagement with those aspects of the structure of the universe and its laws that make life possible and which shape the views that we take of that universe when we examine it.  The vast elaboration of that simple idea has led to a huge expansion of the breadth and depth of the dialogue between science and religion.”

Professor Barrow participated in many conferences and symposia sponsored by the John Templeton Foundation, such as “Singularities and the History of Efforts to Model the Origin of the Universe,” at the Royal Society in May 2008 in honor of that year’s Prize Laureate, physicist and Catholic priest Michael Heller.  He was also present along with six other previous Prize Laureates at the June 1, 2011 Buckingham Palace ceremony honoring that year’s Laureate, cosmologist and astrophysicist Sir Martin Rees, which marked the final year that HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, presented the Prize upon his retirement from most public duties.

Barrow’s books explored a huge range of subjects on the science and religion interface at a level that spoke to lay readers and specialists alike.  Topics included the nature and utility of mathematics (Pi in the Sky, 1992), the links between the universe and human aesthetic appreciation (The Artful Universe, 1995 and The Artful Universe Expanded, 2005), and how the universe is peculiarly characterized by what cannot be known about it (Impossibility: the limits of science and the science of limits, 1998).

In 1989, Professor Barrow delivered the Gifford Lectures at Glasgow University during the centennial year of the program, and, at the time, was the youngest Gifford Lecturer ever.

“While John’s notable achievements will be remembered for decades to come, he was also a good friend with a gracious spirit who could move easily between discussions about math and science to matters of religion and faith and detailed statistical analysis of soccer,” said Heather Templeton Dill, president of the John Templeton Foundation. “He was impressive across every domain of life, and we will miss him.”

The Templeton Prize is administered by the John Templeton Foundation, based in West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, with support from the Templeton World Charity Foundation and Templeton Religion Trust, based in Nassau, The Bahamas.

The Templeton Philanthropies extend their condolences to Professor Barrow’s wife, Elizabeth, their three children and their families, and mourn the loss of one of the world’s great mathematical minds.

Jonathan McDowell@planet4589
The cosmologist John Barrow has died of colon cancer at age 67. Very sorry to hear this, I met him in the 1980s when I was a grad student and found him inspirational.  His book on the anthropic principle is worth reading.

Martin Rees@LordMartinRees · 27 wrz
The  inspirational cosmologist John Barrow died  at  his Cambridge home yesterday, aged 67.He was a polymath -- engaging  with  philosophy and  history,  as well as science -- and internationally  influential through books and lectures. His terminal illness came decades too soon.

Conversation with John Barrow
4339 wyświetleń•16 cze 2012 Templeton Prize

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Cosmology and The Constants of Nature (John Barrow)
25 556 wyświetleń•4 cze 2014

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The Origin and Evolution of Universes
1149 wyświetleń•18 maj 2017  Society of Catholic Scientists

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« Ostatnia zmiana: Wrzesień 30, 2020, 03:27 wysłana przez Orionid »

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« Odpowiedź #73 dnia: Wrzesień 30, 2020, 02:53 »
„Ich würde gerne zum Anfang der Zeit reisen“
Publiziert am 10.11.2019 Interview: Robert Czepel

Sind Zeitreisen aus physikalischer Sicht möglich? „Prinzipiell ja“, sagt der britische Physiker und Kosmologe John Barrow. „Aber daraus folgt nicht, dass man in der Zeit zurückgehen und den Verlauf der Geschichte ändern könnte.“

John D. Barrow ist theoretischer Physiker an der University of Cambridge und Autor zahlreicher Fachbücher, darunter etwa: „Das Buch der Universen“ und „Einmal Unendlichkeit und zurück“. Am 26. Juli hielt er an der Universität Wien den Vortrag: „100 Years of Universes“

Herr Barrow, Zeitreisen sind ein beliebtes Motiv in der Science-Fiction-Literatur. Aber so phantastisch ist das möglicherweise gar nicht, oder?

John Barrow: Vor genau 70 Jahren hat der Österreicher Kurt Gödel eine neuartige Lösung für Einsteins Relativitätstheorie entdeckt: Diese Lösung beschreibt ein Universum, das geschlossene Zeitlinien enthält. Wen man so einem Pfad folgt, landet man irgendwann wieder dort, wo man in der Vergangenheit war. Das ist nicht das Gleiche wie die Zeitreisen aus der Science-Fiction-Literatur. Hätte man eine Zeitmaschine, wie sie zum Beispiel H.G. Wells in seinem gleichnamigen Roman beschrieben hat, dann könnte man in die Vergangenheit reisen und allerlei Paradoxien erzeugen. Zum Beispiel könnte ich mich selbst als Baby ermorden. Das führt zu einem Widerspruch.

Eine geschlossene Zeitlinie – was ist das überhaupt?

Denken sie sich die Zeit als eine Gruppe von Soldaten, die in einer Reihe marschieren, einer nach dem anderen. Da gibt es eine klare Ordnung: Jeder weiß, wer vor ihm ist und wer hinter ihm kommt. Doch wenn die Soldaten in einem großen Kreis marschieren, ist im Prinzip jeder vor allen anderen – und gleichzeitig hinter allen anderen. Gödel hat gezeigt, dass geschlossene Schleifen der Geschichte möglich sind. Aber daraus folgt nicht, dass man in der Zeit zurückgehen und den Verlauf der Dinge ändern könnte. Die Geschichte muss konsistent bleiben.

Was könnte in so einer Schleife passieren?

Nehmen wir das Beispiel von vorhin: Ich will mich selbst ermorden und reise daher mit einem Gewehr in die Vergangenheit. Dort angekommen sehe ich meine Mutter, wie sie mich als Baby im Arm hält, hebe das Gewehr, ziele – doch just in dem Moment, da ich abdrücken will, fühle ich in der Schulter den stechenden Schmerz einer alten Verletzung. Ich verreiße also das Gewehr, die Kugel verfehlt ihr Ziel. Doch der Knall erschreckt meine Mutter so, dass sie das Baby fallen lässt. Woraufhin sich das Baby an der Schulter verletzt.

Kurt Gödel und Albert Einstein in PrincetonEMILIO SEGRE VISUAL ARCHIVES / Science Photo Library /
Albert Einstein war von Kurt Gödels Entdeckung schockiert

Was hat die gegenwärtige Physik zu solchen Szenarien zu sagen?

Gödels Zeitschleifen sind zwar prinzipiell möglich, aber sie treten in unserem Universum nicht auf. Zumindest ist es extrem unwahrscheinlich. Es gibt viele Dinge, die physikalisch prinzipiell erlaubt, aber nicht real sind. Schauen Sie etwa auf diesen Tisch: Es wäre durchaus möglich, dass er plötzlich zu schweben beginnt. Dafür müssten sich sämtliche Luft- und Holzmoleküle gleichzeitig nach oben bewegen. Das könnten sie – doch die Wahrscheinlichkeit dafür ist so unglaublich klein, dass Sie so etwas niemals beobachte werden. Ich denke, mit den Zeitreisen verhält es sich sehr ähnlich.

Was ist der Unterschied zwischen dem Gödel-Universum und dem realen Universum, so wie es sich den Kosmologen heute darstellt?

Die Möglichkeit der Zeitreisen in Gödels Universum entsteht dadurch, dass es rotiert. Und Gödels Universum dehnt sich nicht aus – im Gegensatz zu unserem Universum. So gesehen sind Gödels Lösungen keine Beschreibung der physikalischen Wirklichkeit, sondern nur eine Möglichkeit, von der die Natur Gebrauch machen hätte können. Aber es wären auch andere Versionen des Gödel-Universums denkbar. Solche, die gleichzeitig expandieren und rotieren. Der deutsche Physiker Engelbert Schücking hat etwa nach solchen Lösungen der Relativitätstheorie gesucht. Das Thema beschäftigt die Wissenschaft immer noch.

Rotiert unser Universum?

Ich habe in den 1980er Jahren mit meinen Kollegen Roman Juszkiewicz und David Sonod berechnet, wie groß so eine Rotation sein könnte. Sie wissen vermutlich, dass die Erde wegen ihrer Drehung um die eigene Achse an den Polen ein bisschen abgeflacht und am Äquator ein bisschen ausgebuchtet ist. Bei einem rotierenden Universum wäre das ähnlich: Die Strahlung aus der Region der kosmischen Pole würde einen kürzeren Weg zu uns zurücklegen und käme daher bei uns mit höherer Temperatur an als die Strahlung vom kosmischen Äquator. Doch Messungen zeigen: Die Temperaturschwankungen sind winzig. Wenn unser Universum rotiert, dann tut es das extrem langsam.

Illustration: Raumschiff rast auf ein Wurmloch zuLes Bossinas/NASA
Zeitreisen - theoretisch möglich, sofern das Universum rotiert

Was bedeutet das für Gödels Zeitschleifen?

Dass sie in unserem Universum nicht möglich sind. Die Rotation müsste mindestens eine Million Mal schneller sein, damit sich solche Effekte einstellen. Gödel hat jedenfalls gezeigt, dass geschlossene Zeitlinien innerhalb der Allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie möglich wären – und dass sie im Einklang mit den Gesetzen der Physik stehen. Einstein war lange gegenteiliger Ansicht. Er war von Gödels Ergebnissen schockiert.

Angenommen, eine Zeitmaschine wie die von H.G. Wells würde existieren: In welches Zeitalter würden Sie reisen?

Leider ist der Ort, der mich am meisten interessieren würde, keiner, den man einfach so betreten könnte. Ich würde gerne wissen: Hatte die Zeit einen Beginn? Zumindest kann man sich die Frage stellen: Wenn das Universum seit 13,7 Milliarden Jahren existiert - was würde passieren, wenn ich mit einem Raumschiff 15 Milliarden Jahre in die Vergangenheit reise? Wäre da überhaupt etwas?

Polskie Forum Astronautyczne

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