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Odp: Apollo 12 - rendez-vous na Księżycu
« Odpowiedź #30 dnia: Listopad 03, 2019, 22:03 »
50 Years Ago: Apollo 12 Three Weeks Until Launch
Oct. 24, 2019

(...) One of the final significant milestones before every major launch, the Countdown Demonstration Test (CDDT) began at KSC on Oct. 23 for the Apollo 12 mission. The CDDT, a full dress rehearsal for the actual countdown to launch, consisted of two parts. The “wet” phase included workers at Launch Pad 39A fueling the rocket as if for launch, with the countdown cutting off just prior to first stage engine ignition, and did not involve the flight crew. The “dry” phase followed on Oct. 29, an abbreviated countdown without fueling the rocket but with the flight crew boarding the Command Module (CM), call sign Yankee Clipper for Apollo 12, as if on launch day.


Two views of the Apollo 12 Saturn V on Launch Pad 39A during the wet phase of the CDDT.

Apollo astronauts had two important training tools to prepare them for the actual Moon landings – the Lunar Landing Research Facility (LLRF) at NASA’s Langley Research Center in Virginia, and the Lunar Landing Training Vehicle (LLTV) at Ellington Air Force Base near MSC. The LLRF consisted of a 400-by-230-foot A-frame structure with a gantry used to manipulate a full-scale Lunar Excursion Module Simulator (LEMS). Workers modelled the base of the LLRF with fill material to resemble the Moon’s surface. The LLRF simulated piloting the LM in the final 150 feet of the descent to the lunar surface and was available to train both Commanders and LMPs and their backups. Conrad completed his final training run in the LLRF on Oct. 27. The LLTV, often dubbed “the flying bedstead,” was a high-fidelity simulator of the LM’s flying characteristics especially of the final 500 feet of the descent. Challenging to fly, Apollo Commanders considered the LLTV an essential tool to teach them the skills to pilot the LM to the lunar surface. Conrad completed his final LLTV flight on Oct. 26 while Scott flew four more missions in early November. Both were then qualified to pilot the LM Intrepid to the lunar surface.


Apollo 12 Commander Conrad surrounded by his family after his last LLTV flight.


Left and right: Apollo 12 backup Commander Scott preparing for a training flight on LLTV-2.

(...)
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/50-years-ago-apollo-12-three-weeks-until-launch

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Odp: Apollo 12 - rendez-vous na Księżycu
« Odpowiedź #31 dnia: Listopad 03, 2019, 22:06 »
50 Years Ago: Two Weeks to go Until Apollo 12
Oct. 31, 2019


Left: Apollo 12 crew (front to back) Conrad, Bean, and Gordon suiting up for the CDDT.
Right: Apollo 12 crew (left to right) Bean, Conrad, and Gordon arriving at Launch Pad 39A for the CDDT.


The Countdown Demonstration Test (CDDT) for the Apollo 12 mission concluded successfully on Oct. 29, 1969. The CDDT, a full dress rehearsal for the actual countdown to launch, consisted of two parts. The “wet” phase included workers at Launch Pad 39A fueling the rocket as if for launch, with the countdown cutting off just prior to first stage engine ignition, and did not involve the flight crew. The one-day “dry” phase followed, an abbreviated countdown without fueling the rocket but with the flight crew of Commander Charles “Pete” Conrad, Command Module Pilot Richard F. Gordon, and Lunar Module Pilot Alan L. Bean boarding the Command Module Yankee Clipper as if on launch day. Despite rain and high winds at the launch pad during the simulated liftoff time, managers declared the CDDT a success, clearing the way for Apollo 12’s Nov. 14 launch.


Following the CDDT, the Apollo 12 crew (left to right) Conrad, Gordon, and Bean pose in front of their Saturn V.


Firing Room at the LCC during the Apollo 12 CDDT.


The Apollo 12 Saturn V rocket on Launch Pad 39A during the CDDT.

(...)
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/50-years-ago-two-weeks-to-go-until-apollo-12

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Odp: Apollo 12 - rendez-vous na Księżycu
« Odpowiedź #32 dnia: Listopad 07, 2019, 23:09 »
50 Years Ago: Countdown Begins for Apollo 12
Nov. 7, 2019


Left: Apollo 12 astronauts (front to back) Conrad, Gordon, and Bean stand outside the Command Module simulator.
Right: Apollo 12 astronauts (left to right) Bean, Gordon, and Conrad seen through a fish-eye lens inside the Command Module simulator.


The countdown for Apollo 12 began on Nov. 8, 1969, aiming for launch on Nov. 14. Controllers in Firing Room 2 of the Launch Control Center at Kennedy Space Center’s (KSC) Launch Complex 39 monitored events as engineers readied the Saturn V rocket and the Apollo spacecraft for flight. The prime crew of Commander Charles “Pete” Conrad, Command Module Pilot (CMP) Richard F. Gordon, and Lunar Module Pilot (LMP) Alan L. Bean completed their final runs in the spacecraft simulators and rehearsed walking in the simulated lunar gravity aboard KC-135 aircraft parabolic flights. Their backups David R. Scott, Alfred M. Worden, and James B. Irwin also participated in the training, with Scott completing several flights in the Lunar Landing Training Vehicle to rehearse flying the final few hundred feet to the lunar surface. The crews also received their final geology briefings from geologist-astronaut Harrison H. “Jack” Schmitt and astronaut Edward G. Gibson, the Capsule Communicator in Mission Control during the lunar surface excursions. The astronauts maintained their flying skills using T-38 Talon supersonic training aircraft. (...)

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/50-years-ago-countdown-begins-for-apollo-12

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Odp: Apollo 12 - rendez-vous na Księżycu
« Odpowiedź #33 dnia: Listopad 09, 2019, 20:14 »
Infografiki  misji






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Odp: Apollo 12 - rendez-vous na Księżycu
« Odpowiedź #34 dnia: Listopad 15, 2019, 00:46 »
This Week in NASA History: Apollo 12 Launches – Nov. 14, 1969
Nov. 13, 2019


https://www.nasa.gov/centers/marshall/history/this-week-in-nasa-history-apollo-12-launches-nov-14-1969.html

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Odp: Apollo 12 - rendez-vous na Księżycu
« Odpowiedź #35 dnia: Listopad 15, 2019, 00:46 »
50 Years Ago: Return to the Moon
Nov. 14, 2019


Left: One of the Spacecraft LM Adapter panels silhouetted against the Earth – Central America and the western Pacific Ocean are visible.
Right: LM Intrepid still attached to the S-IVB.


(...) Lift off came precisely at 11:22 AM EST on Nov. 14, 1969, with the Saturn V launching Apollo 12 into the dark and rainy morning sky. Engineers in KSC’s Firing Room 2 who had managed the countdown handed over control of the flight to the Mission Control Center (MCC) at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), now the Johnson Space Center in Houston, as soon as the rocket cleared the launch tower. In MCC, the Gold Team led by Flight Director Gerald D. “Gerry” Griffin took over control of the mission. The Capcom, or capsule communicator, the astronaut in MCC who spoke directly with the crew, during launch was Gerald P. “Jerry” Carr. Apollo 11 astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. “Buzz” Aldrin watched the launch from the MCC Visitors Gallery. The flight proceeded normally for the first 36 seconds, with Conrad even commenting that, “It’s a lovely liftoff. It’s not bad at all,” when everything went haywire. With Apollo 12 at about 6,600 feet altitude and flying through clouds, observers on the ground noted lightning striking the launch pad. Onboard the spacecraft, Conrad saw a bright flash, followed by many of the spacecraft’s electronics going offline, causing the three power-generating fuel cells to go offline. Fortunately, the Saturn V rocket that was guiding the launch was unaffected and continued to operate normally. In Mission Control, data on controllers’ displays turned to gibberish. (...)

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/50-years-ago-return-to-the-moon

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Odp: Apollo 12 - rendez-vous na Księżycu
« Odpowiedź #37 dnia: Listopad 15, 2019, 00:54 »
Apollo 12 Exhibit Highlights NASA Langley’s Efforts in Moon Missions
Nov. 14, 2019


The Virginia Air & Space Center in Hampton, Virginia, prominently displays an Apollo 12 command module as part of its offerings. Credits: NASA/David C. Bowman

When visitors enter the Virginia Air & Space Center, they are greeted by history in flight and space. No exhibit showcases both more than a capsule that orbited the Moon.

The Apollo 12 command module was part of the second manned mission to the Moon. It’s now part of a prominent display at the Hampton, Virginia, museum, which is the official visitors’ center of NASA’s Langley Research Center. (...)

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/langley/apollo-12-exhibit-highlights-nasa-langley-s-efforts-in-moon-missions

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Odp: Apollo 12 - rendez-vous na Księżycu
« Odpowiedź #38 dnia: Listopad 16, 2019, 07:50 »
Apollo 12 Sees a Solar Eclipse
Nov. 14, 2019



(...) When the Earth moved directly between the Sun and the Apollo 12 spacecraft on the journey home from the Moon, the crew captured this image of a solar eclipse a 16mm motion picture camera. (...)

https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/apollo-12-sees-a-solar-eclipse

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Odp: Apollo 12 - rendez-vous na Księżycu
« Odpowiedź #39 dnia: Listopad 17, 2019, 08:01 »
Astronauts on space station pay tribute to Apollo 12 50th anniversary

November 14, 2019 — The astronauts on board the International Space Station paid tribute to the second mission to land humans on the moon — 50 years to the day after the Apollo 12 crew launched.


Expedition 61 crewmates Drew Morgan (bottom left), Jessica Meir (left), Luca Parmitano and Christina Koch dressed as Apollo flight controllers aboard the International Space Station to pay tribute to the teams that made the second moon landing mission possible 50 years ago, on Thursday, Nov. 14, 2019. (NASA)

Expedition 61 commander Luca Parmitano of the European Space Agency (ESA) joined NASA astronauts Drew Morgan, Christina Koch and Jessica Meir in dressing up as Apollo-era flight controllers on Thursday (Nov. 14), donning period-wardrobes including white button-down shirts, narrow black ties, pocket protectors and black horn-rimmed glasses.

"Today, on the 50th anniversary of the launch of Apollo 12, we pay tribute to the flight control and ground support teams and all who worked behind the scenes to enable us to send the first humans to the moon," wrote Meir on Twitter.

"We at NASA look forward to returning [to the moon] on Artemis missions!" said Meir, who wore a 1960s-style dress.

The Apollo 12 mission, which on Nov. 19, 1969, achieved the first precise landing on the moon — touching down within walking distance of the Surveyor 3 robotic probe — may have not made it much beyond Earth had it not been for the quick actions of Mission Control. Before the mission's Saturn V rocket could boost the crew of Charles "Pete" Conrad, Richard "Dick" Gordon and Alan Bean out of the atmosphere and onto the moon, the vehicle was struck twice by lightning, causing major instrumentation problems aboard the astronauts' spacecraft. (...)

http://www.collectspace.com/news/news-111419a-apollo12-50th-space-tribute.html

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Odp: Apollo 12 - rendez-vous na Księżycu
« Odpowiedź #40 dnia: Listopad 17, 2019, 08:07 »
<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l11sW5KOi_g" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l11sW5KOi_g</a>

Link do materiału: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l11sW5KOi_g

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Odp: Apollo 12 - rendez-vous na Księżycu
« Odpowiedź #41 dnia: Listopad 19, 2019, 07:02 »
Apollo 12 – 50 lat temu
BY KRZYSZTOF KANAWKA ON 18 LISTOPADA 2019

(...) Do Księżyca Apollo 12 dotarł 18 listopada. Dzień później, 19 listopada o godzinie 7:54 CET nastąpiło udane lądowanie na powierzchni Srebrnego Globu. Tym razem była to próba bardziej precyzyjnego lądowania – lądownik księżycowy osiadł w odległości zaledwie 180 metrów od bezzałogowego lądownika Surveyor 3. Na powierzchni Księżyca pracowali astronauci Conrad i Bean. (...)
https://kosmonauta.net/2019/11/apollo-12-50-lat-temu/

50 Years Ago: Apollo 12 on the Moon – “Whoopee!!”
Nov. 18, 2019


Left: Crater Eratosthenes from Apollo 12.
Right: Oblique view of Crater Copernicus located north of Apollo 12’s flight path.
 

(...) In Mission Control, the Visitors Gallery began to fill with dignitaries, including NASA Administrator Thomas O. Paine and his wife Barbara, Deputy Administrator appointee George M. Low, Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight George E. Mueller, Director of the Marshall Space Flight Center Werhner von Braun, and astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Edwin E. “Buzz” Aldrin, and Frank Borman.   Exactly half a revolution after the DOI maneuver, Intrepid’s DPS began the 11-minute Powered Descent Initiation (PDI) burn to drop it from orbit all the way to the landing in the Ocean of Storms.  At the start of the burn, Intrepid was 300 miles from the landing site, with the DPS engine initially at 10 percent thrust then brought up to 93 percent thrust after 26 seconds.  With Bean providing updates from the guidance computer, Conrad skillfully piloted Intrepid to a smooth landing just northwest of Surveyor Crater, and as they learned later, only 538 feet from Surveyor 3, a robotic spacecraft that had landed there in April 1967.  Without much fanfare, Conrad and Bean completed the postlanding checklist, although Bean allowed himself a little exuberant “Good landing, Pete!  Outstanding, man!  Beautiful!”  Conrad radioed to Mission Control, “Okay, we’re in hot shape, Houston.  We’re in real good shape!” With the landing of Apollo 12, Conrad and Bean doubled the number of humans to have visited the Moon. (...)
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/50-years-ago-apollo-12-on-the-moon-whoopee

Artykuły astronautyczne
« Ostatnia zmiana: Listopad 23, 2019, 07:18 wysłana przez Orionid »

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Odp: Apollo 12 - rendez-vous na Księżycu
« Odpowiedź #42 dnia: Listopad 22, 2019, 22:28 »
Misja Apollo 12 zapewniła pierwsze tak bardzo precyzyjne lądowanie poza Ziemią, najszybszy w historii powrót ludzi na Księżyc (4 miesiące po Apollo 11) i jest jedyną, jak dotąd, podróżą ludzi do artefaktu na innym globie.
I po 50 latach doszukujemy się  inspiracji tej wyprawy dla Mars 2020
.

Two of a Space Kind: Apollo 12 and Mars 2020
Nov. 20, 2019


(Left) Apollo 12 astronaut Charles “Pete” Conrad Jr. stands beside NASA's Surveyor 3 spacecraft; the lunar module Intrepid can be seen in the distance. Apollo 12 landed on the Moon's Ocean of Storms on Nov. 20, 1969. (Right) Mars 2020 rover, seen here in an artist's concept, will make history's most accurate landing on a planetary body when it lands at Mars' Jezero Crater on Feb. 18, 2021. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech

(...) "When Pete and Al put the lunar module Intrepid down within about 520 feet [160 meters] of Surveyor 3, it gave NASA the confidence to later send Apollo 15 to Hadley Rille, Apollo 16 to go to the Descartes Highlands and Apollo 17 to land at Taurus Littrow," said McNamee. "We also have to be precise with our landing on Mars — not only to pave the way for future precision landings on the Red Planet for both robotic and human-crewed missions, but also because Mars 2020's scientifically appealing landing site at Jezero Crater has all sorts of cliffsides, sand dunes, boulders and craters that can adversely affect us during landing."

Mars 2020 will be history's first planetary mission to include terrain relative navigation, a computerized autopilot that utilizes optical imagers and computers to help Mars 2020 avoid landing hazards and make the most accurate landing on a planetary body in history. (...)

Just as NASA's Surveyor missions helped blaze a trail for Neil and Buzz on Apollo 11, Pete and Al on 12, as well as Al and Ed (Apollo 14), Dave and Jim (Apollo 15), John and Charlie (Apollo 16), and Gene and Harrison (Apollo 17), Mars 2020 is helping set the tone for future crewed missions to Mars. (...)


Apollo 12 lunar module pilot Alan Bean holds a container of lunar soil, with the reflection of mission commander Charles "Pete" Conrad Jr. visible on his visor. The image was taken on the Moon's Ocean of Storms on Nov. 20, 1969. Apollo 12's lunar activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding NASA's Surveyor 3 spacecraft (which landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967), and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples. Credits: NASA

("Isaac Newton once wrote, 'If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants,'" said McNamee. "When Mars 2020 flies, it will allow us to see farther into the geologic history of the Red Planet than ever before — and that is happening because we too are standing on the shoulders of giants — giants like the crew of Apollo 12." (...)
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/jpl/two-of-a-space-kind-apollo-12-and-mars-2020


A graphic novel chronicling the historic flight of Apollo 12.  Credits: NASA/PPG
https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/atoms/files/apollo_12_comic_book_web_res.pdf

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Odp: Apollo 12 - rendez-vous na Księżycu
« Odpowiedź #43 dnia: Listopad 22, 2019, 22:29 »
50 Years Ago: Apollo 12 – The Journey Home
Nov. 20, 2019


Recording from the Apollo 12 seismometer of the intentional crash of the LM ascent stage.

Apollo 12 astronauts Charles “Pete” Conrad and Alan L. Bean were in high spirits when they re-entered their Lunar Module (LM) Intrepid on the Moon’s Ocean of Storms. They had completed two Extravehicular Activities (EVAs) or spacewalks on the lunar surface, spending a total of 7 hours and 45 minutes outside. One the second EVA, they paid a visit to Surveyor 3, a robotic spacecraft that had landed nearby in April 1967, and snipped off several parts of the spacecraft to return them to Earth for scientists and engineers to assess the effects of 31 months in the harsh lunar environment. Conrad and Bean collected 76 pounds of lunar rocks, soil, and core samples, safely stowed in two Sample Return Containers (SRC). Inside the LM they prepared to liftoff from the surface and rejoin the third Apollo 12 crewmember, Richard F. Gordon, who continued to orbit the Moon in the Command Module (CM) Yankee Clipper, taking photographs and making other observations. 

When they returned inside Intrepid, Conrad and Bean used up their remaining film by taking photographs out the windows, showing the signs of their visit – numerous footprints, the American flag, the S-band antenna, and in the distance, the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP) station. They jettisoned their Portable Life Support System (PLSS) backpacks, gloves, and cameras, and ate a meal, after which Conrad said they were ready to “have a little chitty chat about the EVA” with Capcom Edward G. Gibson. In that conversation, Conrad said, “Al and I look just like a couple of bituminous coal miners right at the moment. But we’re happy.” To which Gibson replied, “So are a lot of people down here.” Gordon, coming around the Moon’s front side on his 28th revolution, congratulated Conrad and Bean on a job well done. To prepare for liftoff, Conrad and Bean tested Intrepid’s Reaction Control System (RCS) thrusters. The firings kicked up a fair bit of dust and also knocked over the S-band antenna, but the vehicle automatically switched to its own antenna with no loss of communications. (...)

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/50-years-ago-apollo-12-the-journey-home

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Odp: Apollo 12 - rendez-vous na Księżycu
« Odpowiedź #44 dnia: Listopad 22, 2019, 22:29 »
50 Years Ago: “Three More Like Before” – The Recovery of Apollo 12
Nov. 22, 2019

Selected as the Prime Recovery Ship (PRS) for Apollo 12 on Aug. 17, 1969, USS Hornet (CVS-12) steamed out of her home port of Long Beach, California, on Oct. 27 and arrived at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, four days later. Hornet served as the PRS for Apollo 11 in July 1969 and her skipper Capt. Carl J. Seiberlich and crew put that experience to good use. Reflecting both the previous recovery activities and the emphasis on the safe retrieval of the astronauts, Capt. Seiberlich chose Three More Like Before as the motto for the Apollo 12 operation. The US Navy frogmen for Apollo 12 comprised a new team from Underwater Demolition Team-13 (UDT-13), with Ernest L. “Ernie” Jahncke serving as the decontamination officer.


USS Hornet (CVS-12), the Prime Recovery Ship for Apollo 12.  Credits: US Navy.


Left: Apollo 12 CM Yankee Clipper descending on its main parachutes moments before splashdown.
Right: View of Apollo 12 in the water with Hornet in the background and a recovery helicopter hovering. Credits: US Navy.


At the moment of splashdown, the CM hit a rising wave causing a harder than expected landing. The force of the impact displaced part of the heat shield and also dislodged the 16 mm film camera mounted in the window. The camera hit Bean in the head resulting in a gash and momentarily dazing him, causing him not to trip two circuit breakers to jettison the parachute lines. This resulted in the capsule assuming the apex down Stable 2 position in the water. Three self-inflating balloons righted the spacecraft into the Stable 1 upright orientation in less than five minutes. Five minutes later, a helicopter dropped the first three UDT swimmers into the water, tasked with securing a flotation collar and rafts to the spacecraft, tying a sea anchor to it for stability, and filming the recovery from the water. The process took about 10 minutes, while inside the capsule Conrad and Bean placed a bandage on Bean’s still bleeding forehead. Decontamination officer Jahncke next dropped into the water and once the crew opened the hatch, he handed them fresh flight suits and respirators. A few minutes later, the crew reopened the hatch, and first Conrad, then Gordon, and finally Bean climbed aboard one of the rafts where Jahncke used a disinfectant solution to decontaminate the astronauts and also the spacecraft. The recovery helicopter lowered a Billy Pugh net to haul the astronauts up from the raft, first Gordon, then Bean, and finally Conrad. Aboard the helicopter, NASA flight surgeon Dr. Clarence A. Jernigan gave each astronaut a brief physical examination during the brief flight back to Hornet, declaring all three of them healthy. (...)

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/50-years-ago-three-more-like-before-the-recovery-of-apollo-12