Autor Wątek: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)  (Przeczytany 48948 razy)

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Offline Orionid

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Odp: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)
« Odpowiedź #270 dnia: Wrzesień 09, 2017, 23:58 »
NASA’s Lunar Mission Captures Solar Eclipse as Seen From the Moon
Aug. 29, 2017


This animation begins with the black-and-white image of the Moon’s shadow on Earth, as seen by NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, or LRO. The levels of gray in the image are gradually adjusted, saturating the background until the features of the landscape disappear. At that point, it’s possible to see the edge of the total solar eclipse. As the gray levels are restored, the umbra, or the completely shadowed area, becomes visible, followed by the penumbra, or partial shadow where part of the Sun peaks over the edge of the Moon.LRO’s Narrow Angle Camera can record 3600 gray levels, whereas most digital cameras record only 255 levels of gray. The camera was designed this way because the Moon is a high-contrast target, with very bright materials next to dark materials. In these images, those 3,600 levels of gray were squeezed into 255 levels because that’s what a typical computer screen is capable of displaying.
Credits: NASA/GSFC/Arizona State University


During the total solar eclipse on Aug. 21, NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, or LRO, captured an image of the Moon’s shadow over a large region of the United States, centered just north of Nashville, Tennessee.

As LRO crossed the lunar south pole heading north at 3,579 mph (1,600 meters per second), the shadow of the Moon was racing across the United States at 1,500 mph (670 meters per second).

A few minutes later, LRO began a slow 180-degree turn to look back at Earth, capturing an image of the eclipse very near the location where totality lasted the longest. The spacecraft’s Narrow Angle Camera began scanning Earth at 2:25:30 p.m. EDT (18:25:30 UTC) and completed the image 18 seconds later. (...)
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2017/LRO-captures-eclipse-from-the-moon
« Ostatnia zmiana: Wrzesień 10, 2017, 00:01 wysłana przez Orionid »

Offline ekoplaneta

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Odp: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)
« Odpowiedź #271 dnia: Wrzesień 10, 2017, 08:23 »
I jak zwykle z takimi fotkami bywa Polska w chmurach  :( Ale samo zdjęcie z sondy niesamowite.

Offline ekoplaneta

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Odp: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)
« Odpowiedź #272 dnia: Październik 23, 2017, 12:39 »
Lunar Reconaissance Orbiter zaliczył już 100 księżycowych dni  8)

https://www.space.com/38522-nasa-moon-probe-celebrates-100th-lunar-day.html

A swoją drogą, ciekawe czy sonda dostrzegła na powierzchni Księżyca ślady działania jego dawnej atmosfery, czyli erozji wietrznej? Czy takie ślady dałyby radę przetrwać 3,5 miliarda lat, narażone na bombardowanie meteorytów tych dużych i tych malutkich?

Offline Orionid

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Odp: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)
« Odpowiedź #273 dnia: Kwiecień 13, 2018, 23:52 »
Wirtualna podróż po Księżycu dzięki LRO
BY KRZYSZTOF KANAWKA ON 13 KWIETNIA 2018

NASA opublikowała ciekawą “wirtualną podróż” po Księżycu w rozdzielczości 4K. Ta podróż powstała dzięki danym z misji Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

Misja amerykańskiej sondy Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) rozpoczęła się 18 czerwca 2009 roku startem z wyrzutni LC-41 na Florydzie. 23 czerwca 2009 LRO wszedł na orbitę Księżyca, a 15 września rozpoczął obserwacje naszego naturalnego satelity. (...)

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nr5Pj6GQL2o" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nr5Pj6GQL2o</a>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nr5Pj6GQL2o

Podróż po Księżycu dzięki LRO / Credits – NASA Goddard (...)

http://kosmonauta.net/2018/04/wirtualna-podroz-po-ksiezycu-dzieki-lro/

Offline Orionid

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Odp: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)
« Odpowiedź #274 dnia: Grudzień 12, 2018, 12:46 »
Równolatek Kosmonauty ma jeszcze paliwa na ok. 7 lat. Być może odegra rolę podczas księżycowej ekspansji Chińczyków.

NASA lunar orbiter now supporting commercial and international missions
by Jeff Foust — December 10, 2018


NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched in 2009, has enough fuel to operate well into the 2020s and could support future lunar landings, including commercial missions. Credit: NASA

WASHINGTON — A NASA spacecraft originally built as part of the previous effort to return humans to the moon is now playing a key role in the new effort at human lunar return, including aiding commercial landers.

One element of the Vision for Space Exploration, announced by President George W. Bush in 2004, was a series of robotic missions to the moon intended to start no later than 2008. The first such mission was an orbiter to collect high-resolution imagery of the lunar surface and other data to assist planning for future robotic and lunar lander missions.

That spacecraft, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), eventually launched in 2009, even as the Obama administration was revisiting those broader lunar exploration plans. While the Vision for Space Exploration’s lunar plans were ultimately cancelled, NASA continued to operate LRO as a science mission.

LRO remains operational today, and has about 20 kilograms of fuel left on board, Noah Petro, LRO project scientist, said at a meeting of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) Nov. 15. “That may not seem like a lot, but we don’t go through much fuel on an annual basis,” he said, primarily to manage the spacecraft’s momentum and make minor orbit adjustments.

“All told, we have approximately seven years of fuel remaining,” he said. That could decrease, he said, if the spacecraft performs additional maneuvers, such as to phase its orbit to observe specific activities like lunar landings.

Petro said that LRO will receive funding in fiscal year 2019 from the Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) program, where NASA will buy payload space on commercially developed landers. NASA announced Nov. 29 that it awarded contracts to nine companies working on such landers, although those companies will later have to compete for task orders to fly specific payloads, such as scientific instruments.

NASA is offering LRO to assist those future commercial landers. “The LRO team is standing ready to help,” said Barbara Cohen, LRO associate project scientist, at the Nov. 29 announcement. That can include identifying sites close to potential resources or have high scientific value while also being safe locations for spacecraft landings.

That can include observations of the landing themselves. “We are working with some upcoming missions to try to pick landing dates that have favorable viewing geometries” that would allow LRO to observe the landings as they happen, she said. “We want to observe the plumes as the landers land and kick up dust and disturb the environment.”

LRO is also supporting other lunar missions outside of the CLPS program. At the LEAG meeting, John Keller, deputy project scientist for LRO, noted that the mission is helping international missions, including imaging sites for proposed future missions by Europe, India, Japan and Russia.

This includes two upcoming missions scheduled to attempt lunar landings next year. Keller said LRO is studying options of observing the landing of SpaceIL’s lander, developed by an Israeli team that competed in the now-defunct Google Lunar X Prize, and India’s Chandrayaan-2 lander, both targeting landings between March and May 2019.

For future commercial missions, Keller said that LRO planned to be “proactive” and reach out to the individual companies. “We will go out and say, ‘Look, let us help you understand the LRO data set, how to use it and how it can it can help you be successful,’” he said. That could lead to discussions on how to further support those missions.

Notably absent from the discussions regarding LRO support of lunar missions is China, which launched its latest lunar lander, Chang’e-4, Dec. 7. American officials, including NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine and National Space Council Executive Secretary Scott Pace, have left open the possibility of exchanging lunar scientific data with China. That could include, Pace noted at an October event, exchanges of samples should China succeed with planned robotic lunar sample return missions.

Pace, though, said there were challenges to such exchanges. He described discussions about efforts to use LRO to observe the impact of an unidentified Chinese spacecraft on the moon, including providing LRO orbital information to the Chinese in order to coordinate impact observations.

That impact, though, ultimately occurred without any notification of time or location by the Chinese, “much to the irritation of the U.S. scientists who spent a lot of time on this,” Pace said. “This is not the way to build trust.”

https://spacenews.com/nasa-lunar-orbiter-now-supporting-commercial-and-international-missions/
« Ostatnia zmiana: Grudzień 12, 2018, 12:57 wysłana przez Orionid »

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Odp: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)
« Odpowiedź #275 dnia: Marzec 08, 2019, 18:45 »
NASA’s LRO Sheds Light on Lunar Water Movement
March 8, 2019

(...) “These results aid in understanding the lunar water cycle and will ultimately help us learn about accessibility of water that can be used by humans in future missions to the Moon,” said Amanda Hendrix, a senior scientist at the Planetary Science Institute and lead author of the paper. “Lunar water can potentially be used by humans to make fuel or to use for radiation shielding or thermal management; if these materials do not need to be launched from Earth, that makes these future missions more affordable.”

“This result is an important step in advancing the water story on the Moon and is a result of years of accumulated data from the LRO mission,” said John Keller, LRO deputy project scientist from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. (...)

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2019/lro-sheds-light-on-lunar-water-movement
https://ria.ru/20190311/1551687618.html
« Ostatnia zmiana: Marzec 19, 2019, 07:28 wysłana przez Orionid »

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Odp: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)
« Odpowiedź #276 dnia: Maj 15, 2019, 09:37 »
Kolejne liczne dowody na zmiany wyglądu powierzchni  globu, który powoli kurczy się na skutek wewnętrznych naprężeń , które skutkują  wstrząsami tektonicznymi.

The Moon is Quaking as it Shrinks
MAY 13, 2019

COLLEGE PARK, Md. -- In 2010, an analysis of imagery from NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) found that the moon shriveled like a raisin as its interior cooled, leaving behind thousands of cliffs called thrust faults on the moon’s surface. Now a new analysis suggests that the moon may still be shrinking and actively producing moonquakes along these thrust faults. (...)

 “We found that a number of the quakes recorded in the Apollo data happened very close to the faults seen in the LRO imagery,” Schmerr said, noting that the LRO imagery also shows physical evidence of geologically recent fault movement, such as landslides and tumbled boulders. “It’s quite likely that the faults are still active today. You don’t often get to see active tectonics anywhere but Earth, so it’s very exciting to think these faults may still be producing moonquakes.”

During the Apollo missions astronauts placed a number of different instruments on the moon, including five seismometers on the moon’s surface during the Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15 and 16 missions. The Apollo 11 seismometer operated only for three weeks, but the four remaining instruments recorded 28 shallow moonquakes—the type produced by tectonic faults—from 1969 to 1977. On Earth, the quakes would have ranged in magnitude from about 2 to 5.

Using the revised location estimates from their new algorithm, the researchers found that the epicenters of eight of those 28 shallow quakes were within 19 miles of faults visible in the LRO images. This was close enough for the team to conclude that the faults likely caused the quakes. Schmerr led the effort to produce “shake maps” derived from models that predict where the strongest shaking should occur, given the size of the thrust faults.


The researchers also found that six of the eight quakes happened when the moon was at or near its apogee, the point in the moon’s orbit when it is farthest from Earth. This is where additional tidal stress from Earth’s gravity causes a peak in the total stress on the moon’s crust, making slippage along the thrust faults more likely.

“We think it’s very likely that these eight quakes were produced by faults slipping as stress built up when the lunar crust was compressed by global contraction and tidal forces, indicating that the Apollo seismometers recorded the shrinking moon and the moon is still tectonically active,” said Thomas Watters, lead author of the research paper and senior scientist in the Center for Earth and Planetary Studies at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington.

Much as a grape wrinkles as it dries to become a raisin, the moon also wrinkles as its interior cools and shrinks. Unlike the flexible skin on a grape, however, the moon’s crust is brittle, causing it to break as the interior shrinks. This breakage results in thrust faults, where one section of crust is pushed up over an adjacent section. These faults resemble small stair-shaped cliffs, or scarps, when seen from the lunar surface; each is roughly tens of yards high and a few miles long.

The LRO has imaged more than 3,500 fault scarps on the moon since it began operation in 2009. Some of these images show landslides or boulders at the bottom of relatively bright patches on the slopes of fault scarps or nearby terrain. Because weathering gradually darkens material on the lunar surface, brighter areas indicate regions that are freshly exposed by an event such as a moonquake.

Other LRO fault images show fresh tracks from boulder falls, suggesting that quakes sent these boulders rolling down their cliff slopes. Such tracks would be erased relatively quickly, in terms of geologic time, by the constant rain of micrometeoroid impacts on the moon. With nearly a decade of LRO imagery already available and more on the way in the coming years, the team would like to compare pictures of specific fault regions from different times to look for fresh evidence of recent moonquakes.

“For me, these findings emphasize that we need to go back to the moon,” Schmerr said. “We learned a lot from the Apollo missions, but they really only scratched the surface. With a larger network of modern seismometers, we could make huge strides in our understanding of the moon’s geology. This provides some very promising low-hanging fruit for science on a future mission to the moon.”

https://umdrightnow.umd.edu/news/moon-quaking-it-shrinks