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« Odpowiedź #450 dnia: Wrzesień 28, 2020, 02:29 »
35 lat temu 27 września 1985 roku w kierunku stacji orbitalnej Salut-7 wystartował jako ostatni bezzałogowy statek kosmiczny pod nazwą Kosmos 1986



Космос-1686
http://www.russianspaceweb.com/tks.html

25 лет со дня запуска секретного космического корабля ТКС под именем "Космос-1686"
27 сентября 2010, 23:02

27 сентября 1985 года в 11 часов 41 минуту московского времени с космодрома Байконур ракетой "Протон" был запущен последний из серии тяжелый транспортный корабль снабжения ТКС, который затем под именем  "Космос-1686" состыковался со станцией "Салют-7".


Космос-1686. Рис из Википедии

11 февраля 1985 года находящаяся в автономном (без экипажа) полете станция в результате неисправности оборудования была полностью обесточена, потеряла ориентацию в пространстве и связь с Землей.

Для спасения станции на специально переоборудованном космическом корабле "Союз Т-13" 6 июня была отправлена экспедиция в составе Владимира Джанибекова (командир) и Виктора Савиных.

На тот момент Джанибеков, совершающий свой пятый полет, был самым опытным советским космонавтом. К тому же он имел опыт ручной стыковки.


Г.Т.Береговой представляет экипаж: В.Джанибеков и В.Савиных. Фото из книги Виктора Савиных «Вятка-Байконур-космос»

Вместо демонтированного третьего кресла взяли дополнительный запас воды, что, по мнению Виктора Савиных, и позволило в принципе осуществить программу полета.

После стыковки в ручном режиме была выявлена и устранена неисправность в системе контроля электропитания станции, из-за которой, вследствие отключения всех бортовых систем, температура "в помещении" упала ниже нуля градусов. После ликвидации неисправности работоспособность "Салюта-7" была полностью восстановлена.


Салют-7 и Союз. Фото из книги Виктора Савиных «Вятка-Байконур-космос»

Затем 20 сентября на станцию на корабле "Союз Т-14" прилетела экспедиция в составе Владимира Васютина, Александра Волкова и Георгия Гречко. Джанибеков и Гречко вскоре, 26 сентября, вернулись на Землю.

Транспортный корабль снабжения состыковался со станцией 2 октября 1985 года и доставил на нее 4322 кг расходных материалов и оборудование более 80 наименований. В баках ТКС находилось 1550 кг топлива для поддержания орбиты станции.


Салют-7 и Космос-1686. Фото с форума журнала Новости космонавтики

Главным же на корабле было научное и "специальное" оборудование массой 1255 кг. Аппаратура предназначалась для проведения более 200 экспериментов.

Военно-прикладной оптический комплекс "Пион-К" с лазерно-электронным телескопом предназначался для оптического наблюдения (разведки) с высоким разрешением, а также для выполнения программы "Октант" в интересах системы контроля космического пространства и ПРО. Объектами наблюдения "Пиона-К" должны были стать специальные цели, отделяемые из пусковых устройств, закрепленных снаружи, а также реальные цели на Земле, поверхности океана и в атмосфере.


Пион-К. Фото с сайта arms-expo.ru

По словам Савиных, военные космонавты Васютин и Волков целыми днями не вылезали из ТКС, проводя эксперименты с этим комплексом.

Первоначально корабль был создан для обслуживания военных станций типа "Алмаз" разработки КБ Владимира Челомея. В том же конструкторском бюро, где была создана ракета-носитель тяжелого класса "Протон", возможности которой и определили массу аппарата - 20 тонн, как у станций "Салют" и "Алмаз", выводимых на орбиту тоже этой ракетой.

Благодаря своим размерам ТКС имел возможность транспортировать не только трех космонавтов, но и большое количество топлива и грузов, а затем возвращать на Землю в многоразовом спускаемом аппарате экипаж и возвращаемые материалы (в том числе отснятую широкоформатную пленку).

Корабль же "Союз", который уже использовался для этих целей, в силу размерности, определяемой возможностями своего носителя, ракеты "Союз", мог доставить на станцию вместе с космонавтами лишь минимальное количество грузов, а вернуть - буквально считанные килограммы.

К сожалению, ТКС не совершил ни одного пилотируемого полета по той же причине, по которой советские космонавты не совершили облета Луны - ракета "Протон", которая была носителем в обеих случаях, заправлялась высокотоксичным топливом, что создавало опасность гибели экипажа в случае аварии на старте.

Ответственность же за возможную катастрофу на себя брать, естественно, не хотел никто.

Кстати, одним из первоначальных вариантов создания станции "Мир", как пишет в своей книге космонавт Аксёнов, была схема со стыковкой служебных модулей (типа ТКС) к базовому блоку. При этом модули могли отстыковываться и переходить в автономный полет для выполнения экспериментов, а их возвращаемый аппарат использоваться еще и как средство спасения экипажа станции.
https://m.polit.ru/news/2010/09/27/tks_1686/
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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #451 dnia: Październik 01, 2020, 01:54 »
20 lat temu 4 czerwca 2000  doszło do kontrolowanej deorbitacji teleskopu Compton.

Compton zdeorbitowany
  Pomimo sprzeciwu znacznej części środowiska naukowego NASA zdecydowała dokonać w dniu 04.06. [2000]
deorbitacji CGRO (Compton Gamma Ray Observatory). 28.05. pomiędzy 20:00 a 20:30 przeprowadzony
został test pięciu silników satelity, który podczas kilkusekundowych zapłonów wykazał ich pełną sprawność.
Sekwencja deorbitacji składała się z czterech manewrów. Dotychczas CGRO znajdował się na stabilnej orbicie
o parametrach: hp=481 km, ha=487 km, i=28,46°. Przebieg deorbitacji:

1. - 31.05. o 01:51, (t=23 min, hp=350 km)
2. - 01.06. o 02:36, (t=26 min, hp=250 km)
3. - 04.06. o 04:56, (t=21 min 28 s , hp=150 km)
4. - 04.06. o 05:22:21, (t=30 min, spadek na powierzchnię Ziemi o 06:18:50).

W wyniku manewrów satelita wszedł w gęste warstwy atmosfery, ale ze względu na znaczną masę (15 ton)
nie spłonął całkowicie. NASA spodziewa się, że blisko 6 ton szczątków satelity (o masie od 1 do kilkuset kg)
przetrwało przejście przez atmosferę i spadło w obszarze o wymiarach 26 x 1552 km położonym około 4000 km
na południowy-wschód od Hawajów. Poprzednio o deorbitacji GRO pisałem 27.05.  Strona internetowa
projektu GRO jest tutaj.
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/n000601.htm#01

USA/SPACE: NASA: COMPTON GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY
1208 wyświetleń•21 lip 2015 AP Archive

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o1CZM4zDQtU" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o1CZM4zDQtU</a>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o1CZM4zDQtU

Looking Back: The Legacy of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory
By Maggie MasettiApril 13, 2016

(...) CGRO was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-37) on April 5, 1991. At 17 tons, it was the heaviest scientific payload flown. Two days later, the observatory was set for deployment from the shuttle payload bay when the high-gain antenna became stuck. In an unscheduled space walk, astronauts Jay Apt and Jerry Ross were able to pull on the antenna with sufficient force to free it and the observatory was successfully deployed. (...)
https://asd.gsfc.nasa.gov/blueshift/index.php/2016/04/13/lookingbackcgro/

https://www.mpe.mpg.de/27826/Compton_GRO
https://www.nasa.gov/centers/marshall/history/cgro140404.html
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2016/nasa-celebrates-25-years-of-breakthrough-gamma-ray-science

AA https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=4255.msg151096#msg151096

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« Odpowiedź #452 dnia: Październik 05, 2020, 22:45 »
Oct. 5, 2020

35 Years Ago: STS-51J – First Flight of Space Shuttle Atlantis

Space shuttle Atlantis, named after the two-masted research vessel used by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution between 1930 and 1966, was the fourth space-qualified orbiter to join the fleet. In its construction and use of advanced technologies, Atlantis was very similar to its sister ship Discovery that joined the fleet a year earlier. Atlantis rolled out of Rockwell International’s plant in Palmdale, California, on March 6, 1985, and arrived at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on April 12 after a cross-country ferry flight from Edwards Air Force Base (AFB) in California atop a Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA), a modified Boeing 747. After ground processing, workers mated Atlantis to its External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) and rolled it out to Launch Pad 39A on Aug. 29.


Left: Space Shuttle Atlantis rolls out of Rockwell International’s Palmdale, California, facility.
Right: Atlantis atop the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft lands at the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA’s
Kennedy Space Center.


Assigned to Atlantis’ first flight, designated STS-51J, were Commander Karol J. “Bo” Bobko, a veteran of STS-6 (the first flight of space shuttle Challenger) and STS-51D, Pilot Ronald J. Grabe, Mission Specialists Robert L. Stewart and David C. Hilmers, and William A. Pailes, a Department of Defense (DOD) Manned Spaceflight Engineer. Grabe, Hilmers, and Pailes were making their first flight, while Stewart tested the Manned Maneuvering Unit during his first mission, STS-41B. The flight was a classified DOD mission, so few details on the crew’s on-orbit activities are known. In 1998, the DOD declassified the primary payloads, identifying them as a pair of third-generation Defense Space Communications Satellites (DSCS-III) and releasing photographs of their deployment from the shuttle’s payload bay atop an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS).



Left: STS-51J crew patch.Right: STS-51J crew photo - Robert L. Stewart, front row left,
Karol J. Bobko, and Ronald J. Grabe; David C. Hilmers, back row left, and William A. Pailes.


As required before the first launch of an orbiter, engineers successfully completed the Flight Readiness Firing, an 18-second test of Atlantis’ main engines on Sept. 12. Four days later, the five-member crew successfully completed the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test, a final dress rehearsal of the countdown right up to the moment of engine ignition. Space shuttle Enterprise arrived at KSC via SCA on Sept. 20 and was put on display next to the Saturn V rocket outside the VAB, in time not only for KSC’s open house the next day but also for Atlantis’ launch, making for a great foreground in liftoff photographs.



Left: Atlantis after arriving at Launch Pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center.
Right: Space shuttle Atlantis during its Flight Readiness Firing.



Left: Launch of Atlantis on the STS-51J mission. Right: View of Atlantis during its
ascent, with space shuttle Enterprise and a Saturn V rocket on display near the Vehicle
Assembly Building.


On Oct. 3, 1985, Atlantis roared off its launch pad on a pillar of flame and within eight minutes was in orbit around the Earth. In keeping with an agreement between NASA and the DOD, media coverage of the mission stopped at that point. It is believed that the crew deployed the two DCSC-III satellites atop the IUS on the first day in space. The DOD and NASA released very few photographs from the mission other than the usual crew photos and Earth observation images.


Three views of the deployment from Atlantis’ payload bay of the two Defense Space Communications
Satellites atop the Inertial Upper Stage.



Left: Inflight photo of the STS-51J crew in the shuttle’s middeck. Clockwise from top, David C. Hilmers,
Karol J. “Bo” Bobko, William A. Pailes, Robert L. Stewart, and Ronald J. Grabe. Middle: Pailes with a
camera for Earth observations. Right: View of Houston from STS-51J.


On Oct. 7, 1985, the astronauts closed Atlantis’ payload bay doors in preparation for reentry. They fired the shuttle’s orbital maneuvering engines to slow the vehicle’s velocity and began the descent back to Earth. Bobko guided Atlantis to a smooth landing at Edwards AFB, completing a flight of 4 days, 1 hour, and 45 minutes. The crew had traveled 1.7 million miles and completed 64 orbits around the Earth. The first flight of Atlantis completed the original four-orbiter Shuttle fleet of reusable vehicles.


Left: STS-51J Commander Karol J. “Bo” Bobko preparing for Atlantis’ reentry.
Right: Space shuttle Atlantis makes a perfect landing at Edwards Air Force Base to end the STS-51J mission.


Read commander Bobko’s recollections of the STS-51J mission in his oral history with the JSC History Office.

John Uri
NASA Johnson Space Center


Więcej fotografii ładowni z tej misji.
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« Odpowiedź #453 dnia: Październik 06, 2020, 20:07 »
'Never So Much Time': Remembering STS-41 and Ulysses, 30 Years On

By Ben Evans, on October 6th, 2020

Three decades ago, today, on 6 October 1990, the crew of STS-41—Commander Dick Richards, Pilot Bob Cabana and Mission Specialists Bruce Melnick, Bill Shepherd and Tom Akers—launched the shuttle program’s fastest-ever Earth-departing payload: the joint U.S./European Ulysses probe, bound for an extended period of exploration of the solar poles. Over the next 19 years, until the end of its life in June 2009, Ulysses successfully passed over the Sun’s northern and southern polar regions no less than three times, as well as serendipitously passing through the coma-tails of three comets and observing giant Jupiter from afar.

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ur64SrpMFkA" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ur64SrpMFkA</a>
Video Credit: NASA

Ulysses was the first spacecraft ever designed to venture beyond the “ecliptic plane”, allowing for studies of the Sun in three dimensions and affording us a chance to assess the total solar environment across a full range of heliographic latitudes. Since the ecliptic plane differs from the Sun’s equatorial plane by only 7.25 degrees, it was previously only possible to observe it from low latitudes. In the case of Ulysses, a program of high-latitude exploration was made possible by using the gravitational assistance of Jupiter.

Originally expected to launch in May 1986, Ulysses was intended to be delivered on itrs journey by General Dynamics’ liquid-fueled Centaur-G Prime upper stage, although this particularly hazardous booster was subsequently canceled in the aftermath of the Challenger tragedy. In its place was Boeing’s solid-fueled Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) and a smaller Payload Assist Module (PAM)-S, which, although less powerful, was far safer. And the launch of Ulysses was targeted for October 1990, with a narrow, 18-day “window” to ensure it could achieve its rendezvous with Jupiter in February 1992 and its first solar-polar passage in the 1994-1995 timeframe.


The STS-41 crew trained for about a year for their planned four-day mission. They were the first shuttle crew of whom none had flown in the pre-Challenger timeframe. Richards previously piloted STS-28 in August 1989, whilst Shepherd flew on STS-27 in December 1988, both of which were classified Department of Defense missions. Cabana, Melnick and Akers were all making their first flights. And for Melnick and Akers, STS-41 also marked the first time that members of NASA’s 1987 astronaut class had flown into space and this occasion was marked with a handmade placard in the launch pad “white room”, which bore the handwritten legend “Go ’87!”

Richards had rotated early into his first shuttle command, having only flown STS-28 a year before. However, having been selected as an astronaut in 1980, he had waited an unenviable nine years for his first mission—longer than any of his other classmates—and wryly described himself as “the plank-holder”. Years later, Richards guessed that NASA management felt they owed him a break and offered him an early command.


He saw it as his duty to ensure that the STS-41 crew was ready. “I had the luxury of nine years getting ready to go fly,” he told the NASA oral historian. “They didn’t have that much time.” Richards put together an impromptu crash course in shuttle systems and the five men gave each other weekly lectures to improve their knowledge. It proved both popular and unpopular, he remembered, but the end ultimately quantified the means.

“I spent a lot of time worrying about their systems knowledge and ship basics, because of their lack of shelf-life,” Richards added. “By the time we got done on that crew, we knew the vehicle backwards and forwards.”

However, their launch at 7:47 a.m. EDT on 6 October 1990 came after a summer of agonizing delays, as Discovery’s sister shuttles Columbia and Atlantis endured an almost intractable series of hydrogen leaks. At one point, the delays manifested themselves in a remarkable “photo opportunity” as Columbia and Atlantis passed each other on the KSC crawlerway, one heading out to the launch pad, the other returning to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) for repairs. For her part, Discovery’s processing flow for STS-41 was comparatively unblemished as Richards and his men headed out to KSC’s storied Pad 39B in the pre-dawn darkness.

“We were pretty happy at this point,” he recalled at the post-mission press conference, “because no flight crew had made it this far, at least being able to walk out to the Astrovan, in about six months, so we felt pretty good.”


Liftoff came 12 minutes into the day’s 2.5-hour “window”, due to cloudy conditions at the Cape, and the mission marked Discovery’s heaviest to date, with the shuttle’s total weight sitting at 259,593 pounds (117,749 kg). “From a first-time flyer’s point of view, it was even more spectacular from the inside,” Cabana remembered. “It was an extremely smooth ride uphill, especially after we got off the solid rocket motors. It really surprised me how smooth the ride was.”

In the hours which followed, Akers and Melnick worked to prepare Ulysses and its combined IUS/PAM-S booster for deployment. This event was slated to occur at six hours and one minute after launch. Watching Akers work, Richards could not hide his admiration. “There was a time-critical bunch of steps,” he recalled, none more so than purging of coolant from Ulysses’ plutonium-powered Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). “Tom had to get down on this switch panel, which was, for some reason, located in this obscure corner of the flight deck.”


Step by critical step, the instant of deployment drew closer: forward payload restraints were released, the aft frame of the IUS’ support structure tilted the stack to an angle of 29 degrees, Richards and Cabana maneuvered to the correct attitude and electrical power was switched from the orbiter to the IUS. Finally, the three-minute purge of RTG coolant occurred, minutes before deployment.

As Akers worked, his crewmates anxiously eyed the clock, keenly aware that a few minutes hence Ulysses would have to be gone. It brought back memories from a couple of their pre-flight simulations, in which Akers had been momentarily late with switch throws, but Richards trusted him implicitly to complete the job and for a few minutes left him alone. At length, however, the anxiety was pressing.


“Tom?” he asked. “How you doing?”

Akers looked up from his work and gave a broad grin. “Never had so much time!”

The tension in Discovery’s cabin was broken and, a second earlier than intended—at six hours and 59 seconds Mission Elapsed Time (MET), in what the NASA Public Affairs Officer (PAO) described as “pretty good pointin’”—the ordnance to separate the IUS umbilical cables was activated and the stack was tilted to its deployment position of 58 degrees above the payload bay. Seemingly in slow motion, the spacecraft drifted smoothly and serenely away.

“Good deploy, Houston,” came the call from Discovery. “Ulysses is on its way.”

“That’s a great job!” replied Capcom Kathy Thornton.

The release itself occurred during orbital darkness, but as the shuttle approached sunrise, the sight of the Ulysses/IUS/PAM-S combo was, in Akers’ words, “a spectacular view”. Nineteen minutes later, Richards fired Discovery’s thrusters in a so-called “minus-X” maneuver, backing-off and providing a separation rate of 2.5 feet (0.7 meters) per second from the payload. That was followed, about 45 minutes after deployment, by the firing of the IUS’ first-stage engine, unseen by the astronauts, since Discovery had been reoriented with her belly facing Ulysses, thereby protecting her flight deck windows.

After burning for 150 seconds, the first stage was jettisoned and the second stage fired for two minutes, then separated. Next up was McDonnell Douglas’ PAM-S, which initially “spun-up” Ulysses to 70 revolutions per minute for stability, then executed an 88-second burn to provide the final velocity increment and set the spacecraft on course for a 16-month cruise to Jupiter.

Ulysses was then “yo-yo-despun”—with weights deployed at the end of cables—to less than eight revolutions per minute. Departing Earth’s gravitational “well” at 34,510 mph (55,538 km/h), the spacecraft became the fastest human-made machine to depart the Home Planet. It was a record that would remain unbroken until NASA’s New Horizons left Earth at an estimated 37,000 mph (59,000 km/h) in January 2006.

For the astronauts, their involvement with Ulysses now ended and responsibility passed to an army of flight controllers and trajectory specialists who would guide it toward a rendezvous with the Solar System’s largest planet in February 1992 and, later, for its exploration of the Sun.

Although the role of the STS-41 crew had been exclusively to launch Ulysses, they had undertaken several trips to Europe, and particularly Holland and Germany, where much of the contracting and project management was undertaken.

On one occasion, Richards recalled, it gave him a slightly unsettling introduction to European culture. At the end of each afternoon, the Germans would reach the end of their day, open up their cooler and pull out several kegs of beer. “We’d all sit around there, next to Ulysses,” he recalled, “toasting Ulysses and having beer. We didn’t do that here in the United States, so that was different. I kinda liked it.”

The remainder of the four-day mission was spent focusing upon middeck and payload bay experiments. Melnick and Akers went shirtless for a period, conducting the Blood Pressure Variability During Spaceflight investigation, part of Detailed Supplementary Objective (DSO)-602. As their televised bare torsoes were wired-up with electrodes, they jokingly announced that “We decided to run this for all the ladies down there in Mission Control”, to which Kathy Thornton replied “We are waiting, breathlessly!”

Additional experiments focused upon solar science, evaluations of materials in anticipation of the proposed retrieval of the Intelsat-603 communications satellite and solid-surface combustion studies. The crew also extended birthday greetings to Akers’ wife, Kaye, singing to her and producing a small cake, topped with a green-glowing “Kim-light” stick, in lieu of a candle.

After just 98 hours, Discovery completed her third-shortest flight of all time—eclipsed only by STS-26 and STS-51C—with a smooth touchdown at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., at 6:57:18 a.m. PDT (9:57:18 a.m. EDT) on 10 October 1990. Backlit by a beautiful desert dawn, the shuttle swept across the mountains and alighted on Runway 22, rolling to a halt after just 49 seconds.

For Richards, it was too short a mission and he felt that the shuttle’s capabilities should have been monopolized by more time in orbit and more experiments. It was a point that he made during his post-mission debriefing and, as circumstances transpired, he went on to command the first Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) mission two years later.

By that time, Ulysses herself had picked up an immense gravitational push from Jupiter and, over the following decade and a half, would complete no fewer than three passages over the Sun’s north and south poles. In so doing, the tiny spacecraft would reveal more about our parent star than had previously been acquired throughout human history.

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« Odpowiedź #454 dnia: Październik 18, 2020, 22:01 »
'Happiness Is...': Remembering STS-34, OTD in 1989

By Ben Evans, on October 18th, 2020

More than three decades ago, an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster and a spacecraft bound for another world drifted silently out of shuttle Atlantis’ payload bay and into the inky void for a voyage of exploration. Emblazoned on the side were two names: “Galileo” in script and “NASA” in block capitals.

For astronaut Shannon Lucid, watching the deployment of the Galileo probe to Jupiter on 18 October 1989, the two fonts represented both the romance of adventure and the engineering talent needed to realize a mission to the Solar System’s largest planet. Yet Galileo’s journey to the launch pad had been a long and tortured one and its trip to Jupiter would be longer and harder still.

Named in honor of the great Italian scientist Galileo Galilei, whose endeavors in the early 17th century included the discovery of Jupiter’s four large moons—Ganymede, Callisto, Europa and Io—the mission received Congressional approval in 1977, with plans to launch aboard the shuttle and a Boeing-built IUS in 1981.

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Predicted high winds at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., on 23 October prompted NASA to bring Atlantis home two orbits sooner than planned. Williams and McCulley flew their ship to a smooth touchdown at 69:33 a.m. PDT (12:33 p.m. EDT) after five days in space. In his mind, Williams considered STS-34 to have accomplished quite remarkable things for science. “We knew that Galileo was going to be a lasting program,” he said. “It was going to be a living, ongoing program and we got to be a part of it.”



<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w7a1JNIQU2Y" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w7a1JNIQU2Y</a>
Video Credit: National Space Society (NSS)




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