Autor Wątek: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń  (Przeczytany 30181 razy)

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Offline Orionid

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #255 dnia: Czerwiec 28, 2018, 13:06 »
Tak więc w  17 grupie astronautów NASA znalazło się dwóch astronautów o polskich korzeniach , co można podkreślić  przy okazji 40. rocznicy lotu pierwszego Polaka w kosmos  :)

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #256 dnia: Lipiec 09, 2018, 07:49 »
Lato sprzed 34 lat zachwiało poważnie optymistycznym podejściem do częstotliwości lotów w programie STS.
Problemy techniczne powodowały usuwanie z poszczególnych misji ładunków i znaczące odraczanie startów.
Dziewicza wyprawa Discovery miała rozpocząć się 26 czerwca 1984, ale silniki zostały wyłączone na kilka sekund przed startem.
Letnia przerwa w startach wahadłowców trwała prawie 5 miesięcy.

Summer of the Shuttle: Remembering the Ill-Fated Summer of '84
By Ben Evans July 8th, 2018

(...) More than 30 summers ago, America’s shuttle program should have entered its prime. Touted for over a decade as capable of flying regularly and routinely, the early summer of 1984 was envisaged to see as many as three missions by Discovery and Challenger—two laden with scientific and technological payloads, the third a classified voyage on behalf of the Department of Defense—as the reusable fleet of orbiters transitioned from test-flights to full operations. In three years of shuttle operations, the ships had demonstrated their abilities to serve as scientific research platforms, satellite launching pads and could retrieve and repair damaged spacecraft. The future seemed bright.

That is, until the morning of 26 June 1984.

As outlined in a previous AmericaSpace history article, Discovery’s maiden mission, designated “41D”, was ready to fly. Laden with the U.S. Navy’s Syncom 4-1 communications satellite, a large-format imaging camera and the extendible OAST-1 solar array mast, provided by NASA’s Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology, the flight would run for seven days. Commanded by veteran astronaut Hank Hartsfield, the crew also included Mike Coats, Mike Mullane, Steve Hawley, Judy Resnik and the first industry representative ever to fly aboard the shuttle, McDonnell Douglas engineer Charlie Walker. Yet their mission had shifted and contorted many times since their assignment in early 1983. Originally, they were designated “STS-12” and tasked with launching the third Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-C)—part of a network of geostationary-orbiting sentinels to provide near-continuous voice and data coverage between shuttle astronauts and ground stations—but an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster malfunction during the TDRS-A flight in April 1983 obliged NASA to place all future TDRS missions on hold. TDRS-B, planned for STS-8 in August 1983, and TDRS-C on Hartsfield’s flight, were deleted from the shuttle manifest.

Yet there were many other payloads to fill the void. By early 1984, Hartsfield’s mission gained Syncom 4-1, the large-format camera, OAST-1 and a Canadian communications satellite, known as Anik-C1. However, the Canadian satellite disappeared quickly from the payload roster and was reassigned to another flight. On 22 June, three days before their scheduled launch, the 41D crew arrived at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for Discovery’s maiden launch. A computer glitch on the 25th enforced a 24-hour delay, but worse was to come. On the morning of the 26th, the countdown clock ticked down to T-6.6 seconds and the shuttle’s cluster of three main engines roared to life…and abruptly shut down. A Redundant Set Launch Sequencer (RSLS) abort—the first of the shuttle era—was declared and the exhausted crew was extracted from the cockpit.

The cause was later traced to a problem with one of the main engines, all three of which were commanded to shut down by Discovery’s on-board computers. The immediate consequence was that 41D would not fly for many weeks, as the vehicle required rollback to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), destacking from its boosters and fuel tank and the return of the shuttle to the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) for the engines to be replaced. That placed the next realistic opportunity for launch in late August 1984…and that spelled bad news for NASA’s busy summertime mission manifest. (...)

http://www.americaspace.com/2018/07/08/summer-of-the-shuttle-remembering-the-ill-fated-summer-of-84/
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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #257 dnia: Lipiec 13, 2018, 20:39 »
Historyczne wieże kompleksu 17  po ponad sześćdziesięciu latach po powstaniu legły w gruzach.
Z tego kompleksu startowały m. in. misje  SMM (Solar Maximum Mission) oraz Spirit i Opportunity , a także Dawn i MESSENGER.
Historia wież dobiegła końca w wybuchowych eksplozjach 12 lipca 2018 po przeprowadzeniu 325 startów.
Teren kompleksu zostanie teraz wykorzystany przez spółkę Moon Express na potrzeby księżycowych lotów.

Historic Dual Pads of Launch Complex 17 Demolished, After 300+ Launches over 50 Years of Service
By Ben Evans, on July 12th, 2018


The towers of Launch Complex 17 pads A and B crashing down at Cape Canaveral AFS in Florida on July 12, 2018. Photo Credit: Mike Killian / AmericaSpace.com

After first echoing to the roar of rocket engines in 1957—before the Space Age even began—historic Space Launch Complex (SLC)-17 near the southern end of Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., breathed its last earlier today (Thursday, 12 July), when shortly after 7:00 a.m. EDT its two nearly 200-foot-tall gantries were remotely destroyed. Brig. Gen. Wayne Monteith, commander of the Air Force’s 45th Space Wing, initiated detonations of 68 pounds of explosives which brought SLC-17A and SLC 17B to the ground after a combined 325 launches in more than five decades of active service. During their storied careers, the two pads hosted the first successful low-orbiting weather satellite, Britain’s maiden satellite, the world’s earliest communications satellites, GPS satellites, as well as NASA space telescopes and Mars Rovers.

Built at a reported cost of $3.5 million per complex, SLC-17 arose in April 1956, with an intention that they would support the Air Force’s PGM-17 Thor ballistic missile. Construction was completed the following November and SLC-17B saw its first launch in January 1957, followed by the inaugural use of its twin the following August. Unfortunately, these two opening launches of the Thor ended in failure, but success lay just around the corner. In their first years of service, the pads saw the launch of Pioneer 5, which explored the interplanetary environment between Earth and Venus for the first time, and might have seen the United States’ first voyages to the Moon, had three other Pioneers not been lost during ascent from August-November 1958.


A test Thor takes flight from Launch Complex 17 at Cape Canaveral, Fla., on Dec. 5, 1959. (U.S. Air Force photo)

During the first half of the sixties, the pads saw a multitude of Thor test-flights and pioneering orbital missions. Tiros-1, the world’s first successful low-orbiting weather satellite, was lofted in April 1960 and provided the first accurate meteorological forecasts using space-based data. A month later, Echo-1 became the earliest passive communications satellite, whilst Telstar-1 in July 1962 enabled the first live broadcast of television images between the United States and continental Europe from space. The first successful communications satellite to enter geostationary orbit, Syncom-3, flew in July 1964, whilst the commercial Intelsat-1—the famed “Early Bird”—launched a few months later in April 1965 and helped provide live television coverage of the splashdown of Gemini VI-A the following December.

Britain’s first satellite, Ariel-1, flew from the 17A pad in April 1962, and the UK Ministry of Defence saw its first Skynet military communications satellites lofted in November 1969 and August 1970. Dovetailed into these missions were members of the United States’ fleet of Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO) and Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (OGO) spacecraft.

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pkJbN-1DlpA" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pkJbN-1DlpA</a>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pkJbN-1DlpA

ABOVE: Watch our unique beachside view of the pad implosions! Credits: Jeff Seibert / Mike Killian for AmericaSpace

Throughout the 1970s, a series of Intelsat communications satellites, Explorer science satellites, Canada’s first Anik communications satellite, Nimbus and the earliest members of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) program were placed into orbit. SLC-17’s first launch of the eighties came on 14 February 1980, when NASA’s Solar Maximum Mission (SMM)—which was subsequently retrieved and repaired by the Space Shuttle—was delivered to space on an ambitious mission to explore the Sun. Nine years later, in February 1989, the Delta II booster saw its first flight off 17A and the first Block II Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS) was put into space.

Its final two decades saw a mixture of communications, navigational and military satellites, as well as a range of scientific missions for NASA and its international partners. Astronomical observatories including the German-led ROSAT, the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), the Geotail magnetospheric science mission, the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTS) and the Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) featured heavily in the first half of the 1990s, whilst the second half and beyond saw 17A and 17B with Mars acutely in their sights.

The Global Surveyor and Pathfinder missions rocketed away from the two pads during the November-December 1996 Martian “launch window”, whilst the Climate Orbiter and Polar Lander did likewise in the December 1998-January 1999 window. Mars Odyssey was launched in April 2001, NASA’s Spirit and Opportunity rovers rose from 17A and 17B in June-July 2003 and, most recently, the Phoenix mission flew in August 2007.


The final launch to fly out of Launch Complex 17, NASA’s GRAIL mission to the moon in 2011 atop a ULA Delta-II rocket. Photo Credit: Mike Killian / AmericaSpace

Still others have included the Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission to Mercury in August 2004, the Dawn spacecraft to Vesta and Ceres, the Spitzer Space Telescope—the fourth and final member of NASA’s fleet of Great Observatories—and Kepler in March 2009. Two years after Kepler, in September 2011, SLC-17B saw the complex’s final mission with the launch of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) flight to the Moon.

Plans for today’s implosions began soon after the GRAIL mission launched in 2011, and cost upwards of $2 million. Now, Launch Complex 17 is occupied by the private company Moon Express for developing and testing engines and lunar landers. No rockets, however, will be launching from LC-17 again, Moon Express will instead launch their robotic explorers on rockets from other Cape pads.
http://www.americaspace.com/2018/07/12/historic-dual-pads-of-launch-complex-17-demolished-after-300-launches-over-50-years-of-service/

Towers toppled at historic Cape Canaveral Launch Complex 17



July 12, 2018 — The last two launch towers to stand at Cape Canaveral since the dawn of the Space Age are no more.

The twin mobile gantries at Launch Complex 17 (LC-17) were imploded Thursday morning (July 12), toppling the oldest remaining launch pad structures at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The United States Air Force's 45th Space Wing oversaw the demolition, which leveled the landmark towers just after 7 a.m. EDT (1100 GMT).

"3... 2... 1... Fire in the hole!" announced Brig. Gen. Wayne Monteith, commander of the 45th Space Wing, before pushing a button to initiate a series of detonations. Seconds later, the towers fell over, kicking up a cloud of dust in their wake.

"It is part of history, which we are doing every single day out here on the range," said Monteith, per a video recorded by Florida Today, the local area's newspaper. (...)
http://www.collectspace.com/news/news-071218a-lc17-launch-towers-toppled.html

https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2018/07/capes-lc-17-demolished-decades-service/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cape_Canaveral_Air_Force_Station_Space_Launch_Complex_17
Artykuły astronautyczne
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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #258 dnia: Lipiec 29, 2018, 06:48 »
Dziś sześćdziesiąta rocznica powołania NASA

NASA 60-year anniversary: US space agency celebrates 60 years of space exploration
By SEBASTIAN KETTLEY PUBLISHED: 13:48, Mon, Jul 23, 2018 | UPDATED: 13:58, Mon, Jul 23, 2018

NASA’s very own Diamond Jubilee is being celebrated with a pomp this weekend, six decades after the space agency was founded.

 NASA will celebrate 60 years since US President Dwight Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act on July 29, 1958. (...)

https://www.express.co.uk/news/science/992970/NASA-anniversary-60-years-space-agency-celebration

Artykuły astronautyczne

Offline Orionid

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #259 dnia: Lipiec 29, 2018, 21:20 »
33 lata temu 29 lipca 1985 miał miejsce dramatyczny start do misji STS-51F Challenger. Nastąpiło przedwczesne wyłączenie na wysokości 108 km jednego z 3. silników SSME.
Rozważana była procedura ATO - powrotu na Ziemię bez wejścia wahadłowca na orbitę. Była to jedna z najdramatyczniejszych sytuacji w całym programie STS.
W opracowanie eksperymentów przeprowadzonych na pokładzie wahadłowca zaangażowani byli m. in. polscy naukowcy.

Przez 5 minut i 45 sekund [lot] przebiegał prawidłowo. Po tym czasie został wyłączony jeden z trzech silników głównych – SSME. Gdyby wyłączenie nastąpiło 33 sekundy wcześniej, Challenger nie byłby w stanie osiągnąć trwałej orbity wokółziemskiej. Po skoku nad Atlantykiem musiałby lądować awaryjnie w Saragossie w Hiszpanii. Pozostałe silniki pracowały nadal i szansa na powodzenie misji rosła. By odciążyć prom, wyrzucono około 2000 kg z zapasu 11 000 kg materiałów pędnych dla silników OMS. Dodatkowy nieplanowany manewr tymi silnikami pochłonął dalsze 750 kg paliwa i utleniacza. Ostatecznie Challenger znalazł się na orbicie, lecz przebiegającej 71 km niżej (311÷301 km), niż planowano. Nachylenie orbity wyniosło 49,5°. Jak się później okazało przyczyną kłopotów była nie awaria silnika SSME nr 1, a czujników temperatury w pompie turbinowej podającej ciekły wodór do komory spalania. Wadliwie działające czujniki sygnalizowały wzrost temperatury turbiny powyżej 1071 °C, co groziłoby jej uszkodzeniem, a w konsekwencji także całego pojazdu.
https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-51-F
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-51-F

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JSbMs_OnE4c" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JSbMs_OnE4c</a>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JSbMs_OnE4c

'Limits to Inhibit': Remembering Challenger's Dramatic 51F Launch, On This Day in 1985
By Ben Evans, on July 29th, 2018


Commander Gordon Fullerton leads his crew out of the Operations & Checkout (O&C) Building on 29 July 1985, bound for Pad 39A and Challenger. Photo Credit: NASA, via Joachim Becker/SpaceFacts.de

(...) Sixty-seven miles (108 km) above Earth, and almost six minutes after leaving Pad 39A at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, Challenger had long since shed her twin Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) and was racing towards low-Earth orbit under the impulse of her three Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs). All at once, temperature readings for the No. 1 engine’s high-pressure turbopump indicated “above” the maximum redline, prompting the on-board General Purpose Computers (GPCs) to command a shutdown. From Mission Control in Houston, Texas, Capcom Dick Richards made the call “Limits to Inhibit”, advising Fullerton and Bridges that they were seeing a potentially show-stopping malfunction and the imminent necessity of an abort. By now, Challenger was too high and traveling too fast for the Return to Launch Site (RTLS) option. Two more options remained open: either a Transoceanic Abort Landing (TAL) in Europe or a tricky maneuver, known as an Abort to Orbit (ATO), whereby the shuttle would pulse her twin Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) engines to augment the two still-burning SSMEs and limp into a low, stable orbit.

Sitting behind and between Fullerton and Bridges, Musgrave’s instinct was to flick to the page on his knee-mounted checklist which dealt with a TAL abort to a place called Zaragoza Air Base, a joint-use military and civilian installation with a NATO-equipped bombing range, in the autonomous region of Aragon in north-eastern Spain. This particular site had been assigned to 51F for a TAL scenario because the mission’s orbital inclination of 49.5 degrees placed it close to the nominal ascent ground track and enabled the most efficient use of available main engine reserves and cross-range capability.

Next to Musgrave was “rookie” astronaut Henize, who looked on with a measure of nervousness. He was aware that TAL encompassed the six-minute period following the closure of the RTLS “window”, through SRB separation and Main Engine Cutoff (MECO), and he knew that it would only be selected in the event of a major malfunction, such as a serious cabin pressure leak or cooling system failure. Had Mission Control issued the instruction to “Abort TAL” that day, Fullerton would have rotated the abort switch on his instrument panel to the TAL/AOA position and depressed the abort push button next to the selector switch. Challenger’s computers would then have automatically steered the orbiter towards the plane of the European landing site.

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z_4v2Bl7z5I" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z_4v2Bl7z5I</a>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z_4v2Bl7z5I

(...)
Eventually, the call came from Mission Control: “Abort ATO; Abort ATO.” Challenger had achieved sufficient velocity and altitude to undertake the next available option: the Abort to Orbit. In fact, she had missed the closure of the TAL “window” by just 33 seconds! At 4:06:06 p.m. EDT, some six minutes and six seconds into the ascent and hurtling towards space, Fullerton fired the OMS engines for 106 seconds, consuming a large quantity of much-needed propellant, but permitting the shuttle to continue into a lower-than-planned orbit. Two minutes later, at 4:08:13 p.m., the No. 3 main engine data indicated excessively high temperatures. If the “Limits to Inhibit” had not already been applied, the computer would have it shut down. The “inhibit” command effectively instructed the computers to ignore the over-temperature signals and prevented them from shutting down the No. 3 engine. The two remaining engines fired for an additional 49 seconds, shutting down nine minutes and 20 seconds after launch. “We never did get the call for the transoceanic emergency landing,” said Musgrave, “and we ended up making it to orbit and finishing the mission.”

The hair-raising incident on 29 July 1985 represented the only in-flight SSME shutdown ever experienced by the shuttle, and it came as a surprise because all engine parameters had been normal during the countdown, ignition sequence and the first few minutes of the flight. At approximately two minutes into Challenger’s ascent, at about the same time as the SRBs were jettisoned, data from Channel A—one of two measurements of the No. 1 engine’s high pressure fuel turbopump discharge temperature—displayed characteristics indicative of the beginning of failure. Its measurement began to drift and, at three minutes and 41 seconds after launch, the Channel B sensor failed. However, its sibling continued to drift, approaching and then exceeding its own redline limit some five minutes and 43 seconds into the flight, which triggered the shutdown. (...)

http://www.americaspace.com/2018/07/29/limits-to-inhibit-remembering-challengers-dramatic-51f-launch-on-this-day-in-1985/#more-105310

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #260 dnia: Sierpień 03, 2018, 12:21 »
40 lat temu 16 marca 1978 wyznaczono załogę testową do pierwszego lotu kosmicznego wahadłowca kosmicznego.

Shuttle test pilot Bob Crippen's advice for NASA's commercial crews

August 2, 2018 — The last time NASA assigned astronauts to the first test flight of a new U.S. spacecraft — as it plans do on Friday (Aug. 3) for the first time in 40 years — Bob Crippen was front and center.

Or rather, front and right seat.

On March 16, 1978, NASA announced Crippen would be on the prime crew for the first orbital flight of the agency's new untested launch vehicle, the space shuttle. A then-40-year-old Navy commander who had transferred to NASA in 1969, Crippen was assigned to pilot STS-1, the maiden mission of what would ultimately become a 30-year program. (...)

On Wednesday, Boeing confirmed its schedule for the first crewed Starliner flight was slipping several months to mid-2019. When Crippen was assigned to STS-1, NASA announced it was planning his launch for the spring of 1979. Columbia did not launch until April 12, 1981, after a two-year delay. (...)

http://www.collectspace.com/news/news-080218a-nasa-commercial-crews-crippen.html

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« Odpowiedź #261 dnia: Sierpień 13, 2018, 20:59 »
Krótkie filmowe podsumowanie 60-lecia NASA w badaniach pozaplanetarnych

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0are7UM5kMU" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0are7UM5kMU</a>

Link do materiału: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0are7UM5kMU

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #262 dnia: Sierpień 26, 2018, 21:27 »
40 lecie Pierwszego Niemca w kosmos.

26.08. mija 40 lat jak z kosmodromu Bajkonur wystartował Sojuz-31 z kosmonautą Niemiec na pokładzie. Był to trzeci lot załogowy po udziale Czechosłowaka i Polaka w ramach programu Interkosmos.
Jest nim Sigmund Werner Paul Jähn (mający dziś 81 lat).

Więcej: https://www.esa.int/About_Us/Welcome_to_ESA/ESA_history/Sigmund_Jaehn_the_first_German_in_space

http://www.gctc.ru/main.php?id=4314

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« Odpowiedź #263 dnia: Sierpień 27, 2018, 05:25 »
Premier Brandenburgii Dietmar Woidke uhonorował kosmonautę z okazji 40-lecia lotu w kosmos pierwszego Niemca.

Woidke würdigt Sigmund Jähns Weltraumflug vor 40 Jahren
RBB | 24panorama 24.08.18 | 13:37 Uhr



Vor jetzt 40 Jahren machte Siegmund Jähn seinen historischen Weltraumausflug. Der DDR-Kosmonaut war der erste Deutsche im All. Brandenburgs Ministerpräsident Woidke hat diese "Pioniertat" am Freitag gewürdigt. Man könne "mit Fug und Recht stolz sein".

Zum 40. Jahrestag des ersten Weltraumfluges eines Deutschen hat Brandenburgs Ministerpräsident Dietmar Woidke (SPD) den einstigen DDR-Kosmonauten Sigmund Jähn gewürdigt. "Auf diese Pioniertat von Sigmund Jähn vor 40 Jahren können die Deutschen in Ost und West noch heute mit Fug und Recht stolz sein", erklärte Woidke am Freitag in Potsdam. (...)

https://www.rbb24.de/panorama/beitrag/2018/08/weltraumflug-sigmund-jaehn-jubilaeum-40-jahre.html

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« Odpowiedź #264 dnia: Sierpień 27, 2018, 07:01 »
<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ImqHLmBasvo" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ImqHLmBasvo</a>

Link do materiału: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ImqHLmBasvo

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hL6Fr2iVYk0" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hL6Fr2iVYk0</a>

Link do materiału: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hL6Fr2iVYk0

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n5eRfVopUIU" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n5eRfVopUIU</a>

Link do materiału: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n5eRfVopUIU
« Ostatnia zmiana: Sierpień 27, 2018, 07:17 wysłana przez Orionid »

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #265 dnia: Sierpień 30, 2018, 23:33 »
Dziś minęła 35 rocznica startu misji STS-8 Challengera.

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« Odpowiedź #266 dnia: Sierpień 31, 2018, 15:11 »
Lot, który mógl zakończyć się katastrofą.
Pierwszy nocny start i lądowanie w programie STS.
Pierwszy lot czarnoskórego astronauty w programie STS.
Drugi lot , w którym wzięli udział astronauci z naboru z  roku 1978.
Dowódca załogi Richard Truly został później administratorem NASA , a pilot Daniel Brandenstein dowodził  pierwszym  lotem ostatniego wprowadzonego do służby wahadłowca Endeavour.
Początkowo załoga miała liczyć cztery osoby.
Nastąpiła częściowa wymiana ładunku z powodu problemów z TDRS podczas misji STS-6.
Pojawiły się  33 anomalie podczas misji. Naliczono 7 poważnych uszkodzeń osłony cieplnej i 49 niewielkich , co w porównaniu z innymi lotami nie było dużą liczbą.

A total of thirty-three in-flight anomalies were eventually reported. As well as the issues above, STS-8's more minor problems ranged from faulty thermostats to an unusually high amount of dust in the cabin.

Załoga była nieświadoma, że w pierwszej fazie lotu, po starcie groziła jej awaria mogąca mieć katastrofalne skutki. Po wyłowieniu z wody pomocniczych rakiet na paliwo stałe oraz przetransportowaniu ich do bazy NASA okazało się, że doszło do awarii prawej rakiety, w której ochrona żaroodporna stalowej dyszy silnika została prawie na wylot przepalona. Z zewnętrznej strony jest ona chroniona przed gorącymi spalinami przez warstwę ablacyjną o grubości 7,5 cm. Podczas dwóch minut pracy silnika część warstwy wyparowuje, a jej grubość zmniejsza się o około połowę. Przy starcie STS-8 warstwa ochronna zbyt szybko wyparowała – pozostało 5 mm, co mogło doprowadzić do przepalenia dyszy. Efektem byłoby zmniejszenie ciągu silnika, zboczenie promu z kursu, a następnie destrukcja. Za przyczynę awarii uznano nieodpowiednią żywicę użytą do produkcji warstwy ablacyjnej w silnikach SRB. Wobec tej awarii wstrzymano następny lot wahadłowca planowany na 30 września 1983 roku. Następnie przesunięto raz jeszcze o miesiąc, aby znaleźć przyczynę awarii i sprawdzić czy przy kolejnych egzemplarzach rakiet nie powtórzy się podobna sytuacja. Pomyślne badania pozwoliły na następny start w dniu 28 listopada 1983 roku.
https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-8
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-8
http://www.spacefacts.de/english/bio_ast.htm















STS-8: The First Shuttle Night Launch & Landing
Aug. 30, 2018

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zOiXPQg2RhI" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zOiXPQg2RhI</a>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zOiXPQg2RhI

With its first two flights successfully completed, Space Shuttle Challenger was ready to head back into space.  As with its previous flights, this one would also be known for several “firsts.”  The primary objective of Challenger’s third mission, STS-8, was to deploy the Insat-1B weather and communications satellite for India.  The final orbital location of Insat-1B dictated that Challenger launch and land at night, the first time in the Shuttle program.  STS-8 was originally planned to fly the second Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) to expand space-to-ground communications between Mission Control and orbiting Space Shuttles, but during the launch of the first TDRS on STS-6, its Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) placed it into a stable but incorrect orbit.  NASA managers decided to replace the TDRS on STS-8 until the IUS problem could be identified and corrected.  Replacing TDRS was the Canadian-built Remote Manipulator System (RMS), or robot arm, and the Payload Flight Test Article (PFTA), an 8,500–pound dumbbell-shaped structure designed to evaluate the dynamics of the RMS.

NASA announced the crew for STS-8 in April 1982– Commander Richard H. Truly, a veteran of the STS-2 mission, and three first time flyers, Pilot Daniel C. Brandenstein and Mission Specialists Dale A. Gardner and Guion S. Bluford.  Of significance, Bluford was the first African-American to fly in space.  Eight months later, NASA added Dr. William E. Thornton as a fifth member of the crew to conduct medical investigations on the astronauts to better understand the causes of space motion sickness that was then affecting approximately one-third of all space travelers. (...)
With its first two flights successfully completed, Space Shuttle Challenger was ready to head back into space.  As with its previous flights, this one would also be known for several “firsts.”  The primary objective of Challenger’s third mission, STS-8, was to deploy the Insat-1B weather and communications satellite for India.  The final orbital location of Insat-1B dictated that Challenger launch and land at night, the first time in the Shuttle program.  STS-8 was originally planned to fly the second Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) to expand space-to-ground communications between Mission Control and orbiting Space Shuttles, but during the launch of the first TDRS on STS-6, its Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) placed it into a stable but incorrect orbit.  NASA managers decided to replace the TDRS on STS-8 until the IUS problem could be identified and corrected.  Replacing TDRS was the Canadian-built Remote Manipulator System (RMS), or robot arm, and the Payload Flight Test Article (PFTA), an 8,500–pound dumbbell-shaped structure designed to evaluate the dynamics of the RMS.
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/sts-8-the-first-shuttle-night-launch-landing

Night Flight of STS-8
Aug. 30, 2011


https://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/image_feature_2049.html

Daniel C. Brandenstein Interviewed by Carol Butler
Kirkland, Washington – 19 January 1999

(...) Butler: I can see where you're coming from with that, definitely. Well, moving into the flying point of view, you were selected as pilot for STS-8. When did you find out that you were going to be on the crew? What were your thoughts at that time?

Brandenstein: I think it was about nine months before the flight. I don't specifically remember. It always started with, "There's a call over at Mr. Abbey's office." The first six flights had been assigned, and they were all experienced, people that had been around the office a long time. Nobody from our class had flown that. But it was hoping and guessing and rumblings like that, starting with 7, 8, and on, that they'd be picking up some of the new class and stuff.

So I got called over one day and they said that I was going to be Dick [Richard H.] Truly's pilot and was going to fly STS-8. That was obviously great. I was excited about that. That's what you wanted to do. One of the really neat things about it, that was going to be a night launch and a night landing. What drove that was, we were launching a satellite for India, and to get it in the proper place, you kind of worked the problem backwards. Okay, they want the satellite up here, so then you've got to back down all your orbital mechanics and everything, and basically it meant we had to launch at night. The fact we launched at night meant that we would end up landing at night. Just, once again, the way the mission worked out.

So that's pretty early in the program to try something like that. I mean, Dick Truly and I had both done night carrier landings, and the way the Shuttle flies, approaches the end of the runway, and doing that at night, we kind of looked at each other and said, "Oooh. This is going to be interesting."

So we got very much involved in developing a lighting system to enable us to safely land at night. We had other people, and once again it was the job of a technical assignment of somebody in the office, kind of like a support crew. We were out of the support crew business by that time, but the crew didn't have enough time to focus just on that, although we got very much involved because we were obviously the ones doing it first. But [Karol J.] Bobko and then Loren [J.] Shriver and then Mike [Michael J.] Smith were all involved in developing the night lighting system, so we went through a rather long evolution of flood lights and spotlights and flares and whatnot, trying to develop some way to give us the visual cues we needed to make a successful night landing.(...)
https://www.jsc.nasa.gov/history/oral_histories/BrandensteinDC/brandensteindc_1-19-99.htm

Celebrating Guy Bluford's Historic First Flight
Aug. 30, 2018



https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/celebrating-guy-blufords-historic-first-flight

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6BHQWGw8QNY" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6BHQWGw8QNY</a>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6BHQWGw8QNY

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2CAHJCrKSMg" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2CAHJCrKSMg</a>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2CAHJCrKSMg

Guion S. Bluford, Jr. Interviewed by Jennifer Ross-Nazzal
Houston, Texas – 2 August 2004

(...) We had a telecom with President Ronald Regan during the flight. He praised us on our accomplishments and wished us well for the remainder of the flight. We also had daily messages from the families and the CapComs kept us appraised as to what was going on, on the ground. During our flight, the CapCom kept me abreast on how Penn State was doing in football and how the Philadelphia Phillies were doing in baseball. Each morning we were awakened by a school song. The Penn State song was played on flight day four. During the mission, we were informed about the shooting down of the Korean airliner over China. This was good for us to know, as we prepared for our on-orbit news conference with the press. During the mission, Dick Truly told me he was leaving the astronaut office after this flight to become Commander of the Naval Space Command, and my wife sent me a message saying that we had termites in our house. Overall the mission went well and we accomplished all of our flight goals.

On flight day five, we configured Challenger for the flight home. The mission seemed to go faster than we had wanted it to and all of us were hoping that we would have the chance to fly again. We rotated the vehicle so that it was flying backwards; we performed the deorbit burn, and then we rotated the vehicle so that it was facing forward and re-entered the Earth’s atmosphere. As we re-entered the Earth’s atmosphere, we began to feel the effects of gravity and see the fiery plasma of hot air burn outside the front windows of the Orbiter. Dale took pictures of the hot plasma as it enveloped us during entry, and he would occasionally hand me the camera. I could feel the camera getting heavier and heavier as we got closer to home. Dick flew us home, and we landed at Edwards Air Force Base a little after midnight on the sixth day. There was an enthusiastic crowd to greet us at our brief post flight press conference. We joined up with our wives, who were waiting for us, and NASA flew us back to Houston. (...)
https://www.jsc.nasa.gov/history/oral_histories/BlufordGS/BlufordGS_8-2-04.htm
https://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/bluford-gs.html
https://www.biography.com/people/guion-s-bluford-213031
« Ostatnia zmiana: Wrzesień 01, 2018, 03:53 wysłana przez Orionid »

Offline Orionid

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #267 dnia: Wrzesień 03, 2018, 20:28 »
2 września 2018 przypadła 110. rocznica urodzin głównego konstruktora m. in. zespołu Energia - Buran Walentina Głuszki.





<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZgovQU6rdRg" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZgovQU6rdRg</a>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=163&v=ZgovQU6rdRg

110 лет со дня рождения Валентина Петровича Глушко
02.09.2018

2 сентября 2018 года исполняется 110 лет со дня рождения академика Валентина Петровича Глушко — советского инженера, учёного, одного из пионеров ракетно-космической техники, основоположника советского жидкостного ракетного двигателестроения.
 
Под руководством В. П. Глушко были созданы опытные образцы первого в мире электротермического ракетного двигателя. Мощные жидкостные ракетные двигатели конструкции В. П. Глушко были установлены на большинстве первых и вторых ступеней советских ракет-носителей и многих боевых ракет. Они обеспечили вывод на орбиту первых советских искусственных спутников Земли, полёты Юрия Гагарина и других советских космонавтов, запуски автоматических межпланетных станций к Луне и планетам Солнечной системы.
 
Как генеральный конструктор НПО «Энергия» и председатель Совета главных конструкторов,
в 1974–1989 г. г. Валентин Петрович Глушко осуществлял общее руководство работами многочисленных предприятий и организаций по ключевым проектам советской пилотируемой космонавтики.
https://www.roscosmos.ru/25467/

wikipedia
http://www.warheroes.ru/hero/hero.asp?Hero_id=10528
https://scisne.net/a-1747
http://www.buran.ru/htm/glushko.htm

Offline Orionid

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #268 dnia: Wrzesień 20, 2018, 21:31 »
W tym miesiącu mija 20 lat od powstania żółtych stron.
Loty Kosmiczne zainaugurowały swoje istnienie w bardzo gorącym czasie: aż 4 nieudane starty w krótkim czasie.
Odmiany rakiet, które tamtego września  startowały należy zaliczyć najpewniej do czasu minionego.
Lista  ludzi, którzy mogli poszczycić się orbitalnym chociaż doświadczeniem liczyła wtedy 382 astronautów i brali oni udział w  205. kosmicznych lotach.
Obecny rekordzista świata w kosmicznym nalocie Giennadij  Padałka odbywal wtedy swój pierwszy lot.

Pierwszy wpis dotyczył nieudanego startu Korei Północnej. Po 20. latach nadal ten kraj ma problemy z umieszczeniem działającego satelity na orbicie.

Czy od razu wtedy była dostępna kompletna lista astronautów i lotów kosmicznych ?

Szkoda tylko , że żółte strony nie są powszechnie znane przez polskich autorów piszących drukiem o astronautyce.
Czasem się roi od prostych faktograficznych przeinaczeń.

Autorom życzę wszystkiego najlepszego i co najmniej kolejnych 20 lat działania żółtych stron  :)

1998 http://lk.astronautilus.pl/starty98.htm
1999 http://lk.astronautilus.pl/starty99.htm
2000 http://lk.astronautilus.pl/starty00.htm
2001 http://lk.astronautilus.pl/starty01.htm
2002 http://lk.astronautilus.pl/starty02.htm
2003 http://lk.astronautilus.pl/starty03.htm
2004 http://lk.astronautilus.pl/starty04.htm
2005 http://lk.astronautilus.pl/starty05.htm
2006 http://lk.astronautilus.pl/starty06.htm
2007 http://lk.astronautilus.pl/starty07.htm
2008 http://lk.astronautilus.pl/starty08.htm
2009 http://lk.astronautilus.pl/starty09.htm
2010 http://lk.astronautilus.pl/starty10.htm
2011 http://lk.astronautilus.pl/starty11.htm
2012 http://lk.astronautilus.pl/starty12.htm
2013 http://lk.astronautilus.pl/starty13.htm
2014 http://lk.astronautilus.pl/starty14.htm
2015 http://lk.astronautilus.pl/starty15.htm
2016 http://lk.astronautilus.pl/starty16.htm
2017 http://lk.astronautilus.pl/starty17.htm
2018 http://lk.astronautilus.pl/starty18.htm

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« Odpowiedź #269 dnia: Wrzesień 20, 2018, 21:39 »
Ja często zaglądam na strony Astronautilusa, głównie na witrynę dotyczącą sond kosmicznych  :) Szkoda, ze pewnych rzeczy w tej tematyce nie jest uzupełnianych, np opis niektórych głównie przeszłych bezzałogowych misji.
Gratuluję i dziękuję autorom strony merytorycznie wysokiego poziomu podawanych informacji i życzę nie 20 ale przynajmniej 100 kolejnych lat działania strony  8)