Autor Wątek: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń  (Przeczytany 23266 razy)

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Offline Orionid

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #255 dnia: Czerwiec 28, 2018, 13:06 »
Tak więc w  17 grupie astronautów NASA znalazło się dwóch astronautów o polskich korzeniach , co można podkreślić  przy okazji 40. rocznicy lotu pierwszego Polaka w kosmos  :)

Offline Orionid

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #256 dnia: Lipiec 09, 2018, 07:49 »
Lato sprzed 34 lat zachwiało poważnie optymistycznym podejściem do częstotliwości lotów w programie STS.
Problemy techniczne powodowały usuwanie z poszczególnych misji ładunków i znaczące odraczanie startów.
Dziewicza wyprawa Discovery miała rozpocząć się 26 czerwca 1984, ale silniki zostały wyłączone na kilka sekund przed startem.
Letnia przerwa w startach wahadłowców trwała prawie 5 miesięcy.

Summer of the Shuttle: Remembering the Ill-Fated Summer of '84
By Ben Evans July 8th, 2018

(...) More than 30 summers ago, America’s shuttle program should have entered its prime. Touted for over a decade as capable of flying regularly and routinely, the early summer of 1984 was envisaged to see as many as three missions by Discovery and Challenger—two laden with scientific and technological payloads, the third a classified voyage on behalf of the Department of Defense—as the reusable fleet of orbiters transitioned from test-flights to full operations. In three years of shuttle operations, the ships had demonstrated their abilities to serve as scientific research platforms, satellite launching pads and could retrieve and repair damaged spacecraft. The future seemed bright.

That is, until the morning of 26 June 1984.

As outlined in a previous AmericaSpace history article, Discovery’s maiden mission, designated “41D”, was ready to fly. Laden with the U.S. Navy’s Syncom 4-1 communications satellite, a large-format imaging camera and the extendible OAST-1 solar array mast, provided by NASA’s Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology, the flight would run for seven days. Commanded by veteran astronaut Hank Hartsfield, the crew also included Mike Coats, Mike Mullane, Steve Hawley, Judy Resnik and the first industry representative ever to fly aboard the shuttle, McDonnell Douglas engineer Charlie Walker. Yet their mission had shifted and contorted many times since their assignment in early 1983. Originally, they were designated “STS-12” and tasked with launching the third Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-C)—part of a network of geostationary-orbiting sentinels to provide near-continuous voice and data coverage between shuttle astronauts and ground stations—but an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster malfunction during the TDRS-A flight in April 1983 obliged NASA to place all future TDRS missions on hold. TDRS-B, planned for STS-8 in August 1983, and TDRS-C on Hartsfield’s flight, were deleted from the shuttle manifest.

Yet there were many other payloads to fill the void. By early 1984, Hartsfield’s mission gained Syncom 4-1, the large-format camera, OAST-1 and a Canadian communications satellite, known as Anik-C1. However, the Canadian satellite disappeared quickly from the payload roster and was reassigned to another flight. On 22 June, three days before their scheduled launch, the 41D crew arrived at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for Discovery’s maiden launch. A computer glitch on the 25th enforced a 24-hour delay, but worse was to come. On the morning of the 26th, the countdown clock ticked down to T-6.6 seconds and the shuttle’s cluster of three main engines roared to life…and abruptly shut down. A Redundant Set Launch Sequencer (RSLS) abort—the first of the shuttle era—was declared and the exhausted crew was extracted from the cockpit.

The cause was later traced to a problem with one of the main engines, all three of which were commanded to shut down by Discovery’s on-board computers. The immediate consequence was that 41D would not fly for many weeks, as the vehicle required rollback to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), destacking from its boosters and fuel tank and the return of the shuttle to the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) for the engines to be replaced. That placed the next realistic opportunity for launch in late August 1984…and that spelled bad news for NASA’s busy summertime mission manifest. (...)
« Ostatnia zmiana: Lipiec 09, 2018, 16:19 wysłana przez Orionid »

Offline Orionid

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #257 dnia: Lipiec 13, 2018, 20:39 »
Historyczne wieże kompleksu 17  po ponad sześćdziesięciu latach po powstaniu legły w gruzach.
Z tego kompleksu startowały m. in. misje  SMM (Solar Maximum Mission) oraz Spirit i Opportunity , a także Dawn i MESSENGER.
Historia wież dobiegła końca w wybuchowych eksplozjach 12 lipca 2018 po przeprowadzeniu 325 startów.
Teren kompleksu zostanie teraz wykorzystany przez spółkę Moon Express na potrzeby księżycowych lotów.

Historic Dual Pads of Launch Complex 17 Demolished, After 300+ Launches over 50 Years of Service
By Ben Evans, on July 12th, 2018

The towers of Launch Complex 17 pads A and B crashing down at Cape Canaveral AFS in Florida on July 12, 2018. Photo Credit: Mike Killian /

After first echoing to the roar of rocket engines in 1957—before the Space Age even began—historic Space Launch Complex (SLC)-17 near the southern end of Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., breathed its last earlier today (Thursday, 12 July), when shortly after 7:00 a.m. EDT its two nearly 200-foot-tall gantries were remotely destroyed. Brig. Gen. Wayne Monteith, commander of the Air Force’s 45th Space Wing, initiated detonations of 68 pounds of explosives which brought SLC-17A and SLC 17B to the ground after a combined 325 launches in more than five decades of active service. During their storied careers, the two pads hosted the first successful low-orbiting weather satellite, Britain’s maiden satellite, the world’s earliest communications satellites, GPS satellites, as well as NASA space telescopes and Mars Rovers.

Built at a reported cost of $3.5 million per complex, SLC-17 arose in April 1956, with an intention that they would support the Air Force’s PGM-17 Thor ballistic missile. Construction was completed the following November and SLC-17B saw its first launch in January 1957, followed by the inaugural use of its twin the following August. Unfortunately, these two opening launches of the Thor ended in failure, but success lay just around the corner. In their first years of service, the pads saw the launch of Pioneer 5, which explored the interplanetary environment between Earth and Venus for the first time, and might have seen the United States’ first voyages to the Moon, had three other Pioneers not been lost during ascent from August-November 1958.

A test Thor takes flight from Launch Complex 17 at Cape Canaveral, Fla., on Dec. 5, 1959. (U.S. Air Force photo)

During the first half of the sixties, the pads saw a multitude of Thor test-flights and pioneering orbital missions. Tiros-1, the world’s first successful low-orbiting weather satellite, was lofted in April 1960 and provided the first accurate meteorological forecasts using space-based data. A month later, Echo-1 became the earliest passive communications satellite, whilst Telstar-1 in July 1962 enabled the first live broadcast of television images between the United States and continental Europe from space. The first successful communications satellite to enter geostationary orbit, Syncom-3, flew in July 1964, whilst the commercial Intelsat-1—the famed “Early Bird”—launched a few months later in April 1965 and helped provide live television coverage of the splashdown of Gemini VI-A the following December.

Britain’s first satellite, Ariel-1, flew from the 17A pad in April 1962, and the UK Ministry of Defence saw its first Skynet military communications satellites lofted in November 1969 and August 1970. Dovetailed into these missions were members of the United States’ fleet of Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO) and Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (OGO) spacecraft.

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ABOVE: Watch our unique beachside view of the pad implosions! Credits: Jeff Seibert / Mike Killian for AmericaSpace

Throughout the 1970s, a series of Intelsat communications satellites, Explorer science satellites, Canada’s first Anik communications satellite, Nimbus and the earliest members of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) program were placed into orbit. SLC-17’s first launch of the eighties came on 14 February 1980, when NASA’s Solar Maximum Mission (SMM)—which was subsequently retrieved and repaired by the Space Shuttle—was delivered to space on an ambitious mission to explore the Sun. Nine years later, in February 1989, the Delta II booster saw its first flight off 17A and the first Block II Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS) was put into space.

Its final two decades saw a mixture of communications, navigational and military satellites, as well as a range of scientific missions for NASA and its international partners. Astronomical observatories including the German-led ROSAT, the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), the Geotail magnetospheric science mission, the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTS) and the Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) featured heavily in the first half of the 1990s, whilst the second half and beyond saw 17A and 17B with Mars acutely in their sights.

The Global Surveyor and Pathfinder missions rocketed away from the two pads during the November-December 1996 Martian “launch window”, whilst the Climate Orbiter and Polar Lander did likewise in the December 1998-January 1999 window. Mars Odyssey was launched in April 2001, NASA’s Spirit and Opportunity rovers rose from 17A and 17B in June-July 2003 and, most recently, the Phoenix mission flew in August 2007.

The final launch to fly out of Launch Complex 17, NASA’s GRAIL mission to the moon in 2011 atop a ULA Delta-II rocket. Photo Credit: Mike Killian / AmericaSpace

Still others have included the Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission to Mercury in August 2004, the Dawn spacecraft to Vesta and Ceres, the Spitzer Space Telescope—the fourth and final member of NASA’s fleet of Great Observatories—and Kepler in March 2009. Two years after Kepler, in September 2011, SLC-17B saw the complex’s final mission with the launch of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) flight to the Moon.

Plans for today’s implosions began soon after the GRAIL mission launched in 2011, and cost upwards of $2 million. Now, Launch Complex 17 is occupied by the private company Moon Express for developing and testing engines and lunar landers. No rockets, however, will be launching from LC-17 again, Moon Express will instead launch their robotic explorers on rockets from other Cape pads.

Towers toppled at historic Cape Canaveral Launch Complex 17

July 12, 2018 — The last two launch towers to stand at Cape Canaveral since the dawn of the Space Age are no more.

The twin mobile gantries at Launch Complex 17 (LC-17) were imploded Thursday morning (July 12), toppling the oldest remaining launch pad structures at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The United States Air Force's 45th Space Wing oversaw the demolition, which leveled the landmark towers just after 7 a.m. EDT (1100 GMT).

"3... 2... 1... Fire in the hole!" announced Brig. Gen. Wayne Monteith, commander of the 45th Space Wing, before pushing a button to initiate a series of detonations. Seconds later, the towers fell over, kicking up a cloud of dust in their wake.

"It is part of history, which we are doing every single day out here on the range," said Monteith, per a video recorded by Florida Today, the local area's newspaper. (...)
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