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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #345 dnia: Październik 31, 2019, 23:02 »
Oct. 17, 2019
30 Years Ago: Galileo off to Orbit Jupiter

'Nothing Absurd': Remembering America's Galileo Mission to Jupiter, 30 Years On (Part 1)
By Ben Evans, on October 20th, 2019


STS-34 crew members (from left) Mike McCulley, Franklin Chang-Diaz, Ellen Baker, Shannon Lucid and Don Williams were responsible for the deployment of Galileo, 30 years ago, this month. Williams died in 2014. Photo Credit: NASA

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N2JwfuxaRkA" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N2JwfuxaRkA</a>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N2JwfuxaRkA

STS-34 crew undertakes emergency bailout training from the Space Shuttle simulator in August 1989. Video Credit: NASA/YouTube


The STS-34 crew during training. From left to right are Mike McCulley, Shannon Lucid, Franklin Chang-Diaz, Ellen Baker and Don Williams. Photo Credit: NASA

(...) By mid-1982, some members of Congress—led by New Mexico Sen. Harrison “Jack” Schmitt, a former Moonwalker and chairman of the Senate Space Subcommittee of the Science, Commerce and Transportation Committee—were pushing vigorously for a return to the Centaur and its capability to deliver a reduced journey time. Despite worries about additional expense in changing boosters yet again, not to mention concerns about further delays to the mission, in July then-President Ronald Reagan approved the move and NASA was forced to replan. The Centaur would be used to lift Galileo, but launch was unavoidably postponed until May 1986, with a two-year flight to Jupiter. (...)
https://www.americaspace.com/2019/10/20/nothing-absurd-remembering-americas-galileo-mission-to-jupiter-30-years-on-part-1/

'You Didn't Prepare Me': Remembering America’s Galileo Mission to Jupiter, 30 Years On (Part 2)
By Ben Evans, on October 27th, 2019


Aerial view of Atlantis’ rise to orbit on 18 October 1989, 30 years ago this week. Photo Credit: NASA

(...) The sheer dynamism of launching into space surprised McCulley, who later described the effect as primarily “acoustic”, creating a sensation that “shakes your body and your soul”. At one point in the ascent, after Atlantis cleared Pad 39B’s tower much faster than his months of simulator training said it should, McCulley turned to Williams and quipped: “You didn’t prepare me for this!” Also unexpected was the quick-fire separation of the two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs), a couple minutes into flight. “In the simulator, there’s a flashbulb that goes off when you get to SRB sep,” McCulley told the STS-34 post-flight press conference, “and in real life there’s an explosion that goes off, right in front of your face. It was wonderful. But it was surprising!”


Saddled with the burden of command, for Don Williams STS-34 carried unique responsibilities. Photo Credit: NASA

In fairness to Williams, commanding this mission was quite dissimilar to piloting his previous one. “There’s some amount of loneliness at the top,” he told the NASA oral historian, “and having that authority and with it comes the responsibility for accomplishing the mission. With those first two comes the most important one, in my mind, which I learned early on as a midshipman at Purdue: With the authority and responsibility comes the accountability and, if something goes wrong, it’s not somebody else’s fault, it’s the person in command’s fault. The same thing is true when you command a mission. You’re accountable for the performance of the crew, for the accomplishment of the mission, for getting the objectives completed successfully and for getting the spacecraft back so somebody else can use it again. That’s the name of the game.” (...)
https://www.americaspace.com/2019/10/27/you-didnt-prepare-me-remembering-americas-galileo-mission-to-jupiter-30-years-on-part-2/

Donald Williams: http://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=2385.msg90139#msg90139

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« Odpowiedź #346 dnia: Listopad 01, 2019, 19:53 »
50 Years Ago: Cosmonauts Visit United States
Oct. 21, 2019

In another example of warming relations between the two space superpowers, in October 1969 two Soviet cosmonauts paid a two-week visit to the United States, spending time at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), now the Johnson Space Center in Houston, the North American Rockwell (NAR) facility in Downey, California, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California, the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and several other sites of interest including Disneyland and the Grand Canyon. They declined an invitation to visit the Kennedy Space Center, citing they lacked the authority to extend a reciprocal invitation for American astronauts to visit the Baykonur Cosmodrome. This trip came just three months after NASA astronaut Frank Borman and his wife Susan visited the Soviet Union, including the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City outside Moscow. 


Borman (at center) greeting Beregovoi (at left) and Feoktistov (at right) at New York’s JFK Airport.


After a performance of Hello Dolly! (left to right) Feoktistov, Beregovoi, Bailey, and Borman.

The Soviets accepted Borman’s return invitation for cosmonauts to visit the United States. Georgi T. Beregovoi, a veteran of the October 1968 Soyuz 3 mission, accompanied by his wife Lydia and son Viktor, and Voskhod 1 veteran and spacecraft designer Konstantin P. Feoktistov arrived at New York’s John F. Kennedy (JFK) Airport on Oct. 20, 1969, where Borman warmly greeted them. That evening, the two cosmonauts enjoyed the Broadway musical Hello Dolly! and met the show’s star Pearl Bailey on stage after the performance.


Visit to the White House (left to right) Agnew, Feoktistov, Nixon, Beregovoi, Mrs Beregovoi, son Viktor, Borman, Dobrynin.


Beregovoi sitting in a T-38 at Ellington AFB, as Borman (left) and Feoktistov look on. Credits: White House Press Office.

The next morning, Beregovoi and Feoktistov accompanied by Borman left New York for Washington, DC, where they met briefly with President Richard M. Nixon, Vice President Spiro T. Agnew, and Soviet Ambassador to the United States Anatoliy F. Dobrynin at the White House. President Nixon presented the two cosmonauts with presidential pens and inauguration medals. Then it was off to Houston for two days of visits and meetings at MSC. After arriving at nearby Ellington Air Force Base (AFB), Beregovoi and Feoktistov had the opportunity to inspect and sit in a T-38 Talon training aircraft, with Borman demonstrating its features. During their MSC visit, Flight Director Glynn S. Lunney toured them through Mission Control, explaining the various positions in the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR). Astronaut Jack L. Swigert demonstrated the Apollo Command Module (CM) simulator, which Beregovoi tried out. The cosmonauts received a detailed briefing on the Apollo lunar spacesuit, and in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory’s conference room they had a chance to examine a Moon rock returned by Apollo 11. On Oct. 23, Beregovoi and Feoktistov gave an unprecedented press conference at MSC, with Borman joining them. A group of 30 astronauts held a dinner in their honor.


Lunney (second from left) provides a tour of the MOCR to Beregovoi and Feoktistov.


Borman (at left) looks on as Lunney describes one of the consoles in the MOCR to Beregovoi and Feoktistov.


Beregovoi (on couch) and Swigert in the CM simulator.


Beregovoi (at center) and Feoktistov (arms crossed) examine a US spacesuit.


At MSC, Feoktistov (at table, left) and Beregovoi examine a Moon rock returned by Apollo 11.


Feoktistov (left), Beregovoi, and Borman share a laugh during a gift exchange of a book and record of the first Moon landing, following the press conference at MSC.

From Houston they flew to California, with the first stop in Los Angeles. The cosmonauts, accompanied by astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, toured the NAR plant in Downey, where they viewed the Apollo 11 CM Columbia, still undergoing postflight inspections after its historic journey to the Moon. They sat inside the Apollo 14 CM undergoing final assembly and inspections prior to shipping to KSC in November. Beregovoi and Feoktistov paid a brief visit to JPL in Pasadena, where scientists provided them with the latest results from the Mariner 6 and 7 Mars flyby missions. They attended the annual meeting of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in Anaheim, where George M. Low received the Louis W. Hill Space Transportation Award for his leadership as the Manager of the Apollo Spacecraft Program Office.



Left: Beregovoi and Feoktistov examine the Apollo 11 CM at NAR.
Right: Beregovoi and Cernan inspect the Apollo 14 CM at NAR. Credits: NAR.


For entertainment, the two cosmonauts visited Disneyland, enjoying the Flight to the Moon and the Rocket Jets rides, clowning with life size Disney characters, and donning Mickey Mouse ears, and then headed south to San Diego where Cernan accompanied them to a San Diego Chargers-Oakland Raiders game, trying to explain the subtleties of American football to the soccer-loving cosmonauts. Beregovoi, with perhaps Cernan’s explanations losing something in translation, summed up the game’s action as, “All fall down, all get up, all fall down.” At a party in their honor at the LaJolla mansion of Teledyne-Ryan Aeronautics executive Frank G. Jameson, Beregovoi tried his hand as an American barbecue chef. Actor Kirk Douglas invited them to a star-studded party at his house in Hollywood.



Three scenes of Feoktistov and Beregovoi at Disneyland in Anaheim, California. Left: Wearing Mickey Mouse ears outside the Flight to the Moon ride. Right:  Beregovoi clowning with Brer Bear. 


Cosmonauts on the Rocket Jets ride. Credits: Disney, AP Photos, Soviet Life.

For the next leg of their journey, Beregovoi and Feoktistov travelled to San Francisco, where Beregovoi rode a steer at the Grand National Rodeo and Livestock Show in San Francisco’s Cow Palace, much to Cernan’s amusement. Accompanied by astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, the duo toured Muir Woods National Park in Mill Valley and flew to Arizona to ride mules in the Grand Canyon. Then it was off for a brief visit to Detroit, Michigan, where Beregovoi and Feoktistov toured the General Motors Technical Center and test drove experimental cars. From there, they travelled to Virginia, visiting historic colonial Williamsburg, touring the College of William and Mary, and exploring the Lunar Landing Research Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center, accompanied by astronaut William A. Anders.


Left: Beregovoi trying his hand at barbecue in LaJolla, California.
Right: Beregovoi riding a steer at the Grand National Rodeo and Livestock Show in San Francisco’s Cow Palace.



Beregovoi (left), Cooper, and Feoktistov in the Grand Canyon. Credits: Soviet Life.

On Nov. 2, it was back to Washington, DC, to view the first Moon rock on public display at the Smithsonian Institution. NASA Administrator Thomas O. Paine joined them for an evening reception at the Soviet embassy where they discussed future space plans. The next day, they returned to New York for a brief visit at the United Nations with Secretary General U Thant, and then to JFK Airport to catch their return flight to Moscow, where Borman gave them a warm sendoff. During interviews at the airport, Feoktistov said of American astronauts that he met during the two-week visit that he like their “sincerity and hopeful approach to life.” Beregovoi waxed philosophical stating, “Friendship is a force which will help the world conquer space.”


Feoktistov (left) and Beregovoi test drive an experimental car at General Motors Technical Center near Detroit, Michigan.


Beregovoi (left), Feoktistov, and Anders examine gifts of pewter tankards in historic Williamsburg, Virginia. Credits: Soviet Life, AP Photos.

These first two tentative but successful reciprocal visits of astronauts and cosmonauts in 1969 led to the visit of Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong to the Soviet Union in May and June 1970 and the next visit of cosmonauts, Soyuz 9 crewmembers Andriyan Nikolayev and Vitali Sevastyanov, to the United States in October 1970. Around this time, the first joint meetings between top spaceflight managers of the two countries began, eventually leading to the 1972 agreement to carry out the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project in July 1975, a docking between an American Apollo and a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft, with mutual crew exchanges during two days of joint activities.

John Uri
NASA Johnson Space Center
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/50-years-ago-cosmonauts-visit-united-states

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« Odpowiedź #347 dnia: Listopad 01, 2019, 23:12 »
Юбилеи космических полётов
18 октября 2019

Октябрь по праву считается одним из самых «космических» месяцев в году. Сразу вспоминается 4 октября 1957 года – день запуска первого искусственного спутника Земли, положивший начало космической эры человечества. Но ещё во второй осенний месяц состоялись космические полёты, ставшие прорывом инженерной мысли и до сих пор значимые для ракетно-космической отрасли.

Первый многоместный корабль



55 лет назад, 12 октября 1964 года, ракета-носитель 11А57 вывела на орбиту первый в мире трёхместный космический корабль (КК) «Восход», пилотируемый экипажем в составе: Владимир Комаров (командир), Константин Феоктистов (научный сотрудник-космонавт) и Борис Егоров (врач-космонавт). Впервые на одном корабле три специалиста разного профиля, дополняя друг друга, вели одновременно комплексные физико-технические и медико-биологические исследования. При этом никто из «Рубинов» (позывной экипажа) ранее не летал в космос, но каждый из них был настоящим профессионалом в своей области, что должно было минимизировать риски в полёте.



Врач, Борис Егоров, проверял на себе действие невесомости и сравнивал реакцию своего организма с ощущениями других членов экипажа; учёный, Константин Феоктистов, наблюдал за горизонтом, полярным сиянием, светящимися частицами за окнами иллюминаторов; а командир экипажа, Владимир Комаров, оценивал управляемость корабля, проверял ориентировку по звёздам и наблюдал ориентиры на Земле.

Сбор научной информации не прекращался ни на минуту. Их предшественники были вынуждены часть времени тратить на сон, приём пищи и прерывать исследования. На «Восходе» постоянно работали два члена экипажа, а один отдыхал. В этом полёте были испытаны конструкция и эксплуатационные характеристики нового пилотируемого корабля, его системы и оборудование; исследованы работоспособность и взаимодействие группы космонавтов; проверены режим труда и отдыха, взаимозаменяемость; проведены научные исследования в условиях длительного космического полёта.

На корабле «Восход» было установлено более совершенное и разнообразное оборудование, например, новая система ориентации, позволяющая точно определять расположение корабля в пространстве и уточнять его положение относительно поверхности нашей планеты. В этом полёте также состоялся первый телевизионный сеанс связи с Землёй.




Это был самый рискованный советский космический полёт: чтобы поместить трёх космонавтов в одну кабину, пришлось отказаться не только от возможности их катапультирования, но и от спасательных скафандров. Но программа полёта была выполнена полностью и завершилась мягкой посадкой. Экипаж корабля «Восход» за сутки установил два абсолютных мировых рекорда: максимальной высоты космического полёта (408 км) и максимальной массы (5320 кг), поднятой на такую высоту.

Женщина на борту



С этого момента стало ясно, что три человека в экипаже – оптимальный вариант. И со временем экипажи стали не только международными. Вместе с храбрыми мужчинами в космос отправляются и представительницы прекрасного пола. Так, 25 лет назад, 4 октября 1994 года, на КК «Союз ТМ-20» на станцию «Мир» отправился экипаж в составе Александра Викторенко (командир), Елены Кондаковой (бортинженер) и Ульфа Дитриха Мербольда (космонавт-исследователь). Это был не только первый совместный полёт с участием астронавта Европейского космического агентства (ЕКА), но и первый длительный полёт женщины-космонавта. После десятилетнего перерыва в состав 17-й основной экспедиции на станцию «Мир» вошла женщина, причём в статусе бортинженера для выполнения пятимесячного полёта.

«Великолепная семёрка»



Почти каждый пилотируемый полёт космических кораблей приносит новые достижения. Но никак нельзя пройти мимо ещё одного значимого юбилея этого октября. Полвека назад состоялся тройной полёт КК «Союз-6/7/8». Впервые экипажам предстояло отработать методику одновременного управления кораблями и испытать различные способы сварки металлов в условиях космического вакуума и невесомости.

Советский Союз вновь удивил весь мир, запустив в космос с интервалом в сутки сразу три пилотируемых корабля. 11 октября 1969 года стартовал в космос корабль «Союз-6» с Георгием Шониным (командир) и Валерием Кубасовым (бортинженер) на борту. На следующий день, 12 октября 1969 года, с космодрома Байконур на орбиту Земли был выведен космический корабль «Союз-7» с экипажем из трёх человек: командир корабля Анатолий Филипченко, бортинженер Владислав Волков и инженер-исследователь Виктор Горбатко. А 13 октября 1969 года был запущен третий космический корабль – «Союз-8» – с экипажем в составе Владимира Шаталова (командир) и Алексея Елисеева (бортинженер). Так начался первый в истории освоения космоса групповой полёт трёх космических кораблей, общая численность экипажей которых составила семь человек.


   

Экипажам предстояло выполнить ряд важных технических и научно-исследовательских задач: маневрирование трёх кораблей на орбите с использованием ручного управления и сближение при взаимной ориентации, удерживание заданной ориентации для обеспечения выполнения других технических и научных экспериментов. Кроме того, экипажам предстояло отработать методы автономной навигации, провести контроль работы бортовых систем, испытать различные бортовые приборы, осуществлять радиосвязь с Землёй и между кораблями, вести телевизионные репортажи и т.д.



16 октября космонавтами Г.С. Шониным и В.Н. Кубасовым был проведён уникальный эксперимент по сварке в космосе. «…Была создана автономная сварочная установка «Вулкан» весом около 50 килограммов, – позднее рассказывал Валерий Кубасов. – Эта установка предназначена для автоматической сварки тремя способами: сжатой дугой (низкотемпературной плазмой), электронным лучом и плавящимся электродом. Сварочный узел «Вулкана» был смонтирован в орбитальном отсеке «Союза-6», а пульт для дистанционного управления размещался в кабине корабля. Успешно проведённый эксперимент по сварке в условиях космического полёта открывает дальнейшие перспективы в выполнении строительных и монтажных работ в космосе».



Эксперименты и исследования были выполнены, и корабли с интервалом в сутки пошли на посадку. 16 октября 1969 года приземлился экипаж «Союза-6», а 17 и 18 октября – экипажи «Союза-7» и «Союза-8» соответственно. Тройной полёт был успешно завершён.

http://www.gctc.ru/main.php?id=4800

https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3805.msg137230#msg137230
« Ostatnia zmiana: Listopad 03, 2019, 11:56 wysłana przez Orionid »

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« Odpowiedź #348 dnia: Listopad 03, 2019, 00:29 »
This day in history: Expedition 1 becomes first crew to live and work aboard space station
OCTOBER 31, 2019   SPACE HISTORY

There is more to celebrate this Halloween than candy and costumes! Oct. 31 marks the launch of Expedition 1 to the International Space Station (ISS).

It was 19 years ago, today, when one NASA astronaut and two Russian cosmonauts embarked on a mission that would establish a continuous human presence in space.


Expedition 1 crew portrait.

Following construction of the ISS in 1998, the station was ready for its first stay-aboard crew by fall of 2000.

The ISS was an international effort, so it was only fitting that the first crew be an international team. Thus, the crew of three consisted of NASA astronaut William (Bill) Shepherd (expedition commander), and Russian cosmonauts Sergei Krikalev (flight engineer) and Yuri Gidzenko (Soyuz commander). The Russian and American space agencies agreed on NASA taking the lead for Expedition 1, so NASA astronaut Shepherd was named mission commander.

The team launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, where Yuri Gagarin launched 39 years earlier to become the first person in space. ISS expeditions are still being launched at this site today. That said, the Commercial Crew program aims to return launch capabilities to American soil soon.

It took just two days following launch for the crew to reach the ISS and begin their historic mission in space.  Since a NASA astronaut had been selected as the mission commander, Shepherd had Krikalev and Gidzenko enter the ISS first, in a show of goodwill.

Once on station, the crew got to work readying the ISS for its role as an orbital outpost. The team spent much of their mission setting up equipment, unpacking supplies, and getting critical life support systems up and running. However, they did get to conduct some very important science experiments as well.


STS-98 delivers Destiny lab.

The first science experiment on station, which began prior to permanent habitation, focused on protein crystal growth. This experiment has since helped researchers with the treatment of diseases and disorders on Earth.

Not everything went according to plan, though. As one might expect, there were some minor setbacks along the way. One of these involved a food warmer in the Zvezda module, which took longer than expected to set up.

The crew had allotted 30 minutes to get the food warmer up and running. However, it ended up taking roughly a day and a half. This proved to be a setback for the crew on station, where schedules run tight and each minute matters.

While the trio was on station, they were visited by three shuttle missions (STS-97, 98, and 102). STS-97 brought with it the first pair of photovoltaic solar arrays to the ISS increasing the station’s power supply. STS-98 delivered the massive U.S. Destiny laboratory. STS-102 marked the transition from Expedition 1 to Expedition 2 with a crew exchange.

Shepherd, Gidzenko, and Krikalev flew home aboard Discovery March 19, 2001. To date, they remain the only crew to have celebrated the beginning of a new century and millennium in space.


Expedition 1 crew.

Expedition 1 marked the beginning of a new age of space exploration. Since this historic mission, humans have been living and working in low-Earth orbit 24 hours per day, 7 days a week, for 365 days a year.

According to NASA, 239 individuals from 19 countries have visited the International Space Station to date. More than 205 spacewalks have been conducted. Greater than 2,400 research investigations have been hosted on station from researchers in over 103 countries. The station, which sits just 1 yard shy of an American Football field, travels around Earth at a speed of five miles per second, orbiting the planet roughly every 90 minutes.

Nov. 2 will mark 19 years of continuous human habitation in space, an international feat which continues to pave the way for future missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond.

Here’s to the incredible Expedition 1 crew who made history on Halloween and to all those continuing to support work, “off the Earth, for the Earth, and beyond.”
https://spacecenter.org/this-day-in-space-history-expedition-1-becomes-first-crew-to-live-and-work-aboard-iss/

15 years and 44 crews later, space station commander recalls first expedition


First commander of the International Space Station Bill Shepherd floats inside the Zvezda service module in 2000. (NASA)

Nov. 2, 2015 — A week into taking up residency on board the International Space Station, Bill Shepherd closed out the first entry in his new (space) ship's log with a note to those supporting him and his crewmates on the ground.

"We have all written some space history," the Expedition 1 commander wrote.

Now, 15 years later, Shepherd's focus is on the future and how what he helped to start might influence what happens next.

"What does Space Station mean in the context of the next century, the next millennium? I think it is very exciting to wonder just how far this will go," he told collectSPACE.

"We learned a lot doing this," he said. "I think it is a good road map for bigger things in the future."


Expedition 1 crewmates Bill Shepherd, Yuri Gidzenko and Sergei Krikalev pose with a model of the space station. (NASA)

On Nov. 2, 2000, at 5:23 a.m. EST (1023 GMT), astronaut Bill Shepherd and cosmonauts Sergei Krikalev and Yuri Gidzenko entered the station to become its first resident crew. Up to that point, Shepherd had logged just 18 days in space on three short space shuttle missions. Now, he was beginning a four and a half month stay on the orbiting outpost.

His two Russian flight engineers were more experienced. Krikalev and Gidzenko had each spent at least six months on board the former Russian space station Mir. (...)
http://www.collectspace.com/news/news-110215a-space-station-15-years.html
« Ostatnia zmiana: Listopad 03, 2019, 22:27 wysłana przez Orionid »

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« Odpowiedź #349 dnia: Listopad 03, 2019, 00:40 »
Pamiętam tę misję. Po latach oczekiwań pierwsza stała załoga ISS. A pomyśleć że miała ona wystartować pierwotnie w maju 1998 roku!

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« Odpowiedź #350 dnia: Listopad 03, 2019, 01:25 »
Pamiętam tę misję. Po latach oczekiwań pierwsza stała załoga ISS. A pomyśleć że miała ona wystartować pierwotnie w maju 1998 roku!
Opóźnienia związane były ze  startem Zwiezdy.
Z kolei 19 lat wcześniej  kompleks Salut 6 - Kosmos 1267  do deorbitacji pozostawał  na wokółziemskiej orbicie.

Zwiezda wystartowała
  12.07. o 04:56:36,002 z Bajkonuru wystartowała rakieta Proton-K, która wyniosła na orbitę okołoziemską moduł Międzynarodowej Stacji Kosmicznej ISS Zwiezda. Oba panele baterii słonecznych, system dokowania Kurs i anteny zostały rozłożone, orbita mieści się w zadanych granicach (hp=182 km, ha=342 km, i=51,60°. Procedura uruchamiania Zwiezdy idzie na tyle dobrze, że rozważana jest opcja przyspieszenia połączenia z ISS o 3-4 dni (22/23.07.). Jedynym problemem jest niepełne rozłożenie zapasowej anteny systemu TORU (rezerwowego systemu dokowania w trybie zdalnego kierowania). Niewykluczone jednak, że jest to tylko błąd czujnika.

  W trakcie postartowej konferencji prasowej szef RAKA Jurij Koptiew oznajmił, że po udanym cumowaniu Zwiezdy do obecnego segmentu ISS, stacja otrzyma w końcu swoje imię. W wewnętrznych dokumentach NASA stacja nazywana jest ostatnio Felicity (Radość). Jednocześnie Jurij Grigoriew z NPO Energia oznajmił, że o ile nie ma problemu z finansowaniem tegorocznych lotów do ISS (1 Sojuz-TM i 2 lub 3 Progressy-M1), to przyszłoroczny harmonogram budowy rosyjskiej części stacji stoi pod znakiem zapytania. Start Zwiezdy, najbardziej krytycznego elementu stacji w pierwszej fazie budowy został opóźniony o 26 miesięcy głównie z powodu braku funduszy. Jednocześnie nieoficjalnie wiadomo, że również Amerykanie będą mieć pewne opóźnienia. Oprogramowanie ich głównego laboratorium Destiny jest gotowe jedynie w około 40 % i termin startu w styczniu 2001 roku prawdopodobnie nie zostanie dotrzymany.
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/n000701.htm#07

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« Odpowiedź #351 dnia: Listopad 03, 2019, 13:44 »
55 Years Ago: The First Flight of the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle
Oct. 30, 2019

On May 25, 1961, President John F. Kennedy committed the United States to landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth before the end of the decade. Achieving that goal posed multiple challenges, among them how to train astronauts to land on the Moon, a place with no atmosphere and one-sixth the gravity on Earth. In December 1961, NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C., received an unsolicited proposal from Bell Aerosystems in Buffalo, New York, for a design of a flying simulator to train astronauts on just that challenge. Bell’s approach, using their design merged with concepts developed at NASA’s Flight Research Center (FRC), now the Armstrong Flight Research Center in California’s Mojave Desert, won approval and the space agency funded the design and construction of two Lunar Landing Research Vehicles (LLRV). At the time of the proposal, NASA had not yet chosen the method for getting to and landing on the Moon, but once NASA decided on Lunar Orbit Rendezvous, the Lunar Module’s (LM) flying characteristics matched Bell’s proposed design closely enough that the LLRV served as an excellent trainer.


The first LLRV silhouetted against the rising sun on the dry lake bed at Edwards AFB.

Bell Aerosystems delivered the LLRV-1 to FRC on April 8, 1964, where it made history as the first pure fly-by-wire aircraft to fly in Earth’s atmosphere. Its design relied exclusively on an interface with three analog computers to convert the pilot’s movements to signals transmitted by wire and to execute his commands. The open-framed LLRV used a downward pointing turbofan engine to counteract five-sixths of the vehicle’s weight to simulate lunar gravity, two rockets provided thrust for the descent and horizontal translation, and 16 LM-like thrusters provided three-axis attitude control. The astronauts were thus able to simulate maneuvering and landing on the lunar surface while still on Earth. The LLRV pilot could use an aircraft-style ejection seat to escape from the vehicle in case of loss of control.


LLRV-1 during an engine test at FRC.


Walker demonstrating the features of LLRV-1 to President Johnson during his visit to FRC.

Engineers conducted numerous tests to prepare the LLRV for its first flight. During one of the engine tests, the thrust generated was higher than anticipated, lifting crew chief Raymond White and the LLRV about a foot off the ground before White could shut off the engines. On June 19, during an official visit to FRC President Lyndon B. Johnson inspected the LLRV featured on a static display. The Secret Service would not allow the President to sit in the LLRV’s cockpit out of an overabundance of caution since the pyrotechnics were installed, but not yet armed, in the ejection seat. Following a Preflight Readiness Review held Aug. 13 and 14, managers cleared the LLRV for its first flight.


Left: Walker during the first flight of the LLRV. Right: Walker shortly after the first flight of the LLRV.

In the early morning of Oct. 30, 1964, FRC chief pilot Joseph A. “Joe” Walker arrived at Edwards Air Force Base’s (AFB) South Base to attempt the first flight of the LLRV. Walker, a winner of both the Collier Trophy and the Harmon International Trophy, had flown nearly all experimental aircraft at Edwards including 25 flights in the X-15 rocket plane. On two of his X-15 flights, Walker earned astronaut wings by flying higher than 62 miles, the unofficial boundary between the Earth’s atmosphere and space. After strapping into the LLRV’s ejection seat, Walker ran through the preflight checklist before advancing the throttle to begin the first flight. The vehicle rose 10 feet in the air, Walker performed a few small maneuvers and then made a soft landing after having flown for 56 seconds. He lifted off again, performed some more maneuvers, and landed again after another 56 seconds. On his third flight, the vehicle’s electronics shifted into backup mode and he landed the craft after only 29 seconds. Walker seemed satisfied with how the LLRV handled on its first flight.


Mallick (left) and Walker standing in front of LLRV-1 at FRC in 1965.


Armstrong with LLRV-1 at Ellington AFB in 1967.

Walker took LLRV-1 aloft again on Nov. 16 and eventually completed 35 test flights with the vehicle, joined by test pilots Donald L. “Don” Mallick who completed the first simulated lunar landing profile flight during the LLRV’s 35th flight on Sept. 8, 1965, and Emil E. “Jack” Kluever who made his first flight on Dec. 13, 1965. Joseph S. “Joe” Algranti and Harold E. “Bud” Ream, pilots at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), now the Johnson Space Center in Houston, travelled to FRC to begin training flights with the LLRV in August 1966. Workers at FRC assembled the second vehicle, LLRV-2, during the latter half of 1966. In December 1966, after 198 flights workers transferred LLRV-1 to Ellington to be more convenient for astronaut training, and LLRV-2 followed in January 1967 after completing six test flights at FRC. The second LLRV made no further flights, partly because the three Lunar Landing Training Vehicles (LLTVs), more advanced models that better simulated the LM’s flying characteristics, began to arrive at Ellington in October 1967. Neil A. Armstrong completed the first astronaut flights aboard LLRV-1 on Mar. 23, 1967, and flew 21 flights before ejecting from the vehicle on May 6, 1968, seconds before it crashed. He later completed his lunar landing certification flights using LLTV-2 in June 1969, just three weeks before the historic Moon landing mission.


Cernan preparing for a flight aboard LLTV-3.


LLRV-2 being moved from Armstrong Flight Research Center for display at the Air Force Test Flight Museum at Edwards AFB.

All Apollo Moon landing mission commanders and their backups completed their lunar landing certifications using the LLTV, with Apollo 17 Commander Eugene A. Cernan making the final flight on Nov. 13, 1972. Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong said of the LLTV: “All the pilots…thought it was an extremely important part of their preparation for the lunar landing attempt,” adding “It was a contrary machine, and a risky machine, but a very useful one.” In addition to playing a critical role in the Moon landing program, these early research and test vehicles aided in the development digital fly-by-wire technology for future aircraft. LLRV-2 is on display at the Air Force Flight Test Museum at Edwards AFB (on loan from Armstrong Flight Research Center).

For more on the LLRV, see https://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/LLRV_Monograph.pdf

John Uri
NASA Johnson Space Center
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/55-years-ago-the-first-flight-of-the-lunar-landing-research-vehicle

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« Odpowiedź #352 dnia: Listopad 03, 2019, 17:27 »
7 lutego  minęło 35 lat od spaceru kosmicznego, w czasie którego doszło do pierwszego w historii użycia plecaka odrzutowego MMU.
11 lutego 1984 lądowanie wahadłowca pierwszy raz miało miejsce w  Kennedy Space Center.




                   

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_jY-ALUq5u8" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_jY-ALUq5u8</a>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_jY-ALUq5u8

This Week in NASA History: STS-41B Lands – Feb. 11, 1984
Feb. 14, 2018



This week in 1984, the space shuttle Challenger, mission STS-41B, landed safely at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center following a successful seven-day mission. This was the first shuttle landing at Kennedy. STS-41B is also known for the first untethered spacewalk using the manned maneuvering unit by former NASA astronaut Bruce McCandless. Here, Challenger awaits launch on pad 39A at Kennedy. Today, the Payload Operations Integration Center at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center serves as "science central" for the International Space Station, working 24/7, 365 days a year in support of the orbiting laboratory's scientific experiments. The NASA History Program is responsible for generating, disseminating and preserving NASA’s remarkable history and providing a comprehensive understanding of the institutional, cultural, social, political, economic, technological and scientific aspects of NASA’s activities in aeronautics and space. (NASA)
https://www.nasa.gov/centers/marshall/history/this-week-in-nasa-history-sts-41b-lands-feb-11-1984.html

https://lsda.jsc.nasa.gov/Mission/miss/52

35 YEARS AGO: FIRST UNTETHERED SPACEWALK
PUBLISHED ON FEBRUARY 7, 2019 by Sarah


https://www.kennedyspacecenter.com/blog/first-untethered-spacewalk

(...) Testing the MMU for the first time in space required a lot of focus and bravery, but McCandless and Stewart had faith in the hardware. Weighing 300 lbs. /136 kg, the MMU was powered by 24 small compressed nitrogen thrusters with two motion-controlled handles on either armrest for simple maneuvering. It was developed by engineer Charles Whitsett, and McCandless tested the MMU underwater and inside the Skylab space station prior to his famous spacewalk. Martin Marietta Aerospace produced the final version of the MMU used on STS-41B. (...)

https://www.kennedyspacecenter.com/blog/first-untethered-spacewalk

Artykuły astronautyczne

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« Odpowiedź #353 dnia: Listopad 03, 2019, 17:28 »
Юбилеи космических полётов
18 октября 2019

«Великолепная семёрка»



Dopiero 8 lutego 1984 rekord w ilości osób przebywających jednocześnie w kosmosie został pobity.

STS-41B Challenger/F-4


Sojuz T-10 Salut-7

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« Odpowiedź #354 dnia: Listopad 03, 2019, 23:26 »
25 lat temu do pierwszego lotu kosmicznego wystartował Scott Edward Parazynski







<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TqdANq_86yE" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TqdANq_86yE</a>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TqdANq_86yE

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ey63eDx6aqA" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ey63eDx6aqA</a>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ey63eDx6aqA

Gentlemen's Hours: Remembering Atlantis' STS-66 Mission, 25 Years On (Part 1)
By Ben Evans, on November 3rd, 2019


The STS-66 mission, as illustrated in the crew’s official patch, sought to explore the links between the Sun and Earth’s atmosphere. Image Credit: NASA


Twenty-five years ago, Atlantis returned to flight with the ATLAS-3 mission. It was her final “standalone” mission before the shuttle-Mir and International Space Station (ISS) eras. Photo Credit: NASA


STS-66 signed crew portrait, sent to the author by Commander Don McMonagle (seated at right). He was joined on the crew by (from left) Jean-Francois Clervoy, Scott Parazynski, Curt Brown, Joe Tanner and Ellen Ochoa. Photo Credit: NASA/Ben Evans personal collection

A quarter-century ago, today, the International Space Station (ISS) era began in earnest with the return-to-flight of Space Shuttle Atlantis, following a lengthy period of refurbishment. Since her STS-46 mission in July 1992, she had undergone many improvements to prepare her for voyages to Russia’s Mir space station and eventually to participate in building the ISS. Her return to operations on STS-66 in November 1994 marked the culmination of a remarkable few months, in which all four shuttles—Columbia, Discovery, Endeavour and Atlantis herself—spread their spacefaring wings. And when STS-66 launched on 3 November 1994, NASA accomplished its best-yet record in the post-Challenger era for launching three back-to-back shuttle missions in only 55 days. (...)
https://www.americaspace.com/2019/11/03/gentlemens-hours-remembering-atlantis-sts-66-mission-25-years-on-part-1/

More Capable Machine: Remembering Atlantis' STS-66 Mission, 25 Years On (Part 2)
By Ben Evans, on November 10th, 2019


Boasting the first reusable drag chute, Atlantis concluded STS-66 with a touchdown at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., on 14 November 1994. The 11-day mission was her longest flight to date. Photo Credit: NASA

(...) In a similar vein to the two missions which preceded it, ATLAS-3 sought to measure global temperatures in the middle atmosphere, together with trace-gas concentrations, and to provide this to the scientific community for comparison with data from other spacecraft. “The ATLAS-3 mission is the most complete global health check on the atmosphere that has ever been done,” explained Mission Scientist Tim Miller, “measuring more trace gases that are important in ozone chemistry than any previous research effort.”

All of its instruments had flown before, but several had been extensively modified in readiness for STS-66 and their precise objectives shifted slightly. One had benefited from an improved recorder controller to provide ground-based scientists with more data about its status and performance. The solar science experiments were also prepared for quite different results, compared to their predecessors; for during ATLAS-1 and ATLAS-2 the Sun had been at a period of near-maximum activity in the 1992-1993 timeframe, and on ATLAS-3 the crew directed the orbiter’s payload bay toward our parent star on no fewer than four occasions to investigate its behavior at a time when its cycle of activity was wearing down toward a “minimum” in 1996-1997. (...)
https://www.americaspace.com/2019/11/10/more-capable-machine-remembering-atlantis-sts-66-mission-25-years-on-part-2/

https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-66.html
http://smithsonianeducation.org/scitech/impacto/graphic/ellen/atlantis_sts66.html
https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/atoms/files/parazynski_scott.pdf
« Ostatnia zmiana: Listopad 11, 2019, 00:36 wysłana przez Orionid »

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« Odpowiedź #355 dnia: Listopad 05, 2019, 02:48 »
50 Years Ago: After Apollo, What? Space Task Group Report to President Nixon
Sept. 18, 2019

On May 25, 1961, President John F. Kennedy, before a Joint Session of Congress, committed the United States to the goal, before the decade was out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth. President Kennedy reaffirmed the commitment during an address at Rice University in Houston in September 1962. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, who was instrumental in establishing NASA in 1958, and now served as the Chair of the National Aeronautics and Space Council, worked with his colleagues in the Congress to ensure adequate funding for the next several years to provide NASA with the proper resources to meet that goal. One significant driving force behind the effort was the geopolitical competition with the Soviet Union, who at the time of Kennedy’s speech was well ahead in the race for space. While Kennedy’s challenge led to great scientific and technological advancements, it was at its core a political gambit.


Left: President Kennedy addresses a Joint Session of Congress in May 1961.
Right: President Kennedy addresses a crowd at Rice University in Houston in September 1962.


Following Kennedy’s assassination in November 1963, now President Johnson continued his strong support of the space program to ensure that his predecessor’s goal of a Moon landing could be achieved within the stipulated time frame. But with increasing competition for scarce federal resources from the conflict in southeast Asia and from domestic programs, Johnson was less interested in any space endeavors that would follow the Moon landing. The space agency’s annual budget peaked in 1965 and began a steady decline three years before Kennedy’s goal was met. From a budgetary standpoint, the prospects of a vibrant post-Apollo space program didn’t look all that rosy, the triumphs of the Apollo missions of 1968 and 1969 notwithstanding.


Left: President Johnson presents awards to Gemini 4 astronauts James McDivitt and Ed White (to Johnson’s right and left, respectively) as NASA Administrator James Webb looks on, in June 1965 at the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston.
Right: President Johnson addresses a crowd during a March 1968 visit to the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston.


Less than a month after assuming the Presidency in January 1969, Richard M. Nixon appointed a Space Task Group (STG), led by Vice President Spiro T. Agnew as the Chair of the National Aeronautics and Space Council, to report back to him on options for the American space program in the post-Apollo years. Other members of the STG were NASA Acting Administrator Thomas O. Paine (confirmed by the Senate as Administrator on March 20), the Secretary of Defense, and the Director of the Office of Science and Technology. At the time, the only approved human space flight programs were lunar missions through Apollo 20 and three flights to an experimental space station based on Apollo technology that was later named Skylab. Beyond a general vague consensus that the United States human space flight program should continue, no approved projects existed to follow these missions when they were completed by about 1975.


Left: President Nixon (left) and Vice President Agnew (right) introduce Paine as the nominee to be NASA Administrator on March 5, 1969.
Right: Proposed lunar landing sites through Apollo 20, per NASA planning in August 1969.


Within NASA, given the intense focus on achieving the Moon landing within President Kennedy’s time frame little attention was paid to what would follow the Apollo Program. During a Jan. 27, 1969, meeting at NASA chaired by Paine, a general consensus evolved that the next step after the Moon landing should be the development of a 12-person earth-orbiting space station by 1975, to be followed by an even larger outpost capable of housing up to 100 people “with a multiplicity of capabilities.” In June, with the goal of the Moon landing about to be realized, NASA’s internal planning added the development of a space shuttle by 1977 to support the space station, and truly optimistically, the development of a lunar base by 1976, among other highly ambitious endeavors that included the idea that the US should begin preparing for a human mission to Mars as early as the 1980s. These proposals were presented to the STG for consideration in early July in a report titled “America’s Next Decade in Space.”


Left: The STG’s Report to President Nixon.
Right: Meeting in the White House to present the STG Report to President Nixon. Credits: Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum.


Still bathing in the afterglow of the successful Moon landing, the STG presented its 29-page report “The Post-Apollo Space Program: Directions for the Future” to President Nixon on Sep. 15, 1969, during a meeting at the White House. In its Conclusions and Recommendations section, the report noted that the United States should pursue a balanced robotic and human space program but emphasized the importance of the latter, with a long-term goal of a human mission to Mars before the end of the 20th century. The report proposed that NASA develop new systems and technologies that emphasized commonality, reusability, and economy in its future programs. To accomplish these overall objectives, the report presented three options:

Option I – this option required more than a doubling of NASA’s budget by 1980 to enable a human Mars mission in the 1980s, establishment of a lunar orbiting space station, a 50-person Earth orbiting space station, and a lunar base. A decision would be required by 1971 on development of an Earth-to-orbit transportation system to support the space station. A strong robotic scientific and exploration program would be maintained.

Option II – this option maintained NASA’s budget at then current levels for a few years then anticipated a gradual increase to support the parallel development of both an earth orbiting space station and an Earth-to-orbit transportation system, but deferred a Mars mission to about 1986. A strong robotic scientific and exploration program would be maintained, but smaller than in Option I.

Option III – essentially the same as Option II but deferred indefinitely the human Mars mission.

In separate letters, both Agnew and Paine recommended to President Nixon to choose Option II.


Left: Illustration of a possible Space Shuttle circa 1969.
Right: Illustration of a possible 12-person space station circa 1969.


The White House released the report to the public at a press conference on Sep. 17 with Vice President Agnew and Administrator Paine in attendance. Although he publicly supported a strong human spaceflight program and enjoyed the positive press he received when photographed with Apollo astronauts, and initially sounding positive about the STG options, President Nixon ultimately chose not to act on the report’s recommendations. Faced with the still ongoing conflict in southeast Asia and domestic programs competing for scarce federal dollars, the fiscally conservative Nixon decided these plans were just too grandiose and far too expensive. He also believed that NASA should be considered as one America’s domestic programs without the special status it enjoyed during the 1960s. Even some of the already planned remaining Moon landing missions fell victim to the budgetary axe. On Jan. 4, 1970, NASA had to cancel Apollo 20 since its Saturn V rocket was needed to launch the Skylab experimental space station – the Saturn V assembly line had been turned off in 1968 and none were available beyond the original 15 built under contract. In September 1970, reductions in NASA’s budget forced the cancellation of two more Apollo missions, and for a time in 1971 President Nixon considered cancelling two more but these were eventually saved and flew as Apollo 16 and 17 in 1972, the final Moon landing missions.


Left: NASA Administrator Fletcher (left) and President Nixon announce the approval to proceed with Space Shuttle development in 1972.
Right: First launch of the Space Shuttle in 1981.


More than two years after the STG submitted its report, in January 1972 President Nixon directed NASA Administrator James C. Fletcher to develop the Space Transportation System, the formal name for the Space Shuttle, the only element of the recommendations to survive the budgetary challenges. At that time, the first flight of the program was expected in 1979 with the actual first flight occurring two years later. It would be 12 years after Nixon’s shuttle decision before President Ronald W. Reagan approved the development of a space station, the second major component of the STG recommendation, and another 14 years after that before the first element of that program reached orbit. In those intervening years, the original American space station had been redesigned and evolved into the multinational partnership called the International Space Station.

John Uri
NASA Johnson Space Center
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/50-years-ago-after-apollo-what-space-task-group-report-to-president-nixon

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« Odpowiedź #356 dnia: Listopad 05, 2019, 15:31 »
'Working a Monkey Board': The First 50 Years of Spacewalking (Part 1)
By Ben Evans, on March 18th, 2015


Five decades have now passed since humanity’s first foray beyond the confines of their pressurized spacecraft and into the airless void beyond. Photo Credit: NASA

Fifty years ago, today, on 18 March 1965, a 30-year-old Soviet cosmonaut named Alexei Leonov became the first human in history to depart the confines of his spacecraft in a pressurized suit and float freely into the limitless void beyond. (...) Leonov spent 12 minutes outside the Voskhod 2 spacecraft, tumbling in the void, as part of the latest in a line of Soviet spectaculars, designed to outdo the United States. It had long been apparent that spacewalking, or “Extravehicular Activity” (EVA), was a central tenet of Project Gemini that NASA needed to master, before sending humans to the Moon in fulfilment of President John F. Kennedy’s bold challenge. The first U.S. spacewalk, by astronaut Ed White, occurred a few weeks later, in June 1965, and ushered in a new technology which would see humans explore the surface of the Moon, weld, repair, and upgrade satellites and space telescopes, work in untethered conditions, and build one of the brightest objects in Earth’s skies: the International Space Station (ISS). (...)

By this stage, Gemini IV’s official press kit had made reference to a “possible extravehicular activity,” which became a certainty just a few days later. Nor would Ed White merely stand on his seat and poke his head through the upper hatch; he would actually leave the spacecraft and maneuver around with the aid of his hand-held device. Following their launch on 3 June, White ventured outside the spacecraft for 21 minutes and “walked” across part of the world, starting over the central Pacific, over California and later Texas, and eventually reaching southern Florida and the island chains of Cuba and Puerto Rico. From inside Gemini IV, McDivitt was concerned that his photography of the event was “not very good,” but in reality his images of America’s first spacewalker proved an iconic record of the early annals of space exploration.

The first few piloted Gemini missions had been assigned very specific tasks—an inaugural shakedown of the vehicle on Gemini 3, the EVA on Gemini IV, long-duration and fuel cells on Gemini V, rendezvous on Gemini VI, and long-duration on Gemini VII—but each of the final six flights of the program were expected to feature a spacewalk of significantly greater complexity than had been performed by White. (...)
https://www.americaspace.com/2015/03/18/working-a-monkey-board-the-first-50-years-of-spacewalking-part-1/

Walking on an Alien World: The First 50 Years of Spacewalking (Part 2)
By Ben Evans, on March 19th, 2015


A mere four years after humanity’s first spacewalk, EVA and space suit technology advanced sufficiently to permit Neil Armstrong’s historic first steps on the Moon. Photo Credit: NASA

(...) Performing EVA on another celestial body, they found that the most natural gait was a loping motion, in which they alternated feet, pushed off with each step, and floated ahead, then planted the other foot. Other techniques included “skipping strides” and “kangaroo hops,” necessitated by the peculiar one-sixth terrestrial gravity. They had to take care when turning and stopping. “I noticed immediately that my inertia seemed much greater,” Aldrin wrote in his memoir, Men from Earth. “Earthbound, I would have stopped my run in just one step … an abrupt halt. I immediately sensed that if I tried this on the Moon, I’d be face-down in the lunar dust. I had to use two or three steps to sort of wind down. The same applied to turning around. On Earth, it’s simple, but on the Moon, it’s done in stages.” In total, Armstrong spent two hours and 14 minutes on the surface; Aldrin a little less, at one hour and 46 minutes. (...)
https://www.americaspace.com/2015/03/19/walking-on-an-alien-world-the-first-50-years-of-spacewalking-part-2/

Operational EVAs: The First 50 Years of Spacewalking (Part 3)
By Ben Evans, on March 21st, 2015


The final Skylab mission marked the first occasion on which a spacewalk was conducted on Christmas Day. Photo Credit: NASA

(...) “The spacewalks are just absolutely the high point,” Lousma explained to the NASA oral historian, years later. “It really is the most memorable part of being in orbit; just an unusual experience, in that when you go outside, it’s different than being inside. When you’re inside, you look through the window and you see part of world.” Outside, in the ethereal void, the Earth was an enormous “sphere,” just beyond the helmet visor. Lousma was dazzled by the glare of the unfiltered sunlight and was astonished that, for the very first time, he really felt the sensation of speed and motion over Earth. At the same time, however, unlike the related sensations associated with speed in an aircraft, there was no vibration and absolutely no sound. “It’s like gliding along on this magic carpet,” he said, “going into the sunset and sunrise every hour and a half … doing that for six hours.” On one occasion, perched on the end of the ATM, installing a film cassette, Lousma remembered moving into orbital night, somewhere over Siberia, he guessed, and being thrown headlong into blackness. Through his visor, he could hardly see his own gloved hands and had the profound realisation that “it’s just me, God, the spacecraft and my buddies and that’s it!” (...)
https://www.americaspace.com/2015/03/21/spacewalking-from-space-stations-the-first-50-years-of-spacewalking-part-3/

Repair and Salvage: The First 50 Years of Spacewalking (Part 4)
By Ben Evans, on March 22nd, 2015


Originally, the shuttle was intended never to require an EVA capability. In the 1970s, it was regarded as the spacegoing equivalent of a commercial airliner … but when it became clear that problems might be experiencing closing the payload bay doors and attending to other technical issues, an EVA capability evolved. Many of the techniques for attending to contingencies would have been trialed by Lenoir and Allen on STS-5. Photo Credit: NASA

(...) In December 1982, NASA announced that the EVA would be attempted by astronauts Story Musgrave and Don Peterson on STS-6, the maiden voyage of Shuttle Challenger, which eventually launched in April 1983. “It didn’t give us much time to train,” Peterson recalled in his NASA oral history. “I didn’t have much experience in the suit, but the advantage we had was that Story was the astronaut office’s point of contact for the suit development, so he knew everything there was to know. He’d spent 400 hours in the water tank, so he didn’t really have to be trained!” By his own admission, Peterson’s EVA training for STS-6 “was pretty rushed.” He recalled being underwater in the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WET-F) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas, on 15-20 occasions, “and that’s not really enough to know everything you need to know.” (...)
https://www.americaspace.com/2015/03/22/repair-and-salvage-the-first-50-years-of-spacewalking-part-4/

Ready for Space Station Building: The First 50 Years of Spacewalking (Part 5)
By Ben Evans, on March 28th, 2015


Story Musgrave works at the end of Endeavour’s mechanical arm during activities to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in December 1993. Photo Credit: NASA

(...) The four STS-49 EVAs totaled 25 hours and 27 minutes, longer than had been accomplished on any prior shuttle mission, and required some sporty additions to the astronauts’ pure-white suits for identification. Thuot (EV1) wore red stripes, Hieb (EV2) had no stripes, Thornton (EV3) had dashed stripes and Akers (EV4) had red diagonal hatches. It was a system which would be followed on several other shuttle missions involving more than two spacewalkers, throughout the 1990s and into the present century, most recently on STS-134, the final flight of Endeavour, in May-June 2011.


In the first, and so far only, three-person EVA, astronauts Rick Hieb, Tom Akers and Pierre Thuot manhandle Intelsat 603 into Endeavour’s payload bay for the attachment of a new rocket motor. Photo Credit: NASA

STS-49 demonstrated that more EVA expertise was acutely needed before the construction of Space Station Freedom could begin. “We need better ways to train so that the learning curve isn’t quite so steep,” said the mission’s commander, Dan Brandenstein, whilst Pierre Thuot added that the Intelsat 603 retrieval task was something that the crew “couldn’t train for fully”. As a result, in November 1992, NASA announced that a future shuttle flight, STS-54, would feature an EVA to “fine-tune the methods of training astronauts for assembly tasks in space” and “increase the spacewalk experience levels of astronauts, ground controllers and instructors”. It was noted that more EVA flights would be manifested, but that they would only be attempted if they did not impact primary mission objectives.
https://www.americaspace.com/2015/03/28/ready-for-space-station-building-the-first-50-years-of-spacewalking-part-5/

Traversing the New Frontier: The First 50 Years of Spacewalking (Part 6)
By Ben Evans, on March 29th, 2015


Terry Virts is pictured working on cable-routing activities in support of the future International Docking Adapters (IDAs) during EVA-29 on 21 February 2015. This was the first spacewalk in the 50th anniversary year since Alexei Leonov’s pioneering EVA. Photo Credit: NASA

Less than a month ago, on 1 March 2015, U.S. astronauts Barry “Butch” Wilmore and Terry Virts concluded a spectacular series of three EVAs to prepare the International Space Station (ISS) for its most significant phase of expansion and relocation of hardware since the end of the shuttle era. They laid 340 feet (103 meters) of cables in support of the arrival of two International Docking Adapters (IDAs)—critical for NASA’s future Commercial Crew aspirations—as well as a further 400 feet (122 meters) of cables for the Common Communications for Visiting Vehicles (C2V2) architecture and prepared two berthing ports on the Tranquility node for use later in 2015. In concluding the last of these EVAs, Wilmore and Virts completed the 187th spacewalk performed by astronauts and cosmonauts from the United States, Russia, Canada, France, Japan, Germany, Sweden, and Italy since December 1998 to assemble and maintain the largest and most complex engineering achievement in human history. It is a mammoth effort which is expected to continue this year and throughout the station’s operational lifetime. (...)

In December 1988, Frenchman Jean-Loup Chrétien became the first non-Russian and non-U.S. citizen in history to embark on an EVA. One of the tasks of Chrétien and his Soviet crewmate, cosmonaut Aleksandr Volkov, was the installation of the French ERA experiment on Mir’s exterior, as part of demonstrations of the construction of rigid structures in microgravity. “You forget about your space suit very quickly,” Chrétien recalled later, “so you’re really in the impression that you are free floating with nothing … just swimming. It was fascinating.” Orbital darkness did not bother him: the lights on his helmet and Earth’s natural albedo provided an eerie illumination of their own. Aged 50, the Frenchman also secured a record as the world’s oldest spacewalker, an accolade he would hold until 1993. (...)

Later in 1990, another EVA became necessary, not because of an issue pertaining to Mir, but to the Soyuz TM-9 spacecraft of cosmonauts Anatoli Solovyov and Aleksandr Balandin. Following their launch in February, it became clear that three of their descent module’s eight thermal insulation blankets had become detached, threatening to obstruct critical sensors during re-entry. In July, the cosmonauts performed a spacewalk, during which they successfully tended to the blankets, but inadvertently violated an EVA egress procedure from the Kvant-2 module airlock, which damaged the hinges around the circumference of the hatch. The error became evident when Solovyov and Balandin came to return inside Mir, and the hatch refused to close properly, forcing them to leave it slightly ajar and use Kvant-2’s inner compartment as a contingency airlock. By the time they returned inside the station, the cosmonauts had spent seven hours and 16 minutes in vacuum, a new Soviet EVA record. (...)

Finally, on 1 October, during the STS-86 mission to Mir, U.S. astronaut Scott Parazynski and Russian cosmonaut Vladimir Titov performed a spacewalk outside shuttle Atlantis. This marked the first occasion that a Russian had spacewalked outside a non-Russian spacecraft, wearing a non-Russian suit, as well as making Titov the first non-U.S. shuttle spacewalker. Eight weeks later, on STS-87, Japanese astronaut Takao Doi became the second, and by the end of the 30-year shuttle era in July 2011 spacewalkers from Switzerland, Canada, France, Germany, and Sweden had done likewise. Notably, in December 1999, Swiss astronaut Claude Nicollier became the European Space Agency (ESA) spacefarer to perform an EVA from the shuttle, during the STS-103 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission. (...)


Jerry Ross, pictured during STS-88, the first shuttle mission of the International Space Station (ISS) era. Photo Credit: NASA

Despite the steady expansion of spacewalking to other nations, until relatively recently only the United States and Russia carried the capability to conduct EVA. That monopoly ended in September 2008, when Chinese crew member Zhai Zhigang performed a 22-minute spacewalk outside his Shenzhou 7 spacecraft. His comrade, Liu Boming, also embarked on a Stand-Up EVA (SEVA) to hand him a Chinese flag. Although China has yet to perform a second EVA, the achievement made the world’s most populous nation the third to demonstrate a home-grown capability to execute spacewalks in its own suits, with its own citizens and from its own spacecraft. (...)

Age has also proven little of a barrier for spacewalkers, with Russian cosmonaut Pavel Vinogradov the current record-holder for the upper limit, having performed an EVA in April 2013, aged 59. In doing so, he eclipsed the previous record-holder, U.S. astronaut Story Musgrave, who had been 58 years old when he led the spacewalks which serviced the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in December 1993. The oldest female spacewalker was Linda Godwin, who was 49 years old at the time of her final career EVA on STS-108 in December 2001. At the lower limit, Alexei Leonov himself was just 30 years old at the time of his pioneering EVA and consequently holds the record for the world’s youngest spacewalker. And the youngest female spacewalker was America’s first woman to walk in space, Kathy Sullivan, who turned 33 just two days before launching aboard Challenger on Mission 41G in October 1984. (...)
https://www.americaspace.com/2015/03/29/traversing-the-new-frontier-the-first-50-years-of-spacewalking-part-6/

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #358 dnia: Listopad 08, 2019, 00:11 »
35 lat temu 8 listopada 1984 roku  zaczęła się wyprawa STS-51A Discovery.
Był to dopiero drugi lot wahadłowca Discovery.
Była to też piąta i ostatnia załogowa wyprawa amerykańska w 1984 roku.

Po wypuszczeniu z ładowni Discovery dwóch satelitów komunikacyjnych  Anik D2 i  Leasat 1 przystąpiono do trudnej operacji odzyskania satelitów Palapa B2 i Westar VI, które  w lutym w czasie misji  STS-41B z powodu anomalii silnikowej nie zostały umieszczone na docelowej orbicie.

Na pokładzie znalazła się 4. Amerykanka Anna Fisher, która na parę miesięcy przed porodem została przydzielona do lotu.

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HTy0dQidPGM" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HTy0dQidPGM</a>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HTy0dQidPGM







https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-51A.html
https://historycollection.jsc.nasa.gov/JSCHistoryPortal/history/shuttle_pk/pk/Flight_014_STS-51A_Press_Kit.pdf

Dale Gardner: https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3551.msg129497#msg129497

Artykuły astronautyczne
« Ostatnia zmiana: Listopad 08, 2019, 01:14 wysłana przez Orionid »

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #359 dnia: Grudzień 08, 2019, 09:28 »
W 1969 miały mejsce liczne zmiany kadrowe w kierownictwie NASA

50 Years Ago: Management Changes at NASA
Dec. 3, 2019

(...) On Sept. 25, 1969, NASA appointed veteran astronaut James A. McDivitt as the Manager of the Apollo Spacecraft Program Office at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), now the Johnson Space Center in Houston. McDivitt, selected as an astronaut in 1962, commanded two spaceflights, Gemini 4 in June 1965 that included the first American spacewalk and Apollo 9 in March 1969, the first test of the Lunar Module in Earth orbit. He succeeded George M. Low who, in that position since April 1967, led the agency’s efforts to recover from the Apollo 1 fire and originated the idea to send Apollo 8 on a lunar orbital mission. Under his tenure, NASA successfully completed five crewed Apollo missions including the first human Moon landing to meet President John F. Kennedy’s goal. MSC Director Robert L. Gilruth initially assigned Low to plan future programs until Nov. 13, when President Richard M. Nixon nominated him as NASA Deputy Administrator. The Senate confirmed Low’s nomination on Nov. 25, and NASA Administrator Thomas O. Paine swore him in on Dec. 3. Low filled the position vacant since March 20, 1969. (...)

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/50-years-ago-management-changes-at-nasa