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Artykuły o Space debris
« dnia: Styczeń 31, 2020, 15:22 »
Potential satellite collision shows need for active debris removal
by Jeff Foust — January 29, 2020 [SN]

The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) has a roughly 1-in-1,000 chance of colliding with another defunct satellite Jan. 29, according to tracking data from LeoLabs. Credit: NASA/JPL

WASHINGTON — Two decades-old defunct spacecraft are in danger of colliding Jan. 29, an event experts argue is more evidence of the need to clean up low Earth orbit.

LeoLabs, a California company that operates a network of ground-based radars that track objects in orbit, announced Jan. 27 that it had identified a potential conjunction, or close approach, between the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and the Gravity Gradient Stabilization Experiment (GGSE) 4 satellite in LEO. The company said there was an approximately 1-in-100 chance that the two satellites would collide at 6:39 p.m. Eastern Jan. 29 an altitude of about 900 kilometers, almost directly above the city of Pittsburgh.

LeoLabs, in an update Jan. 28, revised the probability of a collision downward, to about 1 in 1,000, estimating that the two spacecraft will pass between 13 and 87 meters of each other. Other sources have estimated similar probabilities of a collision between the two objects using other data, such as that from the catalog maintained by the U.S. Air Force.

Neither IRAS, launched in 1983, nor GGSE-4, launched in 1967, are operational today and have the ability to maneuver. While close approaches between debris are not uncommon, the circumstances of this event make it unusual and, to some orbital debris experts, worrying.

“This is a little bit unusual,” said Dan Oltrogge, director of the Center for Space Standards and Innovation at Analytical Graphics, Inc., in a Jan. 28 interview. The two spacecraft are in “counterrotating” orbits, meaning a collision would effectively be head-on, at an estimated relative velocity of 14.9 kilometers per second. That would maximize the energy of any collision.

Moreover, IRAS is a large satellite, with a mass of more than 1,000 kilograms. GGSE-4 — also known as POPPY-5B, a signals intelligence satellite — is much smaller, at 85 kilograms. However, it has a boom 18 meters long that will be perpendicular to the direction of motion. “In this case, that tends to maximize the collision potential,” Oltrogge said.

It may not be clear for hours after closest approach if the two satellites avoided a collision, depending on what assets are available to track them. Even if they miss, though, he said the conjunction should serve as a reminder of the hazards that other large objects, both satellites and upper stages, pose in Earth orbit, and the need to remove them.

“Even if these don’t hit, there will be others that will,” he said. “I think this can serve as a wakeup call for us to look at not only avoiding collisions with active satellites, but also remediating, figuring out how to remove debris in orbit.”

A paper that Oltrogge and others presented at the International Astronautical Congress in October 2019 discussed the risks of such collisions. They modeled the collision of two upper stages in orbit at 981 kilometers, concluding it could create between 3,375 and 12,860 objects at least 5 to 10 centimeters in size, as well as more than 200,000 additional debris objects at least 1 centimeter across dubbed “lethal nontrackable” because they are large enough to damage or destroy a satellite but too small to be tracked.

Another co-author of that paper was Darren McKnight of Centauri, who made similar arguments in a presentation at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies conference in September. He noted that, in May, two rocket bodies that are part of a “cluster” of such objects at an altitude of 850 kilometers passed within 87 meters of each other. “They’re big yellow school buses with no driver,” he said. “If they collide, it would have doubled the catalog population in one event.”

“I would hope that we could take this, and other conjunction events and close approaches, to try and get another look at active debris removal and other remediation techniques,” Oltrogge said of this potential conjunction. “But time will tell.”

« Ostatnia zmiana: Czerwiec 07, 2021, 03:46 wysłana przez Orionid »

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Odp: [SN] Decommissioned NOAA weather satellite breaks up
« Odpowiedź #1 dnia: Maj 03, 2021, 23:37 »
Decommissioned NOAA weather satellite breaks up
by Jeff Foust — March 20, 2021 [SN]

An illustration of NOAA-17, a satellite decommissioned in 2013 after nearly 11 years of operations. The spacecraft broke up in orbit March 10. Credit: NASA

WASHINGTON — A polar-orbiting weather satellite decommissioned nearly eight years ago has broken up, adding to the growing debris population in a key orbit.

The Space Force’s 18th Space Control Squadron said March 18 it hard confirmed the NOAA-17 satellite broke up March 10. The squadron said it was tracking 16 pieces of debris associated with the satellite, and that there was no evidence the breakup was caused by a collision.


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Odp: [SN] Connecting the Dots | Assessing top-down pollution
« Odpowiedź #2 dnia: Maj 04, 2021, 00:20 »
Connecting the Dots | Assessing top-down pollution
by Jason Rainbow — May 3, 2021 [SN]

A view of SpaceX Starlink satellites before being deployed May 24, 2019. Credit: SpaceX

Satellites are leading the charge in the battle against climate change, providing critical insights about Earth that can only be gained from space. But are they also contributing to the problem?

Putting aside environmental impacts of the rockets that launch them to orbit, satellites inject a complex mix of chemicals into the atmosphere when their computers, fuel tanks and other onboard materials vaporize upon reentry.


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Odp: Artykuły o Space debris
« Odpowiedź #3 dnia: Czerwiec 07, 2021, 03:58 »
Op-ed | Damage to Canadarm2 on ISS once again highlights space debris problem
by Anusuya Datta — June 3, 2021 [SN]

Caption: The damage to the Canadarm2. Source: NASA/Canadian Space Agency

A piece of orbital debris recently hit Canadarm2, the nearly 18-meter-long robotic arm on the International Space Station that helps with maintenance tasks and “catches” visiting spacecraft. Thankfully, the functioning of the robotic arm is unaffected.

According to Canadian Space Agency (CSA), a routine inspection on May 12 discovered the damage. While utmost precautions are taken to reduce the potential for collisions with the space stations — objects softball-size and bigger are monitored for potential collision with the ISS in orbit — this apparently came from a piece of debris that was too small to be tracked.


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Odp: Artykuły o Space debris
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Odp: Artykuły o Space debris
« Odpowiedź #4 dnia: Wrzesień 23, 2021, 13:23 »
ESA spacecraft dodges potential collision with Starlink satellite
by Jeff Foust — September 2, 2019. Updated 12:45 p.m. Eastern Sept. 3 with a SpaceX statement. [SN]

ESA said Sept. 2 that it moved its Aeolus satellite to avoid a potential collision with a SpaceX Starlink satellite, like the one illustrated above. Credit: SpaceX

WASHINGTON — The European Space Agency said Sept. 2 it maneuvered one of its Earth science satellites to avoid a potential collision with a SpaceX Starlink satellite, the first time the agency said it’s had to maneuver to avoid a satellite associated with a broadband megaconstellation.

In a series of tweets from its ESA Operations account, the agency said the Aeolus satellite performed a maneuver to avoid a potential close approach to a Starlink satellite, which it identified in one graphic as Starlink 44.


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Odp: Artykuły o Space debris
« Odpowiedź #5 dnia: Styczeń 13, 2022, 17:03 »
Breakup of China’s Yunhai-1 (02) satellite linked to space debris collision
by Andrew Jones — January 11, 2022

Orbital debris illustration. Credit: ESA

HELSINKI — U.S. space tracking has linked the breakup of Chinese satellite Yunhai-1 (02) to a collision with a small piece of debris from a Russian satellite launch, according to NASA.

The Yunhai-1 (02) satellite was developed by the Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology and launched in September 2019 into a Sun-synchronous orbit with an altitude of around 783 kilometers. It suffered a breakup event on March 18, 2021, creating a number of pieces of debris.

The 18th Space Control Squadron (18 SPCS) of the U.S. Space Force has identified the breakup of the Yunhai 1-02 meteorological spacecraft (2019-063A) last year to be an accidental collision with a small, mission-related debris object (1996-051Q) associated with the Zenit-2 launch vehicle for the deployment of the Russian Cosmos 2333 military signals intelligence satellite in 1996, according to the December 2021 edition of Orbital Debris Quarterly News, a publication of NASA’s Orbital Debris Program Office.


Space debris expert warns U.S. ‘woefully behind’ in efforts to clean up junk in orbit
by Sandra Erwin — January 6, 2022 [SN]

LeoLabs' West Australian space radar conceptual field of view. Credit: LeoLabs

Darren McKnight: The problem are not commercial megaconstellations but a failure to deal with existing debris
WASHINGTON — The United States is a space superpower but is not doing as much as other nations to solve the problem of orbital debris, an industry expert said Jan. 6.

Darren McKnight, senior technical fellow at LeoLabs and member of the International Academy of Astronautics’ Space Debris Committee, said initiatives by the U.S. Space Force to fund debris cleanup technologies are laudable but not nearly enough to address what is becoming a serious threat to the space business.

U.S. intelligence wants to track currently undetectable orbital space debris
by Sandra Erwin — February 12, 2022 [SN]

Rendering of Earth orbiting space debris. Credit: NOAA

The Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity in a request for information asks for 'innovative approaches to detect and track currently undetectable orbital space debris'

WASHINGTON — The U.S. intelligence community — which builds and operates Earth observation and communications satellites for military or intelligence applications — is looking for solutions to the space debris problem.

Chinese rocket, not Falcon 9, linked to upper stage on lunar impact trajectory
by Jeff Foust — February 13, 2022 [SN]

A Long March 3C launches the Chang'e-5 T1 spacecraft in October 2014. The upper stage from the launch is now thought to be the object that will hit the far side of the moon in March. Credit: Xinhua

WASHINGTON — In a case of celestial mistaken identity, a spent upper stage that will crash on the far side of the moon in March is now linked to a Chinese launch in 2014, not a SpaceX launch of an Earth and space science satellite in 2015, illustrating the difficulties in tracking objects beyond Earth orbit.

Op-ed | Space Debris Management is even more urgent than Space Traffic Management
by Darren McKnight and Chris Kunstadter — February 15, 2022 [SN]

Space Traffic Management (STM) — the identification and deconfliction of potential mission-terminating collisions for operational spacecraft — has gained attention as the population of operational satellites in low Earth orbit has dramatically increased.

Operational satellites and their supporting infrastructure must be resilient and responsive to mitigate mission-ending or catastrophic collisions to maintain a safe and robust space industry. We applaud the efforts of organizations and policymakers to develop, synchronize, and refine STM principles, including data sharing, state vector accuracy improvement, near-real-time conjunction data messages, and expanding global space surveillance assets.

Op-ed | How America Can Become a Leader in Cleaning Up Space
by Brian Weeden — February 16, 2022 [SN]

Credit: SpaceNews illustration

During the first National Space Council meeting of the Biden administration, Vice President Kamala Harris reinforced the importance of outer space for national security, economic development, and environmental security. The future security and sustainability of space hinges on dealing with the over 8,000 metric tons of dead objects already in orbit, including at least 900,000 individual pieces of debris that can be lethal to satellites, which clutter the most heavily-used parts of Earth orbit today. To do this, the United States needs to implement a holistic Space Environment Management (SEM) program, and the most important missing element of that program is the development of remediation capabilities that can remove debris from orbit and help clean up the space environment.

Op-ed | The challenges of space traffic management
by Marshall H. Kaplan and Gurpartap Sandhoo — February 18, 2022 [SN]

Rendering of Earth's orbit and space debris. Credit: U.S. Space Force

Millions of pieces of orbital debris big enough to harm satellites but too tiny to track threaten "permanent stability and safety in orbit."

Over the past few years, and especially in the last few months, the issue of space traffic management (STM) has been discussed from the U.S. Senate floor to White House press briefings. The common theme across the government is the lack of action on space traffic management. One of the underlying issues not being addressed is: You cannot manage what you can’t measure. A fundamental tenet of any STM system is detecting, identifying, and accurately tracking all objects within the management domain. Any near-Earth management domain must include all large debris objects. We have yet to develop the needed technologies and systems to anticipate conjunctions among active satellites and large debris objects effectively. In other words, STM today does not exist but is, in fact, the “wild west.” (...)

As of September 2021, the European Space Agency’s Space Debris Office offered a few relevant historical facts:

-  The number of successful rocket launches since the space age began in 1957 is roughly 6,100.
-  The number of satellites placed into Earth orbit is roughly 12,000, with about 7,500 still in orbit.
-  The number of satellites still functioning is about 4,700.
-  The number of large debris objects regularly tracked by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network and maintained in their catalog is more than 29,000.
-  The number of break-ups, explosions, collisions or anomalous events resulting in fragmentation is over 600.
-  The total mass of all space objects in Earth orbits is over 9,600 tons.
-  The number of orbiting debris objects greater than 10 centimeters in size, estimated via statistical models, is 36,500. There are 1 million objects between 1 and 10 centimeters in size and 330 million objects between 1 millimeter and 1 centimeter.

Slingshot Aerospace closes $25 million fundraising round
by Sandra Erwin — March 10, 2022 [SN]

Screenshot of Slingshot Beacon, a collision avoidance data sharing platform. Credit: Slingshot Aerospace

The company plans to use the funds to expand and commercialize its space collision-avoidance platform

WASHINGTON — Slingshot Aerospace, a company that develops technologies for space situational awareness, announced March 10 it has raised $25 million in Series A-1 funds.

The company has raised $42 million since it was founded in 2017. The new round was oversubscribed, said CEO and co-founder Melanie Stricklan. “We set out to raise $20 million and stopped at $25 million,” she said.

Chinese official calls for protection of space assets, international coordination mechanisms
by Andrew Jones — March 10, 2022 [SN]

An image from Tianhe panoramic camera A during the first Shenzhou-13 spacewalk in November 2021. Credit: CMSA/CCTV/Chinese Academy of Sciences

HELSINKI — China needs to accelerate the development of space asset protection policies and related international coordination mechanisms, according to a space industry official.

“We should proactively promote the formulation of space asset protection policies, so that space asset protection activities can be based on the law, and at the same time declare the importance that China attaches to space asset protection,” Yang Mengfei, an academician at the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST), told China National Radio.

Op-ed | Congress must act now to avert a catastrophe in space
by Dan Dumbacher — March 13, 2022 [SN]

More than 1,500. That’s the additional pieces of debris now floating around in low Earth orbit because of the reckless and irreversible Russian anti-satellite test last November.

Another 13,000 small satellites will be added by the Chinese when they deploy a large constellation to provide internet services.

Then consider the U.S.-licensed companies that have already launched more than 2,000 satellites of a planned tens of thousands of satellites over the next decade.

Op-ed | The Case for Space Arbitration: Can you recover damages caused by space collisions?
by Laura Yvonne Zielinski — March 23, 2022 [SN]

Opening outer space to more and more private parties and multiplying the number of space objects being launched brings about infinite new opportunities — and substantial risks. Therefore, it is likely that the increasing congestion of the lower orbits will soon result in more contractual disputes. We will also see more disputes related to forced avoidance maneuvers and space collisions.

Getting a jump on traffic: The sudden urgency of government-industry partnerships in space traffic management
by Jeff Foust — April 7, 2022 [SN]

Privateer’s Wayfinder visualization tool combines data from several sources. This scene shows active and inactive low Earth orbit satellites plus rocket bodies and other debris. Credit: Privateer

Some operators of low Earth orbit satellites are bracing for a storm of debris. Russia’s demonstration of an antisatellite weapon last November, destroying the Cosmos 1408 satellite, created thousands of tracked pieces of debris, and many more too small to be tracked.

U.S. declares ban on anti-satellite missile tests, calls for other nations to join
by Sandra Erwin — April 18, 2022 [SN]

Vice President Kamala Harris speaks April 18, 2022, at Vandenberg Space Force Base, California. Credit: @SLDelta30

VP Harris: A commitment to not destroy satellites in orbit should become a 'new international norm for responsible behavior in space'

WASHINGTON – Vice President Kamala Harris announced April 18 that the United States will ban direct-ascent anti-satellite (ASAT) missile tests that create orbital debris.

“These tests are dangerous and we will not conduct them,” Harris said in a speech at Vandenberg Space Force Base in California.

India examining crashed space debris suspected to be parts of China’s Long March rocket
by Park Si-soo — April 19, 2022 [SN]

People stand next to a large metal ring that fell into rural western India April 2, along with a cylinder-like object in this photo captured from space-watcher Jonathan McDowell’s Twitter account. They are believed to be parts of a Chinese rocket’s upper stage.

If the objects are confirmed to be parts of a Chinese rocket, it would be the second time in less than a year that debris from a Chinese rocket made a troubling re-entry.

SEOUL, South Korea — India’s space agency is examining a large metal ring and a cylinder-like object that fell into rural western India April 2, with a preliminary investigation suggesting they could be parts of a Chinese space rocket’s upper stage that reentered the atmosphere that day.

DoD a main proponent of anti-satellite test ban: ‘We are not disarming’
by Sandra Erwin — April 20, 2022 [SN]

Vice President Kamala Harris meets with Gen. James Dickinson, U.S. Space Command commander and U.S. Space Force Maj. Gen. DeAnna Burt, Combined Force Space Component Command commander, during a visit to Vandenberg Space Force Base, Calif., April 18, 2022. Credit: Tech. Sgt. Luke Kitterman

"Space related rules and norms of responsible behavior are in our interest,” said deputy assistant secretary of defense John Hill

WASHINGTON – The Biden administration’s decision to ban anti-satellite missile tests had strong backing from the Defense Department as the military’s own guidelines prohibit debris-creating space activities, a senior official said April 20.

Op-ed | Herding rockets: Improved Space Traffic Management will accelerate industry growth
by Sita Sonty, Cameron Scott, Troy Thomas and Sarah Zhou — May 11, 2022 [SN]

Credit: Adobe Stock

A market ecosystem that incentivizes the rapid development and fielding of advanced Space Traffic Management (STM) technologies will be a key enabler to the sustainable growth of the space economy. As defined by the International Academy of Astronautics , STM protects future sector growth by encouraging the development and application of technology to preserve access to space and assets already in orbit.

The call for a revamped STM policy structure has been made and includes recommendations for drawing lines around launch, licensing, and funding. Ensuring equal access to space by creating standards for collecting data for Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and space launch will, in turn, increase the likelihood of successful Space Debris Management (SDM), as the more effectively managed the launch market, the lower the volume of space debris to deconflict and mitigate collision risk.

Op-ed | Space Safety Concerns Put Economic Growth at Risk
by Dan Dumbacher and Kevin M. O'Connell — May 11, 2022 [SN]

The Office of Space Commerce lacks authorities and resources it needs to take on space traffic management. Credit: SpaceNews illustration

Vice President Kamala Harris’ recent announcement of a U.S. commitment to avoid direct-ascent, anti-satellite missile testing reflected important strategic considerations, but also highlighted the growing economic importance of space. Rapidly growing congestion of the space environment demands heightened Executive and Legislative Branch attention to protect the astronauts aboard the International Space Station, billions of dollars of U.S. investment, and the expected growth of the space economy.   

Beyond purposely harmful behavior that increases the number of objects in orbit, the number of satellites launched to low Earth orbit (LEO) has increased exponentially. In 2010, there were a mere 997 satellites in orbit, most in distant geostationary orbits. Over a decade later, around 8,000 satellites are circling our planet, most in LEO. Only about 5,000 of those are active.

India hit by more suspected space debris
by Park Si-soo — May 16, 2022 [SN]

Suspected space debris that fell into rural western India May 12 are seen in this video still captured from YouTube.

SEOUL, South Korea — Indian authorities are examining several pieces of suspected space debris that fell into rural western India on May 12, with the timing of the incident suggesting they could be parts of a Chinese rocket that reentered the atmosphere that day.

Local media reported that the objects crashed with “loud thuds that shook the ground” in Gujarat. There were no casualties or property damage, according to The Indian Express. The crashed objects were all discovered within a 15-kilometer radius, and among them was a black metal ball weighing around five kilograms, the newspaper said.
« Ostatnia zmiana: Czerwiec 21, 2022, 17:10 wysłana przez Orionid »

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Odp: Artykuły o Space debris
« Odpowiedź #6 dnia: Styczeń 13, 2022, 19:44 »
To jest bardzo ważna informacja. O ile się orientuję, to dopiero drugi lub trzeci taki przypadek w historii, który jest dobrze opisany.

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Odp: Artykuły o Space debris
« Odpowiedź #7 dnia: Czerwiec 22, 2022, 12:07 »
O potrzebie zastosowania wskaźnika  zrównoważonego projektowania i działania  na wszystkich etapach cyklu trwania misji kosmicznej od projektowania po operacje na orbicie i utylizację.

Op-ed | A new way to incentivize safer conditions for operating in space
by Emmanuelle David and Minoo Rathnasabapathy — June 15, 2022 [SN]

Credit: iStock

The rising number of satellites launched in recent years, driven by the emergence of new actors and commercial satellite constellations in low-Earth orbit, has amplified concerns about preserving the long-term use of the space environment. Each year, the space industry sees record numbers of satellite launches, while not enough satellites are removed from already congested orbits at the end of their lives.

While space traffic is increasing exponentially, sustainability regulations and guidelines have mostly remained unchanged since the early 2000s. The importance of space sustainability for the long-term equitable and accessible use of space has been internationally agreed upon for decades. However, in this rapidly evolving tech sector, a shift is needed in how actors pursue sustainability and the ways in which sustainability practices are measured.

Office of Space Commerce on a “listening tour” for civil space traffic management
by Jeff Foust — June 23, 2022 [SN]

Office of Space Commerce Director Richard DalBello, speaking by video at the Summit for Space Sustainability June 22, said he has been talking with satellite operators and others about their needs for improved space traffic management. Credit: Secure World Foundation webcast

WASHINGTON — The new head of the Office of Space Commerce says he’s talking with industry on how his office can best take over civil space traffic management while also potentially taking on more regulatory responsibilities.

Connecting the Dots | Improving satellite collision predictions for efficient space
by Jason Rainbow — June 23, 2022 [SN]

Helping operators steer satellites away from potential collisions in increasingly packed orbits is a key driver for improving space traffic management, but also important is knowing when fuel draining detours are not needed.

Current monitoring and tracking systems cannot pinpoint the exact location and trajectory of the vast amount of objects in near-Earth orbit.

They instead rely on probabilities that feed into the conjunction alerts sent to operators, which then take action if the risk of a collision is high enough for them.

Op-ed | There’s no perfect Space Traffic Management framework
by Benjamin Staats — June 23, 2022 [SN]

Credit: iStock

Why a good-enough STM approach is better than perfect

Whatever space traffic management framework emerges — assuming something more formal ever does — it will be far from perfect. No traffic management framework in any domain eliminates accidents. Unintentional collisions in space will happen.

Space traffic management (STM) should be about mitigating risk, not eliminating it. Nor should there be any expectation that the U.S. Office of Space Commerce and its Open Architecture Data Repository will prevent all accidents. The law of diminishing returns tells us that any STM framework will only mitigate the risk of collisions to the point where greater and greater resources are required for only incremental gains in risk reduction. Given that resources are limited and an STM framework only mitigates part of the overall risk to space sustainability, the U.S. government should focus on leading a prudent risk-reduction approach to space sustainability that includes space debris management (SDM) efforts – that is, the mitigation and remediation of space debris. The most practical approach to space sustainability is to pursue a “good enough” risk-reduction strategy across STM and SDM efforts where the residual risk to space sustainability becomes manageable — not perfect.

X Prize Foundation studying active debris removal competition
by Jeff Foust — June 24, 2022 [SN]

X Prize Foundation CEO Anousheh Ansari (left) discusses a proposed competition for active debris removal during a panel discussion at the Summit for Space Sustainability June 23. Credit: Secure World Foundation webcast

WASHINGTON — The X Prize Foundation is considering a prize competition focused on removal of space debris to spur technological innovation in the field.

During a panel discussion at the Fourth Summit for Space Sustainability by the Secure World Foundation and the U.K. Space Agency June 23, Anousheh Ansari, chief executive of the X Prize Foundation, said her organization was studying several potential ways to run a prize to support development of active debris removal systems.

U.K. government announces new space sustainability measures
by Jeff Foust — June 25, 2022 [SN]

George Freeman, minister for science, research and innovation, announced a package of space sustainability measures June 23 at the Fourth Summit for Space Sustainability in London. Credit: Secure World Foundation webcast

WASHINGTON — The British government announced a series of measures June 23, from regulations to funding active debris removal projects, intended to make the country a leader in space sustainability.

George Freeman, minister for science, research and innovation, announced a package called the Plan for Space Sustainability intended to create a standard that will encourage companies, along with investors and insurers, to adopt best practices for sustainable space operations.

The goal of the effort is to “set a global commercial framework for the insurability, the licensing, the regulation of commercial satellites so that we drive down the cost for those who comply with the best standards of sustainability,” he said in a speech at the Fourth Summit for Space Sustainability by the Secure World Foundation and the U.K. Space Agency. “We have to mainstream sustainability in our commercial sector.”
« Ostatnia zmiana: Czerwiec 27, 2022, 08:35 wysłana przez Orionid »

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Odp: Artykuły o Space debris
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