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Artykuły o Space policy of the United States
« dnia: Listopad 22, 2020, 03:38 »
From the moon to the Earth: How the Biden administration might reshape NASA
by Jeff Foust — November 20, 2020
This article originally appeared in the Nov. 16, 2020 issue of SpaceNews magazine.


“As president, I look forward to leading a bold space program that will continue to send astronaut heroes to expand our exploration and scientific frontiers through investments in research and technology to help millions of people here on Earth,” Joe Biden said. Credit: Adam Schultz / Biden for President

NASA Deputy Administrator Jim Morhard had perhaps one of the more understated public reactions to the outcome of the presidential election.

“It’s quite a day for everybody, to say the least,” he said at the start of a presentation Nov. 7 to the Space Generation Advisory Council’s SpaceGen Summit, just three hours after a range of media projections, from The Associated Press to Fox News, declared Joe Biden the winner. He didn’t elaborate on that comment and dove into his previously scheduled talk about the agency’s activities.

Whether the outcome prompted elation or disappointment, the election of Joe Biden has left the space industry wondering what comes next. While Biden is a familiar figure in politics, after decades in the Senate and eight years as Barack Obama’s vice president, his views on space, and his plans for NASA, are far less clear.

BIDEN SPACE POLICY

The Biden campaign said almost nothing about space during the race for the White House, other than a couple statements congratulating NASA on the successful launch and return of the Demo-2 commercial crew mission this summer. “As president, I look forward to leading a bold space program that will continue to send astronaut heroes to expand our exploration and scientific frontiers through investments in research and technology to help millions of people here on Earth,” he said in one of those statements.

“One of the things that I found surprising is that the Biden campaign did not issue a space policy statement,” said John Logsdon, founder and former director of George Washington University’s Space Policy Institute. “So, we’re left with the Democratic Party platform said.”

That platform included one paragraph about space which Logsdon considered “very positive,” if not without much detail. The platform endorsed, in broad terms, much of what NASA was currently doing, from science and technology development to continued operation of the International Space Station and human space exploration.

Most in the space industry who read that passage took away two major changes a Biden administration would pursue. The platform mentions “strengthening” Earth observation programs at both NASA and NOAA “to better understand how climate change is impacting our home planet.” That fits into a broader interest in climate change, which is one of four priorities identified by the incoming Biden administration alongside COVID-19, economic recovery and racial equity.

“Managing the Earth’s ability to sustain human life and biodiversity will likely, in my view, dominate a civil space agenda for a Biden-Harris administration,” predicted Lori Garver, a former NASA deputy administrator during the Obama administration, during a Nov. 7 speech at the SpaceVision 2020 conference by Students for the Exploration and Development of Space.



Biden’s focus on climate change doesn’t bode well for putting NASA’s underfunded Human Landing System back on track for reaching the moon by 2024, a Trump mandate few took literally. Credit: NASA illustration

Exactly how that will be implemented remains unclear. One possibility would be to accelerate implementation of the Earth science decadal survey though additional funding. “NASA is a national asset, and if properly directed and incentivized, we can make meaningful contributions to sustaining humanity,” Garver said.

The other change is in human space exploration. While the platform stated the party supported “NASA’s work to return Americans to the moon and go beyond to Mars,” it made no mention of a date for doing so, in particular the 2024 date set by the Trump administration last year. That’s led to speculation that the Biden administration will, at the very least, slow down the Artemis program, perhaps freeing up money for Earth science and other priorities elsewhere in the agency.

“I don’t think Artemis will get canceled. I also don’t think it will get any more money than what it’s currently getting,” said Wendy Whitman Cobb, a professor at the U.S. Air Force School of Advanced Air and Space Studies whose research includes space policy.

A 2024 human lunar landing might be ruled out even before Biden is sworn in on Jan. 20. NASA’s fiscal year 2021 budget proposal requested $3.2 billion for the Human Landing System (HLS) program to develop the landers needed to transport astronauts to and from the surface of the moon. The House, though, provided only about $600 million for HLS in a spending bill it passed in July.

NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine, while publicly thanking the House for providing at least some money for HLS, lobbied the Senate for full funding to keep a 2024 landing on schedule. “Accelerating it to 2024 requires a $3.2 billion budget for 2021 for the Human Landing System, which is in the president’s budget request,” he told Senate appropriators in September.

Those appropriators released their draft spending bills Nov. 10, which will serve as the basis for negotiations with the House on a final version. For NASA, they provided $1 billion for the HLS program, more than the House but still far short of the budget request. In the report accompanying the bill, Senate appropriators noted the uncertainty surrounding the program “makes it difficult to analyze the future impacts that funding the accelerated Moon mission will have on NASA’s other important missions.”

The HLS funding was just one obstacle to a 2024 human landing identified in a report by NASA’s Office of Inspector General Nov. 12 that discussed the agency’s top challenges, also citing delays in the Space Launch System and Orion. It concluded that NASA “will be hard-pressed to land astronauts on the Moon by the end of 2024.”

“I don’t know anyone who thinks we’re going to get there by 2024,” Garver said. “No matter who won, this was going to be an impossible goal.”

TRANSITION TEAM

While the incoming administration’s plans for NASA aren’t certain, it is working quickly on that transition. On Nov. 10, it announced the rosters of the agency review teams, or transition teams, that will fan out across the federal government to gather information to guide the new administration’s planning.

“The transition teams really come in to see how things are doing and make recommendations going forward,” said Garver, who led the NASA transition team for the incoming Obama administration in 2008.

The agency review team for NASA is filled with people who either used to work at the agency or who are otherwise very familiar with it. Leading the team is Ellen Stofan, a planetary scientist who served as NASA chief scientist during the Obama administration and is now director of the National Air and Space Museum. Waleed Abdalati, her predecessor as NASA chief scientist, is also on the team. He was co-chair of the most recent Earth science decadal survey.

Others have a range of NASA experience. Pam Melroy is a former NASA astronaut who flew on three shuttle missions and later worked at the FAA’s commercial space office and at DARPA. Dave Noble, Shannon Valley and David Weaver all held policy and communications posts at NASA during the Obama administration; Valley is also a climate scientist.

Bhavya Lal, a researcher at the Science and Technology Policy Institute, has studied a wide range of space-related topics for NASA and other government agencies. Jedidah Isler, an assistant professor at Dartmouth, hasn’t previously worked for NASA, but her research in astrophysics complements the scientific backgrounds of other members of the team.

When the team will be able to start work, though, isn’t clear. The Trump administration has been slow to recognize Biden’s win, and the head of the General Services Administration, which controls the resources for presidential transitions, has yet to release those resources to the Biden transition. NASA officials did not respond to questions Nov. 12 about whether it had started discussions with the agency review team or what guidance it had received from the White House about supporting the transition.




ADMINISTRATOR CANDIDATES

Another priority for the Biden transition is picking a new NASA administrator. Despite being confirmed on a close, party-line vote in the Senate in April 2018, Bridenstine had won over members of Congress on both sides of the aisle for his leadership of the agency. Some in the space community hoped that, even in the event of a Biden victory, Bridenstine could be kept on.

Bridenstine, though, plans to leave the agency at the end of the Trump administration, telling Aerospace Daily that he “would not be the right person” to lead the agency in a Biden administration. President-elect Biden’s NASA Transition Team The NASA administrator, he said, needed to have a “close relationship” with the White House, something that he, a former Republican congressman, lacked.

While the Biden transition has been quiet about its choice for a new administrator, there’s been plenty of speculation, dating back long before the election, about potential candidates for the job. That list is dominated by women, such as Melroy, the former astronaut on the transition team. Others include Wanda Austin, former president and chief executive of The Aerospace Corporation; Gretchen McClain, a former NASA official who later worked in industry and serves on the board of several companies, such as Booz Allen Hamilton; and Wanda Sigur, former vice president and general manager for civil space at Lockheed Martin.

Another possibility is Rep. Kendra Horn (D-Okla.), who lost her bid for a second term in November’s elections. Horn serves as chair of the House Science space subcommittee and has expressed skepticism about aspects of the Artemis program, including NASA’s ability to achieve a 2024 landing.

When a new administrator would take office isn’t clear, but experience suggests it may be months after inauguration day. The Obama administration did not nominate Charlie Bolden as administrator (and Garver as deputy administrator) until May 2009; the Senate confirmed them in July. Bridenstine, despite emerging as a top candidate for NASA administrator days after Trump won the 2016 election, was not nominated until early September of 2017.

Morhard, the current deputy administrator, will also likely be departing, something he quietly acknowledged in his SpaceGen Summit talk hours after Biden won. “Things are changing in the United States, we know that,” he said. “I’m certainly looking forward to the future and what comes next.”


Source: https://spacenews.com/from-the-moon-to-the-earth-how-the-biden-administration-might-reshape-nasa/
« Ostatnia zmiana: Maj 13, 2021, 15:11 wysłana przez Orionid »

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Odp: [SN] Sen. Nelson is strong choice to advance 21st century space priorities
« Odpowiedź #1 dnia: Kwiecień 30, 2021, 01:28 »
Op-ed | Sen. Nelson is strong choice to advance 21st century space priorities
by Frank LoBiondo — April 29, 2021


Former U.S. Sen. Bill Nelson (D-Fla.) at his April 21 Senate confirmation hearing on Capitol Hill. Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

Nelson's age and experience are an asset, not a liability, when it comes to leading NASA through the budget battles ahead

When looking to strategically position the United States. as the dominant force in space for the 21st century, it made perfect sense to select a nominee to lead NASA  who  literally served our nation in space. Former Sen. Bill Nelson, who flew on the space shuttle in 1986 while a member of the House of Representatives, is a pragmatic yet inspired selection. He intimately knows the agency, its mission, its workforce, and its reputation in Congress. So why is there pushback rather than praise?

Source: https://spacenews.com/op-ed-sen-nelson-is-strong-choice-to-advance-21st-century-space-priorities/

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Odp: [SN] Nelson sworn in as NASA administrator
« Odpowiedź #2 dnia: Maj 05, 2021, 02:53 »
Nelson sworn in as NASA administrator
by Jeff Foust — May 3, 2021 [SN]


Vice President Kamala Harris swears in Bill Nelson as NASA administrator May 3. Credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani

WASHINGTON — Former senator Bill Nelson formally became NASA’s 14th administrator in a short ceremony May 3.

Vice President Kamala Harris gave the oath of office to Nelson at the Eisenhower Executive Office Building in Washington. Only a handful of guests and a media pool were in attendance, and the swearing-in ceremony was not broadcast live on NASA TV.



Source: https://spacenews.com/nelson-sworn-in-as-nasa-administrator/

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Odp: Artykuły o Space policy of the United States
« Odpowiedź #3 dnia: Maj 13, 2021, 15:13 »
Cabana to succeed Jurczyk as NASA associate administrator
by Jeff Foust — May 11, 2021 [SN]


Bob Cabana (right), seen here at an April 21 press conference for the Crew-2 mission, will become associate administrator May 17, succeeding the retiring Steve Jurczyk (left). Credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani

WASHINGTON — Bob Cabana, a former astronaut and longtime head of NASA’s Kennedy Space Center, will become NASA associate administrator later this month, replacing the retiring Steve Jurczyk.

In separate announcements May 10, NASA said that Jurczyk will retire from the agency effective May 14. Cabana will take over as associate administrator, the top civil service position at the agency, May 17.

Source: https://spacenews.com/cabana-to-succeed-jurczyk-as-nasa-associate-administrator/

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Odp: Artykuły o Space policy of the United States
« Odpowiedź #3 dnia: Maj 13, 2021, 15:13 »

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Odp: Artykuły o Space policy of the United States
« Odpowiedź #4 dnia: Maj 20, 2021, 13:30 »
Nelson uses Chinese Mars landing as a warning to Congress
by Jeff Foust — May 19, 2021 [SN]


NASA Administrator Bill Nelson shows an image taken by China’s Zhurong Mars rover, which he used as evidence of China’s growing capabilities in space exploration during a May 19 House appropriations hearing. Credit: House Appropriations Committee webcast

WASHINGTON — NASA Administrator Bill Nelson congratulated China for successfully landing a rover on Mars, but also used the milestone to warn Congress of China’s competitive threat to American leadership in human spaceflight.

In a statement May 19, hours after the China National Space Administration (CNSA) released the first images taken by the Zhurong rover since its May 14 landing on Mars, Nelson congratulated China for being only the second country, after the United States, to land a spacecraft on Mars and operate it there for more than a brief period.

Sourse: https://spacenews.com/nelson-uses-chinese-mars-landing-as-a-warning-to-congress/

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Odp: Artykuły o Space policy of the United States
« Odpowiedź #5 dnia: Maj 20, 2021, 14:02 »
NASA seeking more than $10 billion in infrastructure bill
by Jeff Foust — May 19, 2021 [SN]


NASA Administrator Bill Nelson said the agency would seek $5.4 billion in the upcoming infrastructure and jobs bill to fund competition for future missions in the Human Landing System program beyond the single award made to SpaceX in April. Credit: SpaceX

WASHINGTON — NASA Administrator Bill Nelson told House appropriators May 19 that the agency is requesting more than $11 billion in an upcoming infrastructure bill that would go for the agency’s Human Landing System program and upgrading center facilities.

Nelson, testifying in a virtual hearing by the House Appropriations Committee’s commerce, justice and science subcommittee about NASA’s fiscal year 2022 budget proposal, said the agency has submitted to Congress requests for funding to be included in legislation to enact what the White House calls the American Jobs Plan, which has a total value of $2.3 trillion over 10 years.

Source: https://spacenews.com/nasa-seeking-more-than-10-billion-in-infrastructure-bill/

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Odp: Artykuły o Space policy of the United States
« Odpowiedź #6 dnia: Maj 21, 2021, 15:29 »
Melroy wins strong support at hearing to be NASA deputy administrator
by Jeff Foust — May 20, 2021 [SN]


Pam Melroy, nominee to be NASA deputy administrator, testifies at her May 20 Senate confirmation hearing, after being introduced by another former astronaut, Sen. Mark Kelly (D-Ariz.) Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

WASHINGTON — The former astronaut tapped by the White House to serve as NASA deputy administrator told senators she supported extending the International Space Station and continuing limitations on the agency’s ability to cooperate with China.

Pam Melroy, nominated by the Biden administration April 16 to be deputy administrator, enjoyed strong support at a May 20 confirmation hearing by the Senate Commerce Committee that featured two other nominees for positions at other agencies.

Source: https://spacenews.com/melroy-wins-strong-support-at-hearing-to-be-nasa-deputy-administrator/

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Odp: Artykuły o Space policy of the United States
« Odpowiedź #7 dnia: Maj 21, 2021, 15:36 »
Op-ed | Beijing’s Troubling Space Ambitions
by  Maj. Jared Thompson — May 20, 2021 [SN]


Illustration of China's Tianwen-1 Mars lander. Credit: Twitter/ @CNSA_en

The moon and Mars on course to become the next disputed islands

Through partnerships and scientific collaboration, the United States should encourage the growth of UAE and Indian space programs – as well as the programs of traditional allies such as Japan and the European Space Agency – as a hedge against Chinese ambitions in space. In so doing, the United States must take prudent steps to ensure allied space programs are aligned with American interests and adhere to international norms and law.

Source: https://spacenews.com/op-ed-beijings-troubling-space-ambitions/

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Odp: Artykuły o Space policy of the United States
« Odpowiedź #8 dnia: Maj 23, 2021, 02:11 »
Nelson cites China’s growing space prowess, calls for sustained NASA funding
May 19, 2021 William Harwood [SFN]


NASA Administrator Bill Nelson holds up a picture of China’s Zhurong Mars rover during a virtual hearing with a House of Representatives subcommittee Wednesday. Credit: NASA/U.S. House of Representatives

Holding up a photo taken by China’s new Mars lander, NASA Administrator Bill Nelson warned Congress Wednesday that his agency faces increasingly stiff competition on the high frontier and that sustained funding for a new moon lander, infrastructure upgrades and other critical programs is vital for America’s space program.

Source: https://spaceflightnow.com/2021/05/19/nelson-cites-chinas-growing-space-prowess-calls-for-sustained-nasa-funding/

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Odp: Artykuły o Space policy of the United States
« Odpowiedź #9 dnia: Maj 28, 2021, 23:22 »
Biden seeks $2 billion funding boost for U.S. Space Force
by Sandra Erwin — May 28, 2021 [SN]


Acting Secretary of the Air Force John Roth visits the launch operations center at Cape Canaveral Space Force Station, Fla., May 17, 2021. Credit: U.S. Space Force

The Space Force accounts for about 2.5% of the Defense Department's $715 billion budget proposal.

WASHINGTON — President Biden’s $715 billion defense budget proposal for 2022 includes $17.4 billion for the U.S. Space Force, about $2.2 billion more than what Congress enacted in 2021.

The proposed $715 billion defense budget is $11.3 billion more than what Congress appropriated in 2021.

Source: https://spacenews.com/biden-seeks-2-billion-funding-boost-for-u-s-space-force/

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Odp: Artykuły o Space policy of the United States
« Odpowiedź #10 dnia: Czerwiec 19, 2021, 00:37 »
Senate confirms NASA deputy administrator, NOAA administrator
by Jeff Foust — June 17, 2021 Updated 6 p.m. Eastern with NASA and Coalition for Deep Space Exploration statements. [SN]


Rick Spinrad, nominee to be NOAA administrator, and Pam Melroy, nominee to be NASA deputy administrator, appear at a May 20 confirmation hearing. The Senate confirmed both nominations June 17. Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

WASHINGTON — The Senate confirmed the nominations June 17 of a former astronaut to be the deputy administrator of NASA and of an ocean scientist to lead the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Source: https://spacenews.com/senate-confirms-nasa-deputy-administrator-noaa-administrator/

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Odp: Artykuły o Space policy of the United States
« Odpowiedź #11 dnia: Wrzesień 08, 2021, 02:35 »
House budget reconciliation package funds NASA infrastructure but not lunar lander work
by Jeff Foust — September 6, 2021 [SN]


A draft of a multitrillion-dollar spending package that the House Science Committee will mark up Sept. 9 includes $4 billion for NASA infrastructure projects but nothing for its Human Landing System program. Credit: NASA

WASHINGTON — The House Science Committee will mark up its portion of a multitrillion-dollar spending bill this week that includes several billion dollars for NASA infrastructure but nothing for lunar lander development.

The House Science Committee is scheduled to meet Sept. 9 to mark up a portion of a $3.5 trillion spending bill being considered under a process known as budget reconciliation. That procedure allows the bill to pass the Senate with a simple majority without the threat of a filibuster.

Source: https://spacenews.com/house-budget-reconciliation-package-funds-nasa-infrastructure-but-not-lunar-lander-work/

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Odp: Artykuły o Space policy of the United States
« Odpowiedź #12 dnia: Wrzesień 23, 2021, 13:50 »
NASA splits human spaceflight directorate into two organizations
by Jeff Foust — September 22, 2021 [SN]


Jim Free (left) will be the associate administrator leading the new Exploration Systems Development Mission Directorate, whlie Kathy Lueders runs the Space Operations Mission Directorate. Credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani

WASHINGTON — NASA announced Sept. 21 that it is dividing the mission directorate responsible for human spaceflight into two organizations, one responsible for exploration systems development and the other for space operations, undoing a merger of two similar organizations a decade ago.

At a town hall meeting, NASA leadership announced that the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) would be split into two organizations. One, the Exploration Systems Development Mission Directorate, will be responsible for developing programs for the agency’s Artemis lunar exploration initiative and future Mars exploration. The other, the Space Operations Mission Directorate, will handle the International Space Station and low Earth orbit commercialization efforts.

Source: https://spacenews.com/nasa-splits-human-spaceflight-directorate-into-two-organizations/

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Odp: Artykuły o Space policy of the United States
« Odpowiedź #12 dnia: Wrzesień 23, 2021, 13:50 »