Autor Wątek: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)  (Przeczytany 68900 razy)

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Offline Orionid

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« Odpowiedź #270 dnia: Wrzesień 09, 2017, 23:58 »
NASA’s Lunar Mission Captures Solar Eclipse as Seen From the Moon
Aug. 29, 2017


This animation begins with the black-and-white image of the Moon’s shadow on Earth, as seen by NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, or LRO. The levels of gray in the image are gradually adjusted, saturating the background until the features of the landscape disappear. At that point, it’s possible to see the edge of the total solar eclipse. As the gray levels are restored, the umbra, or the completely shadowed area, becomes visible, followed by the penumbra, or partial shadow where part of the Sun peaks over the edge of the Moon.LRO’s Narrow Angle Camera can record 3600 gray levels, whereas most digital cameras record only 255 levels of gray. The camera was designed this way because the Moon is a high-contrast target, with very bright materials next to dark materials. In these images, those 3,600 levels of gray were squeezed into 255 levels because that’s what a typical computer screen is capable of displaying.
Credits: NASA/GSFC/Arizona State University


During the total solar eclipse on Aug. 21, NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, or LRO, captured an image of the Moon’s shadow over a large region of the United States, centered just north of Nashville, Tennessee.

As LRO crossed the lunar south pole heading north at 3,579 mph (1,600 meters per second), the shadow of the Moon was racing across the United States at 1,500 mph (670 meters per second).

A few minutes later, LRO began a slow 180-degree turn to look back at Earth, capturing an image of the eclipse very near the location where totality lasted the longest. The spacecraft’s Narrow Angle Camera began scanning Earth at 2:25:30 p.m. EDT (18:25:30 UTC) and completed the image 18 seconds later. (...)
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2017/LRO-captures-eclipse-from-the-moon
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Offline ekoplaneta

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« Odpowiedź #271 dnia: Wrzesień 10, 2017, 08:23 »
I jak zwykle z takimi fotkami bywa Polska w chmurach  :( Ale samo zdjęcie z sondy niesamowite.

Offline ekoplaneta

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Odp: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)
« Odpowiedź #272 dnia: Październik 23, 2017, 12:39 »
Lunar Reconaissance Orbiter zaliczył już 100 księżycowych dni  8)

https://www.space.com/38522-nasa-moon-probe-celebrates-100th-lunar-day.html

A swoją drogą, ciekawe czy sonda dostrzegła na powierzchni Księżyca ślady działania jego dawnej atmosfery, czyli erozji wietrznej? Czy takie ślady dałyby radę przetrwać 3,5 miliarda lat, narażone na bombardowanie meteorytów tych dużych i tych malutkich?

Offline Orionid

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« Odpowiedź #273 dnia: Kwiecień 13, 2018, 23:52 »
Wirtualna podróż po Księżycu dzięki LRO
BY KRZYSZTOF KANAWKA ON 13 KWIETNIA 2018

NASA opublikowała ciekawą “wirtualną podróż” po Księżycu w rozdzielczości 4K. Ta podróż powstała dzięki danym z misji Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

Misja amerykańskiej sondy Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) rozpoczęła się 18 czerwca 2009 roku startem z wyrzutni LC-41 na Florydzie. 23 czerwca 2009 LRO wszedł na orbitę Księżyca, a 15 września rozpoczął obserwacje naszego naturalnego satelity. (...)




Podróż po Księżycu dzięki LRO / Credits – NASA Goddard (...)

http://kosmonauta.net/2018/04/wirtualna-podroz-po-ksiezycu-dzieki-lro/

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« Odpowiedź #273 dnia: Kwiecień 13, 2018, 23:52 »

Offline Orionid

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Odp: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)
« Odpowiedź #274 dnia: Grudzień 12, 2018, 12:46 »
Równolatek Kosmonauty ma jeszcze paliwa na ok. 7 lat. Być może odegra rolę podczas księżycowej ekspansji Chińczyków.

NASA lunar orbiter now supporting commercial and international missions
by Jeff Foust — December 10, 2018


NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched in 2009, has enough fuel to operate well into the 2020s and could support future lunar landings, including commercial missions. Credit: NASA

WASHINGTON — A NASA spacecraft originally built as part of the previous effort to return humans to the moon is now playing a key role in the new effort at human lunar return, including aiding commercial landers.

One element of the Vision for Space Exploration, announced by President George W. Bush in 2004, was a series of robotic missions to the moon intended to start no later than 2008. The first such mission was an orbiter to collect high-resolution imagery of the lunar surface and other data to assist planning for future robotic and lunar lander missions.

That spacecraft, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), eventually launched in 2009, even as the Obama administration was revisiting those broader lunar exploration plans. While the Vision for Space Exploration’s lunar plans were ultimately cancelled, NASA continued to operate LRO as a science mission.

LRO remains operational today, and has about 20 kilograms of fuel left on board, Noah Petro, LRO project scientist, said at a meeting of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) Nov. 15. “That may not seem like a lot, but we don’t go through much fuel on an annual basis,” he said, primarily to manage the spacecraft’s momentum and make minor orbit adjustments.

“All told, we have approximately seven years of fuel remaining,” he said. That could decrease, he said, if the spacecraft performs additional maneuvers, such as to phase its orbit to observe specific activities like lunar landings.

Petro said that LRO will receive funding in fiscal year 2019 from the Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) program, where NASA will buy payload space on commercially developed landers. NASA announced Nov. 29 that it awarded contracts to nine companies working on such landers, although those companies will later have to compete for task orders to fly specific payloads, such as scientific instruments.

NASA is offering LRO to assist those future commercial landers. “The LRO team is standing ready to help,” said Barbara Cohen, LRO associate project scientist, at the Nov. 29 announcement. That can include identifying sites close to potential resources or have high scientific value while also being safe locations for spacecraft landings.

That can include observations of the landing themselves. “We are working with some upcoming missions to try to pick landing dates that have favorable viewing geometries” that would allow LRO to observe the landings as they happen, she said. “We want to observe the plumes as the landers land and kick up dust and disturb the environment.”

LRO is also supporting other lunar missions outside of the CLPS program. At the LEAG meeting, John Keller, deputy project scientist for LRO, noted that the mission is helping international missions, including imaging sites for proposed future missions by Europe, India, Japan and Russia.

This includes two upcoming missions scheduled to attempt lunar landings next year. Keller said LRO is studying options of observing the landing of SpaceIL’s lander, developed by an Israeli team that competed in the now-defunct Google Lunar X Prize, and India’s Chandrayaan-2 lander, both targeting landings between March and May 2019.

For future commercial missions, Keller said that LRO planned to be “proactive” and reach out to the individual companies. “We will go out and say, ‘Look, let us help you understand the LRO data set, how to use it and how it can it can help you be successful,’” he said. That could lead to discussions on how to further support those missions.

Notably absent from the discussions regarding LRO support of lunar missions is China, which launched its latest lunar lander, Chang’e-4, Dec. 7. American officials, including NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine and National Space Council Executive Secretary Scott Pace, have left open the possibility of exchanging lunar scientific data with China. That could include, Pace noted at an October event, exchanges of samples should China succeed with planned robotic lunar sample return missions.

Pace, though, said there were challenges to such exchanges. He described discussions about efforts to use LRO to observe the impact of an unidentified Chinese spacecraft on the moon, including providing LRO orbital information to the Chinese in order to coordinate impact observations.

That impact, though, ultimately occurred without any notification of time or location by the Chinese, “much to the irritation of the U.S. scientists who spent a lot of time on this,” Pace said. “This is not the way to build trust.”

https://spacenews.com/nasa-lunar-orbiter-now-supporting-commercial-and-international-missions/
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« Odpowiedź #275 dnia: Marzec 08, 2019, 18:45 »
NASA’s LRO Sheds Light on Lunar Water Movement
March 8, 2019

(...) “These results aid in understanding the lunar water cycle and will ultimately help us learn about accessibility of water that can be used by humans in future missions to the Moon,” said Amanda Hendrix, a senior scientist at the Planetary Science Institute and lead author of the paper. “Lunar water can potentially be used by humans to make fuel or to use for radiation shielding or thermal management; if these materials do not need to be launched from Earth, that makes these future missions more affordable.”

“This result is an important step in advancing the water story on the Moon and is a result of years of accumulated data from the LRO mission,” said John Keller, LRO deputy project scientist from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. (...)

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2019/lro-sheds-light-on-lunar-water-movement
https://ria.ru/20190311/1551687618.html
« Ostatnia zmiana: Marzec 19, 2019, 07:28 wysłana przez Orionid »

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Odp: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)
« Odpowiedź #276 dnia: Maj 15, 2019, 09:37 »
Kolejne liczne dowody na zmiany wyglądu powierzchni  globu, który powoli kurczy się na skutek wewnętrznych naprężeń , które skutkują  wstrząsami tektonicznymi.

The Moon is Quaking as it Shrinks
MAY 13, 2019

COLLEGE PARK, Md. -- In 2010, an analysis of imagery from NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) found that the moon shriveled like a raisin as its interior cooled, leaving behind thousands of cliffs called thrust faults on the moon’s surface. Now a new analysis suggests that the moon may still be shrinking and actively producing moonquakes along these thrust faults. (...)

 “We found that a number of the quakes recorded in the Apollo data happened very close to the faults seen in the LRO imagery,” Schmerr said, noting that the LRO imagery also shows physical evidence of geologically recent fault movement, such as landslides and tumbled boulders. “It’s quite likely that the faults are still active today. You don’t often get to see active tectonics anywhere but Earth, so it’s very exciting to think these faults may still be producing moonquakes.”

During the Apollo missions astronauts placed a number of different instruments on the moon, including five seismometers on the moon’s surface during the Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15 and 16 missions. The Apollo 11 seismometer operated only for three weeks, but the four remaining instruments recorded 28 shallow moonquakes—the type produced by tectonic faults—from 1969 to 1977. On Earth, the quakes would have ranged in magnitude from about 2 to 5.

Using the revised location estimates from their new algorithm, the researchers found that the epicenters of eight of those 28 shallow quakes were within 19 miles of faults visible in the LRO images. This was close enough for the team to conclude that the faults likely caused the quakes. Schmerr led the effort to produce “shake maps” derived from models that predict where the strongest shaking should occur, given the size of the thrust faults.


The researchers also found that six of the eight quakes happened when the moon was at or near its apogee, the point in the moon’s orbit when it is farthest from Earth. This is where additional tidal stress from Earth’s gravity causes a peak in the total stress on the moon’s crust, making slippage along the thrust faults more likely.

“We think it’s very likely that these eight quakes were produced by faults slipping as stress built up when the lunar crust was compressed by global contraction and tidal forces, indicating that the Apollo seismometers recorded the shrinking moon and the moon is still tectonically active,” said Thomas Watters, lead author of the research paper and senior scientist in the Center for Earth and Planetary Studies at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington.

Much as a grape wrinkles as it dries to become a raisin, the moon also wrinkles as its interior cools and shrinks. Unlike the flexible skin on a grape, however, the moon’s crust is brittle, causing it to break as the interior shrinks. This breakage results in thrust faults, where one section of crust is pushed up over an adjacent section. These faults resemble small stair-shaped cliffs, or scarps, when seen from the lunar surface; each is roughly tens of yards high and a few miles long.

The LRO has imaged more than 3,500 fault scarps on the moon since it began operation in 2009. Some of these images show landslides or boulders at the bottom of relatively bright patches on the slopes of fault scarps or nearby terrain. Because weathering gradually darkens material on the lunar surface, brighter areas indicate regions that are freshly exposed by an event such as a moonquake.

Other LRO fault images show fresh tracks from boulder falls, suggesting that quakes sent these boulders rolling down their cliff slopes. Such tracks would be erased relatively quickly, in terms of geologic time, by the constant rain of micrometeoroid impacts on the moon. With nearly a decade of LRO imagery already available and more on the way in the coming years, the team would like to compare pictures of specific fault regions from different times to look for fresh evidence of recent moonquakes.

“For me, these findings emphasize that we need to go back to the moon,” Schmerr said. “We learned a lot from the Apollo missions, but they really only scratched the surface. With a larger network of modern seismometers, we could make huge strides in our understanding of the moon’s geology. This provides some very promising low-hanging fruit for science on a future mission to the moon.”

https://umdrightnow.umd.edu/news/moon-quaking-it-shrinks

Offline juram

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« Odpowiedź #277 dnia: Czerwiec 18, 2019, 08:46 »
10 lat temu rozpoczęła się misja księżycowego zwiadowcy - Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Ten satelita jest rekordzistą, jeśli chodzi o czas pracy na orbicie okołoksiężycowej i ogromne ilości danych, regularnie przekazywanych na Ziemię. Dzięki LRO, wiedza o Księżycu została niebywale wzbogacona i przewartościowana a Księżyc nie jest już taki, jakim znaliśmy go wcześniej.
Na pokładzie LRO, pośród imion wielu ludzi którzy wsparli tę wyjątkową misję, jest też moje imię. ;D 


« Ostatnia zmiana: Czerwiec 18, 2019, 09:03 wysłana przez juram »

Offline Orionid

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« Odpowiedź #278 dnia: Czerwiec 20, 2019, 05:16 »
Stało się to  w 60. rocznicę urodzin bohaterów filmu "O dwóch takich co ukradli Księżyc" i w 26. rocznicę lotu pierwszej Amerykanki w kosmos, a także w 40. rocznicę wyboru Rosjan do lądowania na powierzchni Księżyca.

Cytuj
They are Leonov, Bykovsky, Voronov, Khrunov, Yeliseyev, Makarov, Rukavishnikov, and Patsayev. Mishin expects a landing by the end of 1970; Kamanin thinks this is impossible. Afanasyev and Mishin propose modernisation of the N1, but this will take three to four years, by which time the booster will be essentially obsolete. The second launch of the N1 is set for 3 July. It would be a welcome miracle if it flew, but it still would not be enough to erase the American lead in the moon race.

Nominalnie misja miała trwać rok.

Misja LRO rozpoczęta!
  18.06.2009 o 21:32:00,230 z Cape Canaveral wystartowała RN Atlas-5/401, która wyniosła
w T+43' 23" na trajektorię doksiężycową orbiter Księżyca LRO oraz impaktor LCROSS.
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/n090616.htm#01

LRO/LCROSS w drodze na Księżyc
BY ADAM PIECH ON 18 CZERWCA 2009

18 czerwca przejdzie do historii jako początek misji dającej podwaliny dla załogowej eksploracji Księżyca w ramach programu Constellation. O godzinie 23:32 czasu polskiego wystartował Atlas-V z ładunkiem LRO/LCROSS. Start opóźnił się o dwadzieścia minut ze względu na chmury burzowe znajdujące się w pobliżu przylądka Canaveral. Start można obejrzeć poniżej…




https://kosmonauta.net/2009/06/2009-06-19-lro/

LRO/LCROSS już na orbicie wokół Księżyca
BY MACIEJ MICKIEWICZ ON 23 CZERWCA 2009

Dzisiejszego dnia nasz naturalny satelita – Księżyc, zyskał dwa nowe pojazdy na orbitach wokół niego. Dokładnie 4.5 dnia po starcie rakiety Atlas V z przylądka Canaveral na Florydzie, misja LRO dzisiaj o godzinie 11:47 CEST rozpoczęła 40 minutowy manewr wejścia na orbitę, początkowo mocno eliptyczną. Manewr LOI (Lunar Orbit Insertion) zakończył się o 12:27 CEST.

Śmiało można powiedzieć, że rozpoczyna się nowy rozdział w historii astronautyki, pierwszy większy krok, mający na celu umożliwienie ludziom powrotu na Srebrny Glob.

Obecnie orbita LRO jest nachylona pod kątem 30 stopni i charakteryzuje się mocno eliptycznym kształtem – 220km x 3100km nad powierzchnią. Przez następne 5 dni wykonane zostaną jeszcze 4 manewry, które nadadzą orbicie pożądany kształt 30km (nad południowym biegunem) x 216km (nad północnym).

Inżynierowie oraz kontrolerzy, którzy dzisiaj pracowali z LRO (w tym ważnym dniu), bardzo chwalili bezproblemowość dzisiejszych manewrów. Craig Tooley, menadżer programu LRO, powiedział nawet, że wszystko “szło dzisiaj jak w zegarku”. Byliśmy dzisiaj świadkami dużego, milowego kroku, programu Constellation.

Przez następne 2 miesiące sonda będzie przygotowywała się do swojej pracy. Do tego czasu będą kalibrowane i sprawdzane wszystkie instrumenty na pokładzie satelity. Potem LRO zacznie podstawowy okres pracy, wynoszący rok (z opcją wydłużenia misji do 3-5 lat). Będzie szukać odpowiednich miejsc do lądowania dla powracających na Księżyc ludzi, tworząc przy tym mapy o nieosiągalnej wcześniej dokładności. Być może udzieli nam ostatecznej odpowiedzi odnośnie obecności wody w wiecznie zacienionych kraterach oraz udzieli dokładnych informacji związanych z radiacją, z której występowaniem na nieznanym jak dotąd poziomie, ludzie będą musieli się w przyszłości zmierzyć.

Razem z LRO dzisiejszego dnia na orbitę księżycową weszła druga satelita – LCROSS (do ich rozdzielenia doszło kilkadziesiąt minut po starcie z Ziemi), stale połączona z drugim stopniem rakiety Atlas – Centaurem. Ten 700 kilogramowy satelita za zaledwie 79 mln $ posłuży do wymanewrowania Centaurem, aby ten uderzył w wcześniej wybrane miejsce na biegunie południowym, tym samym wzbudzając chmurę gazów i pyłów na wysokość kilkudziesięciu kilometrów. Sam LCROSS przeleci przez ten obłok zbierając cenne informacje na temat wyrzuconego materiału, i być może w ten sposób zostanie odkryty lód. Podczas tej niecodziennej sytuacji w rejon upadku Centaura i LCROSS zostaną wycelowane teleskopy z Ziemi, teleskop Hubbla i sonda LRO. To wydarzenie zaplanowane jest na 9 października.

Źródło: NASA
https://kosmonauta.net/2009/06/lrolcrossorbita/

10 Years Ago: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Begins Mission to Map the Moon
June 18, 2019

(...) The LRO spacecraft carries seven scientific instruments:

the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) to characterize the lunar radiation environment;

the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE) to identify areas cold enough to trap ice;

the Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LMAP) to search for ice in the lunar polar regions;

the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) to create a map of hydrogen distribution and to determine the neutron component of the lunar radiation environment;

the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) to measure slopes and roughness of potential landing sites;

the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) consisting of two-narrow angle and one wide-angle camera to take high-resolution images of the lunar surface; and

the Mini Radio-Frequency (Mini-RF) experiment, an advanced radar system to image the polar regions and search for water ice.


Illustration of LRO and its scientific instruments.


Illustration of LCROSS and its scientific instruments on panel

(...)
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/10-years-ago-lunar-reconnaissance-orbiter-begins-mission-to-map-the-moon

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Offline Orionid

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« Odpowiedź #279 dnia: Czerwiec 20, 2019, 05:17 »


Link do materiału:

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« Odpowiedź #280 dnia: Sierpień 03, 2019, 06:59 »
Po analizie  danych wysokościowych dla 15 000  kraterów o średnicach od 2,5 km do 15 km,  uzyskanych przez MESSENGER i LRO, zauważono , że kratery są do 10% płytsze w pobliżu  północnego bieguna Merkurego i południowego bieguna Księżyca, co przemawia za występowaniem wcześniej niewykrytych  złóż gęstego lodu na obu globach.

The Moon and Mercury May Have Thick Ice Deposits
Aug. 2, 2019

(...) The study used elevation data obtained by MESSENGER and LRO to measure approximately 15,000 simple craters with diameters ranging from 2.5 km to 15 km (about 1.5 miles to 9.3 miles) on Mercury and the Moon. Researchers found that craters become up to 10% shallower near the north pole of Mercury and the south pole of the Moon, but not the north pole of the Moon.

The authors concluded that the most probable explanation for these shallower craters is the accumulation of previously undetected thick ice deposits on both worlds. Supporting this conclusion, the researchers found that the pole-facing slopes of these craters are slightly shallower than their equator-facing slopes, and that the shallowing is more significant in regions that promote ice stability because of Mercury’s orbit around the Sun. The topographic signal detected by the scientists is relatively more prominent in smaller simple craters, but does not preclude the possibility that ice may be more widespread in larger craters across the lunar pole.

Additionally, unlike Mercury, where the ice has been shown to be nearly pure, the deposits detected on the Moon are most likely mixed with the regolith, possibly in a layered formation. The typical age of the simple craters examined by the researchers indicates they could potentially accumulate ice that was later mixed with overlying regolith over long time scales. The scientists found that these inferred buried ice deposits are correlated with the locations of already detected surface ice. This finding could imply that the exposed ice deposits may be exhumed, or they could result from molecular diffusion from depth.(...)

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2019/moon-mercury-ice

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« Odpowiedź #281 dnia: Kwiecień 09, 2021, 00:50 »
Cienie księżycowego bieguna południowego
BY KRZYSZTOF KANAWKA ON 8 KWIETNIA 2021




https://kosmonauta.net/2021/04/cienie-ksiezycowego-bieguna-poludniowego/

https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/4893

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