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Offline Orionid

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Sojuz-2.1b/Fregat | Kosmos 2557 | 07.07.2022
« Odpowiedź #30 dnia: Czerwiec 27, 2022, 06:24 »
7. rosyjski start od rozpoczęcia wojny.

Rosyjski satelita nawigacyjny
  07.07. o 09:18:06,211 z Plesiecka wystrzelona została RN Sojuz-2.1b/Fregat, która wyniosła w T+3h 34' na orbitę
o parametrach: hp=19249 km, ha=19719 km, i=64,76° satelitę nawigacyjnego Glonass-K systemu GŁONASS.
Otrzymał on nazwę seryjną Kosmos 2557.
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/n220701.htm#03






https://twitter.com/planet4589/status/1545177164965974016
https://twitter.com/SpaceGirlLina/status/1545362637277372416

С космодрома Плесецк запущен спутник «Глонасс-К»
07.2022 17:59

Cytuj
После выведения на орбиту офицеры Центра контроля космического пространства внесли информацию о нем в Главный каталог космических объектов российской системы контроля космического пространства и приступили к анализу и обработке информации о новом космическом объекте для принятия его на сопровождение наземными средствами Главного центра разведки космической обстановки Космических войск ВКС.

Выведенный на орбиту спутник пополнит орбитальную группировку российской Глобальной навигационной спутниковой системы «Глонасс». В настоящее время в составе группировки «Глонасс» 25 космических аппаратов, два аппарата нового поколения «Глонасс-К», еще три находятся на техобслуживании.
https://www.roscosmos.ru/37887/

Запущенный спутник «Глонасс-К» внесли в каталог космических объектов
07.07.2022 22:43

После выведения на орбиту космического аппарата «Глонасс-К», запущенного в четверг с космодрома Плесецк ракетой-носителем среднего класса «Союз-2.1б», и завершения операций по уводу разгонного блока «Фрегат» с целевой орбиты космического аппарата офицеры Центра контроля космического пространства приступили к анализу и обработке координатной и некоординатной информации о новых космических объектах для принятия их на сопровождение наземными средствами Главного центра разведки космической обстановки космических войск ВКС. (...)
https://www.roscosmos.ru/37896/

Russian Soyuz rocket hauls Glonass navigation satellite to space
July 10, 2022 Stephen Clark


A Soyuz rocket lifts off July 7 with a Glonass navigation satellites. Credit: Russian Ministry of Defense

A fresh satellite joined Russia’s Glonass navigation network with the launch of a Soyuz rocket Thursday from a military spaceport about 500 miles (800 kilometers) north of Moscow.

The new Glonass satellite lifted off Thursday from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome at 5:18 a.m. EDT (0918 GMT; 12:18 p.m. Moscow time), according to the Russian Ministry of Defense.

A Soyuz-2.1b rocket and a Fregat upper stage delivered the Glonass satellite to its targeted circular orbit more than 11,900 miles (19,100 kilometers) above Earth, with an inclination of 64.8 degrees to the equator.

The ascent into that orbit from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome took about three-and-a-half hours. The Soyuz rocket flew southeast from Plesetsk, then jettisoned four kerosene-fueled first stage boosters around two minutes into the mission. The launcher next released its nose cone, then shut down its core stage engine.

The core stage fell away from the Soyuz third stage, which fired an RD-0124 engine until about nine minutes after launch. The third stage then deployed a Fregat upper stage for a series of burns to place the Glonass satellite into its targeted orbit.

Russia’s defense ministry said the satellite was functioning normally after separating from the Fregat upper stage. Defense officials named the new Glonass satellite Kosmos 2557, keeping with the naming scheme for Russian military spacecraft.

The Glonass navigation fleet is Russian military’s version of the U.S. Space Force’s Global Positioning System. Europe’s Galileo and China’s Beidou satellite navigation systems are also designed for global coverage.

Russia’s military uses the Glonass positioning signals for naval and aircraft navigation and missile targeting. Glonass signals are also used by civilians.


The extent of the Glonass network’s usage in Russia’s military invasion of Ukraine is not clear — some users can simultaneously incorporate data from the Glonass, GPS, and Galileo networks for an improved position estimate — but the Ukrainian government requested assistance earlier this year from volunteer hackers to disable or degrade Russian tech infrastructure. One of the targets of Ukraine’s “IT Army” was the Glonass system.

The new satellite launched Thursday is the fourth spacecraft in Russia’s Glonass K series of navigation satellites, a new generation designed to operate longer and transmit more navigation signals than earlier spacecraft.

The Glonass K satellites weigh around 2,060 pounds, or 935 kilograms, somewhat less than the earlier generation Glonass M satellites.



Artist’s illustration of a Glonass K satellite. Credit: ISS Reshetnev

The Glonass K satellites are designed to operate for 10 years — an improvement from the seven-year design life of previous satellites — and features five navigation channels, including a new civilian L-band signal. The new craft are lighter, generate more electrical power, and are based on an unpressurized Express 1000K bus built by ISS Reshetnev in Zheleznogorsk, Russia.

The Glonass K spacecraft will also support the international Cospas-Sarsat search and rescue network, Russian officials said. The Glonass K satellite design also uses more Russian-built equipment than previous Glonass spacecraft, a change triggered by previous international sanctions on Russia.

With the launch Thursday, the Glonass fleet consists of 26 active satellites, including 22 operational spacecraft and four more undergoing commissioning or in “maintenance,” according to the Russian government’s official Glonass network status website.

The constellation requires 24 satellites spread among three orbital planes to provide global navigation coverage.

https://spaceflightnow.com/2022/07/10/russian-soyuz-rocket-hauls-glonass-navigation-satellite-to-space/

https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2022/07/russian-glonass-k-launch/
https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/uragan-k1.htm
« Ostatnia zmiana: Lipiec 12, 2022, 11:20 wysłana przez Orionid »

Offline Orionid

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Historyczny przegląd wydarzeń 7-9 lipca (3)
« Odpowiedź #31 dnia: Czerwiec 28, 2022, 06:14 »
Kevin Anthony Ford 07.07.1960
Astronauta jest na  pozycji  nr 500 na liście tych, którzy co najmniej raz okrążyli na pokładzie statku kosmicznego Ziemię.
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/500.htm
http://www.astronautix.com/f/fordkevin.html
https://news.brown.edu/articles/2013/02/spacestation
https://twitter.com/ASE_Astronauts/status/1545075428355891200
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1544926687049252866

John Howard Casper 09.07.1943
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=1864.msg67806#msg67806
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/227.htm
https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/atoms/files/casper_john.pdf
http://www.astronautix.com/c/casper.html
https://eu.blackmountainnews.com/story/news/2022/05/12/former-astronaut-montreat-resident-john-casper-publishes-memoir/9732493002/
https://twitter.com/ASE_Astronauts/status/1545800280104632321
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1545652721159634944

=======================

RN Proton-K Blok-D-2 wyniosła sondę Fobos 1 w kierunku Marsa  07.07.1988
http://www.astronautix.com/f/fobos1f.html
https://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/heasarc/missions/phobos1.html
https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/phobos.html
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1545216852779057154

Pathfinder - samolot zasilany energią słoneczną osiągnął rekordową wysokość około 22 km 07.07.1992
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1545135573924470787

Rakieta nośna Delta-2 (7925H) wyniosła na orbitę heliocentryczną wiodącą ku Marsowi sondę MER-B  08.07.2003
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/sondy/merb.htm
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=139.msg128649#msg128649
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1545057583349698561

Sojuz MS-01 ISS-47S Irkut 07.07.2016
Początek 115-dniowej misji z japońskim astronautą Takuya Onishi
Był to pierwszy lot zmodernizowanego załogowego statku Sojuz.
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/545.htm
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=2468.0
https://twitter.com/JAXA_JFLIGHT/status/1544881396984025096

M&Ms w kosmosie czyli Światowy Dzień Czekolady 7 lipca
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1545164664450981888

111 lot X-15 z Joe Engle, który osiągnął wysokość 51 238 metrów 08.07.1964
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1545289074994425856

=============================================

Rzecznik prasowy pobliskiej bazy wojsk powietrznych potwierdził lokalnej gazecie "Roswell Daily Record" informację o odnalezieniu wraku latającego spodka 08.07.1947
https://polskieradio24.pl/39/156/artykul/2543091,incydent-w-roswell-%E2%80%93-tajemnica-ktora-kosmicznie-rozpalila-wyobraznie
https://www.washingtonpost.com/history/2022/07/08/roswell-flying-saucer-ufo/
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1545485625150816256

Przygotowania astronautów do lotów Enterprise/ALT  08.07.1977
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1545290333868568577

Stephen Ptacek wykonał pierwszy lot zasilanego energią słoneczną samolotu „Solar Challenger” 08.07.1981
https://www.nytimes.com/1981/06/09/science/physicist-s-solar-airplane-set-to-challenge-the-english-channel.html
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1545191184427290624

Pierwsze użycie na ISS MSG (Microgravity Science Glovebox) 08.07.2002
Jest to szczelne pomieszczenie zapewniające astronautom prowadzenie eksperymentów mikrograwitacyjnych poprzez użycie specjalnej rękawicy.
https://www.nasa.gov/centers/marshall/history/msg.html
https://www.nasa.gov/centers/marshall/news/releases/2022/microgravity-science-glovebox-celebrates-20-years-of-success.html
https://twitter.com/NASA_Marshall/status/1545486608765427712
https://twitter.com/NASA_Marshall/status/1545486614998269953

STS-65 Columbia/F-17 (08.07.1994 - 23.07.1994)
W skład załogi wchodziła pierwsza Japonka Chiaki Mukai.
https://humans-in-space.jaxa.jp/en/astronaut/mukai-chiaki/
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/loty/sts65.htm
https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-65.html
https://twitter.com/AstroDude/status/1545387047715758081

Podpisanie porozumienia o przystąpieniu Czeskiej republiki do ESA 08.07.2008
https://www.esa.int/About_Us/Corporate_news/Czech_Republic_accedes_to_the_ESA_Convention
https://twitter.com/ESA_History/status/1545350731577774080

Ostatni start wahadłowca w ramach programu STS 08.07.2011
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/loty/sts135.htm
https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts135/launch/sts-135_mission-overview.html
https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts135/main/index.html
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3719.msg134022#msg134022
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1545407368909017088
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1545407389603700744
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1545407394632683523
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1545291591631388675

=============================================

21. lot X-1B z Johnem McKayem, który osiągnął 1,65 Macha i wysokość 18 300 metrów 09.07.1957
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1549379732403372032

Załoga Apollo 11 przybywa do KSC 09.07.1969
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1545799953850712065
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1545799960586866691

Voyager 2 minął Jowisza w minimalnej odległości 721 670 km od centrum planety, około 650 000 km od szczytów chmur. 09.07.1979 22:29:01 UTC
Podczas przelotu były wykonywane zdjęcia Jowisza i jego księżyców.
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1545805985754890240

Ariane 44L wyniosła na orbitę dwa satelity Insat 2A i Intelsat II F4 09.07.1992
http://www.astronautix.com/i/insat2.html
http://www.astronautix.com/e/eutelsat.html
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1545655237712547840

STS-50 Columbia/F-12 - lądowanie 09.07.1992
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=800.msg177292#msg177292
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1545656497983483904
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1545928293270147072

Luca Parmitano wykonał  poniższe zdjęcie laboratorium Columbus podczas EVA  09.07.2013
https://twitter.com/ESA_History/status/1545677131971272706

Inauguracja ECSAT (European Centre for Space Applications and Telecommunications) 09.07.2015
https://upwikipl.top/wiki/European_Centre_for_Space_Applications_and_Telecommunications
https://www.esa.int/Space_in_Member_States/United_Kingdom/Flags_are_raised_at_ESA_s_first_UK_centre
https://twitter.com/ESA_History/status/1545693489744072706

Zdjęcie komety 67P/Czuriumow-Gierasimienko z odległości 11.7 km  09.07.2016
https://twitter.com/ESA_History/status/1545666310620708864

=============================================

Testy Saturna S-IV w filmie dokumentalnym z 1964 roku
https://twitter.com/SpaceToday1/status/1545381172972343298

Członkowie zespołu kontroli misji opracowali procedury ratunkowe Apollo 13 1970
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1545452661968887810

Prototyp statku ratunkowego dla ISS  X-38 Ship 2 po oddzieleniu od samolotu NASA B-52 - 1992
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1545799949446676480

Obsada filmu "Apollo 13"  1994
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1545437564492038145

Przygotowywania do symulacji misji Skylab w komorze ciśnieniowej  w ramach eksperymentu SMEAT (Skylab Medical Altitude Experiment) 1972
https://twitter.com/SF_Skylab/status/1544954562221596676

Skafander ciśnieniowy pilotów Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird
http://www.wvi.com/~sr71webmaster/press_suit001.html
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1545835933358063624
« Ostatnia zmiana: Lipiec 21, 2022, 23:18 wysłana przez Orionid »

Offline Orionid

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Odp: Wątek pomocniczy
« Odpowiedź #32 dnia: Czerwiec 30, 2022, 07:08 »
Cytuj
Some statistics on the topical subject of uncontrolled reentries of rocket stages, from my database.I assume that  stages with dry masses less than 1500 kg ("small stages") burn up completely on reentry, and more massive ones ("big stages") may have bits that hit the ground
https://twitter.com/planet4589/status/1544857733605867520

Cytuj
So I will focus on big stages that made uncontrolled reentries. These can happen from 12 hour after launch to many years after launch (active or targeted reentries always happen at less than 12 hours).

Since Jan 1992 (past 30.5 yers) there have been 860 uncontrolled reentries of large rocket stages, so about 28 per year. (Last 10.5 years only, figure is 25 per year).

Currently I count 2182 rocket stages still in orbit of which 1213 are 'big' stages. Only 315 of these have perigees below 600 km (71 in LEO, 244 in highly elliptical orbits).

Of that 315, 232 have been up for less than 20 years, so they aren't all Cold War leftovers.

Detailed lists of uncontrolled reentries of big stages in recent years can be found in my annual report papers such as space21.pdf at https://planet4589.org/space/papers/

More rocket stage reentry stats, this time for objects with mass 100 kg and up.
 - Reentered since 1992, 1462 objects
 - In orbit with perigee < 600 km,  581 objects

President's Message Relayed from Atlas Satellite-- Dwight D. Eisenhower (December 19, 1958)
Added to the National Registry: 2012 Essay by Cary O’Dell

The following words were President Eisenhower’s full remarks to the country on December 19, 1958:

This is the President of the United States speaking. Through the marvels of scientific advance, my voice is coming to you from a satellite circling in outer space. My message is a simple one. Though this unique means, I convey to you and all mankind, America’s wish for peace on earth and good will to men everywhere.

As heartfelt as those words no doubt were, what the President had to say to the world that day was of far lesser importance than how he said it, the means behind the message.

For, as the President mentions in his short statement, for the first time, his voice—a human voice—was being broadcast from outer space and to the terrestrial earth.

Historically intertwined with the US-Soviet “Cold War” (usually dated 1947-1991) was the unofficially declared US-Soviet “Space Race” begging the question: Which superpower would be the first to seize the heavens?

The Russians seemed to have gotten a head start with the launch of Sputnik, the world’s first artificial earth satellite, which they catapulted into space on October 4, 1957. Sputnik penetrated low orbit, was visible from the Earth, and had its radio signals detectable from the ground.

Originally, then sitting President Dwight D. Eisenhower was not overly impressed with or worried about Sputnik or what it represented. Actually, he was pleased that it would be the USSR, and not the US, who were the first to traipse into the legally confusing world of orbital satellites. After all, who actually owned outer space?

But Ike’s take on the space situation was very much the minority opinion. Many, many other Americans—including many in the Eisenhower Administration—saw Sputnik as the first notable victory in the Space Race and America was very much on the losing end of it.

In America, in Sputnik’s wake, public outcry and government support (even if Ike’s was begrudging) soon lead to the creation of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA; now known as DARPA), a program specifically geared towards space initiatives, and, shortly thereafter, to the creation of NASA which was officially sanctioned on June 29, 1958.

It was the ARPA agency who launched the US’s first communications satellite into space. It went upon on December 18, 1958, originating from Cape Canaveral, Florida, and was strapped aboard an American Atlas rocket.

The name of the satellite and the name of the project that saw to its development was titled SCORE, the Signal Communications by Orbiting Relay Equipment. The satellite “package” was designed and built by engineer Kenneth Masterman-Smith.

The creation and launch of SCORE was a super-secret mission. At the time of its launch, only 35 people were believed to have known about it. Not surprisingly, the POTUS was one of them. The President recorded his greeting/test message a few days prior to the liftoff at the White House. Two tape recorders--one installed as a backup—that were able to be switched on by way of radio signals sent from the Cape, were built into the missile and the audio of the President’s message was placed inside each of them. The President’s brief remarks—transcribed above— were played back to the earth the day after the rocket’s launch; they were played during the satellite’s second orbit after the recording failed to play during its initial circling of the Earth.

After its broadcast, at the White House later that evening, the President was informed of the successfully completed space mission; he dutifully and proudly relayed the news to those in attendance at the White House that night.

But as auspicious as it was to have the President speaking from space, the relatively weak signal was not heard by anyone but the most devoted radio hobbyists with the most sensitive equipment. Most Americans only heard the President’s comments when they were replayed later during radio and television newscasts.

Still, the launch of the satellite and the President’s broadcast from space was considered a major success. SCORE’s successful exit from the earth, its ability to transmit and the fact that it was the first time a missile guidance system had steered a satellite into orbit hallmarked the entire endeavor as a great victory.

Despite its historic notoriety, the SCORE satellite did not stay airborne for long. Twelve days into its flight, its internal batteries died. It burned up when it reentered the Earth’s atmosphere on January 21, 1959.

Nevertheless, this initial triumph helped pave the way for future communications. The first of the two revolutionary Telstar satellites was launched in July of 1962, the second in May of 1963. Via these orbitals, the first TV signals, telephone calls, fax images and live transatlantic feed could be relayed from space.

Hence, though the actual number of words his actually stated were few, in that recording of December 1958, President Eisenhower nevertheless spoke volumes and opened up the world to the brand new age.


Cary O’Dell is with the Motion Picture, Broadcast and Recorded Sound division of the Library of Congress. He is the author of the books “June Cleaver Was a Feminist!” (2014) and “Women Pioneers in Television” (1997). He also served as assistant editor of “The Concise Encyclopedia of American Radio” (2009) and “The Biographical Encyclopedia of American Radio” (2010).
https://www.loc.gov/static/programs/national-recording-preservation-board/documents/EisenhowerSpaceMessage.pdf

https://twitter.com/Timothy_Hughes/status/1546061244418990082
« Ostatnia zmiana: Lipiec 11, 2022, 13:54 wysłana przez Orionid »

Offline Orionid

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Historyczny przegląd wydarzeń 10.07.-12.07. (4)
« Odpowiedź #33 dnia: Lipiec 01, 2022, 06:53 »
Piotr Iljicz Klimuk 10.07.1942
W 1975 roku był uczestnikiem rekordowo długiego wtedy radzieckiego lotu kosmicznego (63 dni).
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=4699.msg167252#msg167252
https://twitter.com/ASE_Astronauts/status/1546117066939371522

Iwan Wiktorowicz Wagner 10.07.1985
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=4700.msg167253#msg167253
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1546012592614739968
https://twitter.com/katlinegrey/status/1546016193919832067

Lawrence James DeLucas 11.07.1950
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/272.htm
http://www.spacefacts.de/bios/astronauts/english/delucas_lawrence.htm
http://www.astronautix.com/d/delucas.html
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1546376238532415490
https://twitter.com/aisoffice/status/1546419722585079808

Rick Douglas Husband (12.07.1957 - 01.02.2003)
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/386.htm
http://www.astronautix.com/h/husband.html
http://edition.cnn.com/2003/US/02/01/sprj.colu.shuttle.husband/
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3513.msg128223#msg128223
https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-107.html

https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1546917312195956738

==================

Nikola Tesla (10.071856–07.01.1943)
https://ciekawostkihistoryczne.pl/leksykon/nikola-tesla-1856-1943/
https://twitter.com/engineers_feed/status/1546149223770365957
https://www.croatiaweek.com/166th-anniversary-of-teslas-birthday-to-be-celebrated-in-his-hometown/

Rakieta Thor-Delta wyniosła na orbitę satelitę telekomunikacyjnego Telstar 1, który był pierwszym komercyjnym satelitą 10.07.1962
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=800.msg177522#msg177522
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1546013850603991040
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1546138427497893889

Rakieta sondująca Terrier Sandhawk została wystrzelona z Pocket Flat Rocker Range PFRR w Chatanika (1969-2014) na Alasce z zadaniem obserwacji zaćmienia Słońca z wysokości 300 km 10.07.1972
http://www.astronautix.com/t/terriersandhawk.html
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1546016367308161024

Sonda Giotto minęła kometę Grigg-Skjellerup w odległości 100-200 km jądra 10.07.1985
Był to najbliższy do dziś przelot sondy w pobliżu komety.
https://sci.esa.int/web/giotto/-/31880-grigg-skjellerup
https://twitter.com/ESA_History/status/1546057136345698305

Rosetta przeleciała z prędkością 15 km/s w odległości 3162 km od planetoidy (21) Lutetia  10.07.2010
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/sondy/ross.htm
https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Space_Science/Rosetta/Rosetta_triumphs_at_asteroid_Lutetia
https://twitter.com/ESA_History/status/1546041538148442112
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1546280360606146560

=====================

65 rocznica 20. lotu X-1B pilotowanego przez Johna McKaya (1922-1975)  11.07.1957
https://www.nasa.gov/centers/armstrong/about/biographies/pilots/john-mckay.html
https://www.thisdayinaviation.com/tag/john-barron-mckay/
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1546377496781680640

NASA wybrała koncepcję LOR (Lunar Orbit Rendezvous)  11.07.1962
Oznaczało to, że astronauci wylądują  na powierzchni Księżyca poprzez spotkanie na orbicie księżycowej.
https://www.nasa.gov/centers/langley/news/factsheets/Rendezvous.html
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1546378755290959872

Otwarcie Ministerialnej Konferencji mającej określić cele ESRO 11.07.1967
https://www.esa.int/About_Us/ESA_history/The_ESRO_Convention_and_juste_retour
https://twitter.com/ESA_History/status/1546459321831153665
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1546380013536129024

David Bowie wydał singiel  z piosenką "Space Oddity" 11.07.1969
BBC użyła utworu w relacji z pierwszego załogowego lądowania na Księżycu.
https://airandspace.si.edu/stories/editorial/ground-control-major-tom

https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1546571328936976386

Początek testowania spadochronów do marsjańskiej misji Viking w Roswell  11.07.1972
http://www.collectspace.com/ubb/Forum20/HTML/000661.html
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1546381271953055744
https://twitter.com/wired/status/961405478696660993

Deorbitacja stacji kosmicznej Skylab 11.07.1979
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=800.msg134123#msg134123
https://www.nasa.gov/missions/shuttle/f_skylab1.html
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1546382530022031360
https://twitter.com/SF_Skylab/status/1546406645156159488
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1546585117929492481

Publikacja pierwszych zdjęć z JWST 11/12.07.2022
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3919.msg175476#msg175476
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1546893020615921664

=====================

Dwight D. Eisenhower został pierwszym prezydentem USA, który poleciał helikopterem podczas pełnienia funkcji 12.07.1957
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1546914902023061505

RN Ariane 3 wyniosła na orbitę satelitę komunikacyjnego Olympus-1 12.07.1989
http://www.astronautix.com/o/olympus.html
https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/olympus-f1.htm
https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=1989-053A
https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/1998/01/Olympus_integration_with_Ariane
https://twitter.com/ESA_History/status/1546785565240090630

Ariane 5 wyniosła na orbitę 2 satelity komunikacyjne: Artemis i BSAT-2b  12.07.2001
Satelita Artemis przeprowadził eksperyment z komunikacją laserową Silex.
BSAT 2B na skutek awarii ostatniego stopnia rakiety nie był w stanie osiągnąć docelowej orbity.
https://www.esa.int/Applications/Telecommunications_Integrated_Applications/Artemis_launch2
https://www.esa.int/Newsroom/Press_Releases/A_world_first_data_transmission_between_European_satellites_using_laser_light
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/n010701.htm#08
http://www.astronautix.com/a/artemis.html
https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/artemis.htm
https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/bsat-2.htm
https://twitter.com/ESA_History/status/1546814687781814274

RN Proton-K wyniosła na orbitę okołoziemską moduł ISS Zwiezda 12.07.2000
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=800.msg137786#msg137786
https://twitter.com/SpaceGirlLina/status/1546782039977824256

Start misji STS-104 Atlantis/F-24 ze śluzą Quest 12.07.2001
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=800.msg168106#msg168106
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1547006473267515392

==========

Cztery propozycje  na Next Generation Space Telescope 1998
https://webbtelescope.org/webb-science/the-observatory/mission-timeline
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1546849363481223168
« Ostatnia zmiana: Lipiec 13, 2022, 14:11 wysłana przez Orionid »

Polskie Forum Astronautyczne

Historyczny przegląd wydarzeń 10.07.-12.07. (4)
« Odpowiedź #33 dnia: Lipiec 01, 2022, 06:53 »

Offline Orionid

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« Odpowiedź #34 dnia: Lipiec 03, 2022, 03:51 »
40 Years Ago: Preparations Continue for Columbia’s Return to Space on STS-2
Sep 13, 2021

Following the Aug. 31, 1981 rollout of space shuttle Columbia to Launch Pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, the program targeted Oct. 9 as the launch date for STS-2, the second flight of the reusable spacecraft. The launch teams and astronauts Joe H. Engle and Richard H. Truly completed a countdown demonstration test and the shuttle’s external tank successfully passed a practice tanking test. However, a spill of corrosive oxidizer during fueling resulted in hundreds of heat shield tiles coming loose from the orbiter’s nose. The required repair work resulted in a delay of the launch to early November. Flight controllers in Mission Control at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston completed the final long-duration simulation of the mission.


Left: STS-2 backup astronauts Henry W. “Hank” Hartsfield, left, and Thomas K. “TK” Mattingly during emergency egress training at Launch Pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida.
Right: STS-2 astronauts Joe H. Engle, left, and Richard H. Truly at KSC for the countdown demonstration test.


The day Columbia arrived at its launch pad, controllers in the Mission Control Center at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston began the second and final long-duration simulation of the STS-2 mission. The three-day simulation rehearsed the first 56 hours of the flight. Following the arrival of Columbia at Launch Pad 39A, technicians at KSC completed the Pad Validation Test to ensure the shuttle’s configuration did not change during the rollout and to verify the connections between the pad, the vehicle, and the mobile launch platform. On Sept. 2, STS-2 backup astronauts Thomas K. “TK” Mattingly and Henry W. “Hank” Hartsfield participated in emergency egress training at Launch Pad 39A, receiving a demonstration of the slide wire escape system and driving the armored personnel carriers to be used to evacuate the crew in the event of a launch pad emergency. On Sept. 9, launch control teams in Firing Room 1 of KSC’s Launch Control Center carried out a “dry” countdown demonstration test, meaning the external tank was not filled with cryogenic propellants. Engle and Truly participated in the final few hours of the test as they would on launch day, including donning their pressure suits and climbing into Columbia’s cockpit. The test ended with a simulated main engine ignition. On Sept. 15, engineers loaded the shuttle’s external tank with super cold liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. No damage to the tank’s foam insulation occurred – an improvement from the aftermath of a similar test prior to the STS-1 mission.


Left: At NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-2 astronauts Richard H. Truly, left, and Joe H. Engle suiting up for the countdown demonstration test.
Right: Truly, left, and Engle leaving the White Room at Launch Pad 39A after the conclusion of the countdown demonstration test.



Truly, left, and Engle talk to reporters at Launch Pad 39A following the countdown demonstration test.

During fueling of Columbia’s starboard forward reaction control system on Sept. 22, about three gallons of highly corrosive nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer spilled onto the outside of the vehicle’s nose. The oxidizer seeped between the tiles of the thermal protection system, essentially melting the glue that held them in place. Approximately 360 tiles either fell off on their own or needed to be removed to clean the area of any residual oxidizer. This process, as well as the reattachment of new tiles, resulted in the planned launch date to slip to Nov. 4.


Left: Columbia on Launch Pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
Right: Missing thermal protection system tiles resulting from a spill of nitrogen tetroxide during fueling operations of the forward reaction control system.


To be continued…

World events in September 1981:

September 4 – Beyoncé Knowles is born in Houston.

September 7 – “The People’s Court” debuts in syndication.

September 12 – “The Smurfs” animated cartoon series by Hanna-Barbera debuts on NBC.

September 14 – “Entertainment Tonight” premieres in syndication.

September 19 – Simon and Garfunkel reunite for a concert in New York’s Central Park.

September 21 – Belize (formerly British Honduras) gains independence from the United Kingdom.

September 25 – Sandra Day O’Connor is sworn in as the first female U.S. Supreme Court Justice.

September 26 – The Boeing 767 airliner makes its first flight in Everett, Washington.

September 27 – The French Train à Grande Vitesse (TGV) high-speed rail makes its first commercial run between Paris and Lyon, reaching a top speed of 156 miles per hour.

John Uri
NASA Johnson Space Center
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/40-years-ago-preparations-continue-for-columbia-s-return-to-space-on-sts-2

40 Years Ago: One Month until Space Shuttle Columbia’s Return to Space on STS-2
Oct 12, 2021

Space shuttle Columbia arrived on Launch Pad 39A on Aug. 31, 1981, where ground crews prepared it for its second flight into space on the STS-2 mission. In September, astronauts Joe H. Engle and Richard H. Truly participated in a countdown demonstration test and engineers successfully filled the shuttle’s external tank in a practice test. Following an oxidizer spill that resulted in hundreds of thermal protection system tiles requiring replacement on the nose of the orbiter, managers delayed the planned Oct. 9 launch of STS-2 by one month to allow time for technicians to clean up the spill and replace the lost tiles. Engle and Truly continued to conduct simulations to prepare for their November 1981 launch.


Left: STS-2 astronauts Joe H. Engle, left, and Richard H. Truly in the Motion Base Simulator at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston.
Right: Space shuttle Columbia on Launch Pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida.


To prepare for its second mission into space, engineers prepared space shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39A. Preflight processing of Columbia, including a countdown demonstration test, essentially a full dress rehearsal for the actual countdown in which Engle and Truly sat in the spacecraft’s cockpit as if on launch day, and a practice loading of super-cold liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen into the external tank, was proceeding normally. However, on Sept. 22, during fueling of Columbia’s starboard Forward Reaction Control System (FRCS) — a set of thrusters located on the vehicle’s nose — about three gallons of highly toxic and corrosive nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer spilled onto the spacecraft. The oxidizer seeped between the tiles of the thermal protection system, essentially melting the glue that held them in place. Approximately 370 tiles either fell off on their own or needed to be removed to clean the area of any residual oxidizer.


Left: STS-3 astronauts Jack R. Lousma, left, and C. Gordon Fullerton in a shuttle flight simulator at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston.
Right: The orange external tank for STS-3 arrives at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida.



Engineers test the Office of Space Science-1 payload for STS-3.

As work progressed to ready Columbia for its second trip into space, activities for its third mission, STS-3 planned for a March 1982 launch, were already underway. The crew of Jack R. Lousma and C. Gordon Fullerton practiced their mission in JSC’s flight simulators. At KSC, the external tank for STS-3 arrived on Oct. 5, 1981, remarkable by its orange color compared to the white STS-1 and STS-2 tanks. Managers elected to no longer paint the external tanks beginning with STS-3, saving about 600 pounds that could be used for additional upmass capability. Elsewhere at KSC, engineers prepared the Office of Space Science-1 payload for its flight on STS-3.

To be continued…

World events in October 1981:

October 1 – The first cellular telephone network is inaugurated in Sweden.

October 4 – The Meadowlands Arena opens in New Jersey.

October 7 – Hosni Mubarak becomes acting President of Egypt, following the assassination of President Anwar Sadat.

October 11 – Unknown American rocker Prince opens for The Rolling Stones at their concert in the Los Angeles Coliseum.

October 11 – The Super Chicken III, piloted by John Shoecroft and Fred Gorrell, becomes the first balloon to cross the United States without stopping.

October 21 – U.S. patent is granted for "Incoming Call Identification Arrangement," more commonly known as Caller ID.

October 23 – The Apollo 9 Lunar Module Spider’s ascent stage, in orbit since March 1969, burns up on reentry in the Earth’s atmosphere.

October 30 – The Soviet Union launches Venera 13 on a mission to Venus, where it soft landed on March 1, 1982 and returned the first color pictures from the planet’s surface.

John Uri
NASA Johnson Space Center
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/40-years-ago-one-month-until-space-shuttle-columbia-s-return-to-space-on-sts-2

40 Years Ago: STS-2 to Fly the First Space Shuttle Payloads
Oct 21, 2021

By the middle of October 1981, ground crews had completed repairs to Columbia after an oxidizer spill damaged the space shuttle four weeks earlier. Mission managers had reset the launch date of STS-2 to Nov. 4 to allow adequate time for the repairs, consisting of the replacement of about 370 thermal protection tiles, to be completed at Launch Pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida. With the additional time, STS-2 astronauts Joe H. Engle and Richard H. Truly spent time in mission simulators to prepare for their planned five-day mission, the first space shuttle flight to carry a scientific payload. The suite of instruments designated OSTA-1, sponsored by NASA’s Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications, was designed for Earth remote sensing.


Left: A technician works to replace thermal protection system tiles on space shuttle Columbia’s nose.
Right: STS-2 astronauts Joe H. Engle, left, and Richard H. Truly in the motion base simulator at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston.


A nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer spill from Columbia’s forward reaction control system thruster pod on Sept. 22, with the shuttle already on Launch Pad 39A, resulted in about 370 thermal protection system tiles either falling off or needing to be replaced. By Oct. 13, the tiles on the orbiter’s nose had been replaced and ground crews reloaded the oxidizer, after filtering it to remove impurities, on Oct. 17. Managers had reset the launch date for Columbia’s return to space from Oct. 9 to Nov. 4 to give ground crews time to complete the repairs. Countdown preparations began on Oct. 23, with the final 73-hour countdown scheduled to begin on Nov. 2. Meanwhile, Engle and Truly continued practicing various parts of their planned five-day mission in simulators at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston.


1) In the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center, ground crews load the OSTA-1 pallet into space shuttle Columbia’s payload bay.
2)The OSTA-1 payload in Columbia’s payload bay, shortly before the payload bay doors were closed in preparation for the orbiter’s rollover to the Vehicle Assembly Building.


Ground crews in KSC’s Orbiter Processing Facility had installed the OSTA-1 payload into Columbia’s payload bay on June 29, 1981. The OSTA-1 payloads, a suite of seven instruments in the payload bay and the crew compartment designed for remote sensing of the Earth’s atmosphere, oceans, and land resources, consisted of:

(1) the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A), a side-looking synthetic aperture radar to generate maps of terrestrial features;

(2) the Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer (SMIRR) to test a technique to determine rock type from space-based observations;

(3) the Feature Identification and Location Experiment (FILE) to help develop techniques to make data gathering by Earth resources satellites more efficient;

(4) the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS), an experiment to measure the amount of carbon monoxide in the middle and upper troposphere (7.5 to 11 miles altitude);

(5) the Ocean Color Experiment (OCE) to detect differences in ocean color that may indicate concentrations of plankton and schools of fish;

(6) the Night/day Optical Survey of Lightning (NOSL), an instrument to observe and record lightning discharges from space; and

(7) the Helfex Bioengineering Test (HBT), a precursor to future Spacelab plant growth experiments.

The first five instruments were mounted on a U-shaped Spacelab pallet, supplied by the European Space Agency, and located in the shuttle’s payload bay. The pallet provided a structural interface, power, command and data handling, and cooling to the experiments. The NOSL and HBT experiments were located in the crew compartment. During its time in orbit, the Shuttle assumed an earth-viewing orientation to accommodate the viewing requirements of the OSTA-1 experiments. In this attitude, called Z-axis local vertical (ZLV), the Shuttle's payload bay faces the earth on a line perpendicular to the earth's surface. The OSTA-1 experiments were planned to be activated about 4.5 hours after liftoff. The overall goal of the OSTA-1 experiments during STS-2 was to demonstrate the capability of the space shuttle to conduct scientific research.



Left: Schematic of the payload bay mounted OSTA-1 experiments, shown installed on the Spacelab pallet.
Right: Schematic representation of the ground coverage of the OSTA-1 instruments.


To be continued…
John Uri
NASA Johnson Space Center
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/40-years-ago-sts-2-to-fly-the-first-space-shuttle-payloads
« Ostatnia zmiana: Lipiec 12, 2022, 17:51 wysłana przez Orionid »

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« Odpowiedź #35 dnia: Lipiec 04, 2022, 06:36 »
40 Years Ago: Two Weeks until Space Shuttle Columbia’s Return to Space on STS-2
Oct 29, 2021

As October 1981 drew to a close, the planned Nov. 4 launch of space shuttle Columbia on the STS-2 mission approached. Astronauts Joe H. Engle and Richard H. Truly completed their training for the planned five-day mission, the first time a crewed spacecraft made a second trip into space. At NASA’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, ground teams prepared the vehicle for launch, beginning the countdown on Oct. 31. They completed the loading of hypergolic fuel and oxidizer without a repeat of the spill in September that delayed the launch by almost one month. Engle and Truly arrived at KSC on Nov. 2 to begin their preparations for the launch attempt. The primary goals of their mission included the first operations of the Canadian-built Remote Manipulator System (RMS) and the first space shuttle science payload.


Left: STS-2 astronaut Richard H. Truly training on the use of the Canadian-built Remote Manipulator System (RMS) in the shuttle trainer at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston.
Right: STS-2 astronauts Joe H. Engle, left, and Truly inspect the RMS after its installation in Columbia’s payload bay


One significant prelaunch activity involved the reloading of hypergolic fuel and oxidizer into the shuttle’s reaction control system, an activity that on Sept. 22 resulted in a spill of nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer. Cleanup of the spill and repairs to the shuttle’s thermal protection system delayed the launch by nearly one month. The reloading on Oct. 22 was completed without a problem, clearing the way for teams at KSC to begin the countdown on Oct. 31. The 73-hour countdown included a number of built-in holds to allow ground teams to catch up on activities and actually took 102.5 hours. Liftoff was planned for 7:30 a.m. EST on Nov. 4.


Left: The OSTA-1 payload installed in Columbia’s cargo bay.
Right: STS-2 astronauts Joe H. Engle, left, and Richard H. Truly arrive at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida for the Nov. 4 launch attempt.


Engle and Truly arrived at KSC on Nov. 2 and spent the next two days practicing landings in the Shuttle Training Aircraft and reviewing flight documentation. The planned five-day STS-2 mission marked the first reflight of a reusable spacecraft and the second of four orbital test flights of the space shuttle. Mission objectives for Engle and Truly included the first in-orbit tests of the RMS and the operation of the first space shuttle payload. They planned to put the RMS through its range of motions, but managers cancelled a planned full-up grapple test after a ground version of the RMS grapple end effector did not complete its certification test on time. The astronauts planned to bring the end effector close to the grapple fixture but not actually complete a grapple. The payload, designated OSTA-1 after its sponsor, NASA’s Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications, comprised a suite of seven instruments in the payload bay and the crew compartment designed for remote sensing of the Earth’s atmosphere, oceans, and land resources. The flight planned to test the shuttle’s ability to maintain a steady platform for these observations that required precise pointing of the instruments.

To be continued…
John Uri
NASA Johnson Space Center
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/40-years-ago-two-weeks-until-space-shuttle-columbia-s-return-to-space-on-sts-2

40 Years Ago: One Week Before Columbia’s Return to Space – STS-2 Launch Scrub
Nov 4, 2021

Space shuttle Columbia’s much-anticipated return to space would have to wait another few days. The countdown for the Nov. 4, 1981 launch of STS-2 proceeded smoothly until the final few minutes when mission managers scrubbed the liftoff after a technical issue halted the count in the final few seconds. Astronauts Joe H. Engle and Richard H. Truly had arrived at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida two days earlier and climbed into Columbia’s cockpit for the launch attempt. Managers rescheduled the launch for Nov. 12, giving Engle and Truly time to return to Houston for additional simulator training as ground crews at KSC recycled Columbia for its next attempt at returning to space. A launch on that day would provide Truly with an out-of-this-world birthday present.


Left: STS-2 astronauts Joe H. Engle, left, and Richard H. Truly arrive at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida for the Nov. 4 launch attempt.
Right: Space shuttle Columbia on Launch Pad 39A.


The 73-hour countdown for STS-2 began on schedule on Oct. 31. With built-in holds to provide ground crews with extra time to catch up on activities if needed, the countdown actually took 102.5 hours until the planned 7:30 a.m. EST Nov. 4 liftoff time. Engle and Truly arrived at KSC on Nov. 2 to prepare for their launch, that included flying practice landings in the Shuttle Training Aircraft and reviewing flight plans.


Left: In Crew Quarters in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building, STS-2 astronauts Richard H. Truly, left, and Joe H. Engle sit down for the traditional prelaunch breakfast.
Right: Truly, left, and Engle suiting up in the O&C Building.


On launch day, ground teams at KSC’s Launch Pad 39A filled the shuttle’s large external tank with super-cold liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen and prepared Columbia for its second trip into space. In the Crew Quarters of KSC’s Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building, Engle and Truly ate the traditional prelaunch breakfast, donned their pressure suits, and took the astronaut van to Launch Pad 39A where they climbed aboard Columbia for the final two hours of the countdown.


Left: Outside the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building, STS-2 astronauts Joe H. Engle, front, and Richard H. Truly prepare to board the astronaut van for the ride to Launch Pad 39A.
Right: After the launch scrub, Truly, left, and Engle return to the O&C Building, accompanied by George W.S. Abbey, Chief of Flight Crew Operations at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston.


The countdown proceeded smoothly until it reached a planned hold at T-minus nine minutes. An indication of lower than allowable pressure in the external tank’s oxygen tank caused the hold to be extended. Engineers quickly resolved the issue and the countdown resumed, proceeding until T-minus 31 seconds, when the automated ground launch sequencer commanded a hold. Engineers traced the problem to low pressure readings in the oxygen tanks feeding Columbia’s three power-generating fuel cells. They attempted to override the launch sequencer as the pressures were low but still within acceptable levels to allow a safe launch, but were successful for only two of the fuel cells. Meanwhile, engineers also noticed slightly higher than expected oil pressures in the Auxiliary Power Units, used to move Columbia’s aerodynamic surfaces, that, although not a concern for launch, may have caused a problem later in the mission. Faced with these technical issues and deteriorating weather conditions at KSC, managers decided to call off the launch attempt. Engle and Truly, disappointed by the scrub, climbed out of Columbia and returned to Crew Quarters in the O&C Building. To allow engineers enough time to assess the problem and implement the necessary maintenance, mission managers reset the launch for Nov. 12.


Left: Astronauts Joe H. Engle, left, and Richard H. Truly talk to the media following their arrival back at Ellington Air Force Base in Houston after the Nov. 4 launch scrub.
Right: Back again at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center for the next launch attempt, Engle, left, helps Truly opens an oversize birthday card.


Following the launch scrub, Engle and Truly returned to Houston for a few days and completed last-minute simulator runs. Knowing that on Nov. 12 Truly would celebrate his 44th birthday, students in Shirley Dynum’s art class at Carver-Jones Elementary School in Baytown, Texas, prepared a custom-made oversized birthday card. They delivered the card to JSC on Nov. 10, just before Engle and Truly departed to return to KSC for the next launch attempt.

To be continued…
John Uri
NASA Johnson Space Center
Last Updated: Nov 4, 2021
Editor: Kelli Mars
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/40-years-ago-one-week-before-columbia-s-return-to-space-sts-2-launch-scrub
« Ostatnia zmiana: Lipiec 12, 2022, 17:55 wysłana przez Orionid »

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« Odpowiedź #36 dnia: Lipiec 06, 2022, 08:28 »
40 Years Ago: Columbia Returns to Space on the STS-2 Mission (1)
Nov 12, 2021

Following a launch scrub a week earlier, space shuttle Columbia took to the skies on Nov. 12, 1981, for its second trip into space. Astronauts Joe H. Engle and Richard H. Truly rode the reusable, orbital, spacecraft on a pillar of fire from Launch Pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida. Their planned five-day mission had to be curtailed to just two days following the failure of one of Columbia’s three fuel cells. Despite the shortened flight, Engle and Truly operated the first science payloads aboard a space shuttle and conducted the first tests of the Canadian-built Remote Manipulator System (RMS). They brought Columbia safely home to a landing at NASA’s Dryden Flight Research Facility, now NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Facility, at Edwards Air Force Base in California, where ground crews began to prepare the ship for its next mission to space.


Left: Official crew photo of the STS-2 crew of Joe H. Engle, left, and Richard H. Truly.
Right: Official crew patch of the STS-2 mission.


Following the Nov. 4, 1981 scrub caused by problems with two of Columbia’s Auxiliary Power Units, engineers flushed the gear boxes and replaced filters in the units, and managers reset the launch for Nov. 12. Engle and Truly arrived back at KSC on Nov. 10. The next day, ground crews found a problem with a Multiplexer De-Multiplexer (MDM), a data management device aboard Columbia. A spare MDM also failed, so a unit from space shuttle Challenger, then under construction in Palmdale, California, was flown in and installed in Columbia. This delayed the launch by nearly three hours.


STS-2 astronauts Richard H. Truly, left, and Joe H. Engle enjoying the traditional prelaunch breakfast, the room decorated in honor of Truly’s 44th birthday.


Left: Following breakfast, Truly, left, and Engle don their pressure suits, this room also decorated to celebrate Truly’s birthday.
Right: Truly, left, and Engle in the White Room at Launch Pad 39A, also festooned with a birthday greeting.


The launch day coincided with Truly’s 44th birthday, and he became the first person ever to fly to space on his birthday. Ground crews helped him celebrate the occasion by decorating various rooms in KSC’s Operations and Checkout Building, and even the White Room at the launch pad, for the occasion as he and Engle prepared for the liftoff. Launch managers held the final countdown for a few minutes at T-minus nine minutes to clear up some minor technical issues before issuing a “Go” for launch.


Liftoff of STS-2 as Columbia returns to space.


In Firing Room 1 of the Launch Control Center at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, engineers turn to watch the ascent of Columbia once the shuttle cleared the launch tower and control was handed over to the Mission Control Center at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston.

At 10:10 a.m. EST on Nov. 12, 1981, exactly seven months after the launch of STS-1, Columbia’s main engines roared to life and the world’s first reusable, orbital, spacecraft lived up to its name. As soon as the shuttle cleared the launch tower, control handed over to the Mission Control Center (MCC) at NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston. The Silver Team of flight controllers led by ascent Flight Director Neil B. Hutchinson monitored Columbia’s launch, with capsule communicator (capcom) astronaut Daniel C. Brandenstein relaying milestone events to Engle and Truly aboard the shuttle. Nine minutes after liftoff, Columbia’s main engines cut off and the large external tankjettisoned away from the spacecraft. The space shuttle had reached space but was not yet in orbit, that job left for Columbia’s Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) engines to complete. The next major task involved opening the orbiter’s payload bay doors to allow the radiators mounted inside them to cool the vehicle. Mission Control gave Engle and Truly a go to stay in orbit. They could now remove their launch and entry pressure suits and change into more comfortable flight suits.


Left: The Mission Control Center at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston during the STS-2 mission.
Right: Capsule communicators (capcoms) James F. Buchli, left, and Sally K. Ride, the first woman to serve in that position.


About five hours into the mission, one of Columbia’s three power-generating fuel cells began to act erratically and capcom Brandenstein instructed Engle and Truly to shut it off. Flight rules stated that with only two working fuel cells, only a so-called minimum mission was permissible, meaning that instead of five days in orbit, Engle and Truly would have to bring Columbia home after 54 hours. Many high-priority activities moved up to be completed during the mission’s two days. Engle and Truly conducted two OMS tests, one to shut it down and start it up again four minutes later. Then they deactivated the faulty fuel cell, taking it permanently offline. Flight Director Donald R. Puddy’s Crimson Team of controllers took over the consoles in Mission Control, with astronaut Frederick H. “Rick” Hauck serving as capcom. Shortly before Engle and Truly went to bed for their first sleep period in space, Mission Control played a taped birthday greeting sung by the high school chorus in Forest, Mississippi, the hometown of Truly’s father and stepmother. Truly replied to capcom Hauck, “That’s beautiful. Please thank them and tell them I couldn’t have had a nicer birthday than this one. Appreciate it.” Engle and Truly then went to sleep in their seats on the flight deck. The OSTA-1 payloads in the payload bay, activated earlier in the day, continued to gather data overnight.


Left: The OSTA-1 payload in Columbia’s cargo bay.
Middle: First use of the Canadian-built Remote Manipulator System (RMS).
Right: The RMS deployed over Columbia’s payload bay.


While the crew slept, in Mission Control the Bronze Team led by Flight Director Charles R. “Chuck” Lewis took over the consoles, with astronauts James F. Buchli and Sally K. Ride serving as capcoms. Ride became the first woman to serve in the role of capcom. Mission Control began the crew’s day by playing “Pigs in Space” as a wake-up call, a comedy routine by The Muppets arranged by Ride. First-time space flyers Engle and Truly reported they had a comfortable first night’s sleep aboard Columbia, telling capcoms Buchli and Ride, “we did get plenty of sleep last night, but it’s hard to sleep with all the opportunities to watch things.” Their first task of the day involved activating the RMS for its first in-orbit workout. With Truly controlling the 50-foot-long arm from Columbia’s aft flight deck, he deployed and stowed it again as an initial test, reporting, “It’s running very smoothly.” Truly then unstowed the arm, with TV cameras in the payload bay and on the arm’s wrist and elbow joints providing flight controllers with a great view of its movements. During the testing, Ride informed the crew that mission managers had made the final decision that due to the fuel cell problem, the flight would be the 54-hour minimum mission. After both Truly and Engle had a chance to operate the arm, Truly guided it back into its cradle, its first inflight testing a success. Flight Director Hutchinson and his team resumed their console positions, with astronaut Terry J. “TJ” Hart now serving as capcom.


Left: During a visit to the Mission Control Center (MCC) at NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, President Ronald W. Reagan, left, listens as JSC Director Christopher C. Kraft describes the functions of the MCC.
Right: President Reagan talks to the STS-2 crew of Joe H. Engle and Richard H. Truly during the mission’s second day.


President Ronald W. Reagan became the first sitting Chief Executive to step onto the floor of the MCC during an actual mission when he visited JSC on Nov. 13, 1981, the crew’s second day aboard Columbia. Accompanied by NASA Administrator James M. Beggs, the President received a tour of the MCC provided by JSC Director Christopher C. Kraft, the man responsible for developing the concept of mission control. President Reagan chatted with Engle and Truly for a few minutes, jokingly asking them if they could stop by Washington, D.C., and pick him up on their way to California. The President added, “I’m sure you know how proud everyone down here is and how … America has got its eyes and its heart on you.” Following his chat with the astronauts, he spoke a few words with their wives, Mary Catherine Engle and Cody Truly, before leaving the MCC.


Left: Astronaut Joe H. Engle preparing tea in Columbia’s middeck. Right:
Astronaut Richard H. Truly reads a printout of the day’s activities in Columbia’s middeck.


For the remainder of the day, Engle and Truly conducted additional evaluations of the orbiter, such as tests of the Reaction Control System (RCS) thrusters, and took photographs of the Earth below. Engle also replaced a failed cathode ray tube (CRT) display on the flight deck. The OSTA-1 payload experiments continued to gather data. After the successful CRT repair, Engle jokingly requested that he be allowed to go and fix the failed fuel cell as well, to allow a full-duration mission. Mission Control politely ignored his offer. After a very busy day, Engle and Truly settled down for their last night’s sleep in space. In MCC, Flight Director Lewis’ Bronze Team, with astronaut Henry W. “Hank” Hartsfield joining Buchli as capcom, replaced Hutchinson’s Silver Team on console.


Three views of Earth taken by the STS-2 astronauts – the Island of Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea, left, the Strait of Hormuz, and Tokyo, Japan.

The crew’s landing day wake up music began with a rendition of “Columbia, Gem of the Ocean,” performed by the Flight Operations Directorate group “Contraband,” followed by the second part of The Muppets’ “Pigs in Space” comedy routine. Flight Director Puddy’s Crimson Team of controllers, including capcoms Hauck and Steven R. Nagel, took their console positions to guide Engle and Truly through the reentry and landing of Columbia at what is now NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base in California. Early on entry day, Engle deactivated the OSTA-1 payloads in preparation for landing. They closed the payload bay doors, donned their pressure suits, maneuvered Columbia so it was flying tail first, and fired its OMS engines over the Indian Ocean for nearly three minutes to drop it out of orbit. Twenty-seven minutes later, Columbia encountered the first tendrils of the Earth’s upper atmosphere at an altitude of 400,000 feet. The heat of reentry caused a sheath of ionized plasma to form around the vehicle, blocking communications for 16 minutes.
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« Odpowiedź #37 dnia: Lipiec 07, 2022, 07:59 »
40 Years Ago: Columbia Returns to Space on the STS-2 Mission (2)


View of Columbia during final approach to NASA’s Dryden Flight Research Center, now NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center, in California, taken by astronaut Kathryn D. Sullivan from a T-38 Talon chase plane.


Left: Columbia touches down on the dry lakebed runway.
Right: Columbia on its final rollout.


Engle, together with the spacecraft’s computer, guided Columbia through a series of aerodynamic maneuvers in the hypersonic and supersonic phases of the entry to obtain information about the vehicle’s handling characteristics. Engle reported that the “maneuvers have been going very good [sic]. The bird is real solid.” Engle manually guided Columbia through a sweeping turn called the Heading Alignment Circle to line up with Dryden’s Runway 23. At about 400 feet, Truly lowered the landing gear and a few seconds later, Columbia’s main gear touched down on the dry lakebed runway, kicking up a cloud of dust. As Columbia continued to roll down the runway, Engle lowered the spacecraft’s nose, applied gentle brakes, and brought the vehicle to a stop after a 7,000-foot rollout. The STS-2 mission ended after 54 hours, 13 minutes. An estimated 200,000 people were on hand to watch Columbia’s second landing.


View of Mission Control at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston after the landing of Columbia, ending the STS-2 mission.

Flight controllers in Mission Control in Houston erupted in cheers following Columbia’s successful landing. Capcom Nagel helped Engle and Truly deactivate the vehicle’s systems as ground crews at Dryden arrived on the runway to safe it from hazardous materials so the crew could exit the spacecraft.


Left: Astronauts Joe H. Engle, left, and Richard H. Truly disembark from Columbia following the conclusion of the STS-2 mission.
Right: George W.S. Abbey, Director of Flight Crew Operations at NASA’s Johnson Space Center, right, greets Truly and Engle.



Engle, left, and Truly during the postlanding walkaround, accompanied by Abbey.

After being instructed that it was safe to exit the vehicle, Truly and Engle climbed out of Columbia and bounded down the stairs of the access vehicle. Director of Flight Crew Operations at JSC George W.S. Abbey greeted them at the bottom of the stairs and the trio conducted a walkaround inspection of Columbia, finding it in remarkably good condition. Ground teams drove Engle and Truly to Dryden facilities where they changed out of their pressure suits and boarded a jet for the trip back to Houston.


Left: Joe H. Engle, left, and Richard H. Truly and their families are greeted by well-wishers after their arrival at Ellington Air Force Base in Houston, as Christopher C. Kraft, director of NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC) addresses the crowd.
Right: The morning after returning from space, Engle, left, and Truly, right, enjoy breakfast with Vice President George H.W. Bush at JSC.


Hundreds of well-wishers greeted Engle and Truly when they arrived at Ellington Air Force Base near JSC. Reunited with their families, they returned to their homes for their first night’s sleep back on Earth. The next morning, they had breakfast with Vice President George H.W. Bush, who was visiting JSC – the first back-to-back visits to JSC of the nation’s top two executives. The STS-1 crew of John W. Young and Robert L. Crippen also attended the breakfast with the Vice President.


Riding atop the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA), space shuttle Columbia departs from NASA’s Dryden Flight Research Center, now NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center in California, for its cross-country trip to NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida.


Left: Columbia, atop its SCA, arrives at KSC’s Shuttle Landing Facility.
Right: Ground crews tow the SCA into the mate-demate device to lift Columbia from the back of the aircraft.


Ground crews at Dryden towed Columbia from the runway to a service area to begin preparing it for its cross-country trip back to KSC. After workers mounted it atop the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, a modified Boeing-747, Columbia left Dryden and arrived at KSC on Nov. 25, just 11 days after its landing in California. Workers towed it to the Orbiter Processing Facility to start preparing it for its next mission, STS-3, planned for March 1982.

Watch Engle and Truly narrate a video of their mission.



To be continued…
John Uri
NASA Johnson Space Center
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/40-years-ago-columbia-returns-to-space-on-the-sts-2-mission
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Historyczny przegląd wydarzeń 13.07.-15.07. (5)
« Odpowiedź #38 dnia: Lipiec 08, 2022, 00:36 »
Aleksiej Stanisławowicz Jelisiejew 13.07.1934
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/37.htm
http://www.astronautix.com/y/yeliseyev.html
http://www.spacefacts.de/bios/cosmonauts/english/yeliseyev_aleksei.htm
http://www.gctc.ru/main.php?id=4685
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3478.msg127647#msg127647
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1547099756375285761

George Driver 'Pinky' Nelson 13.07.1950
Brał udział w EVA, podczas których dokonano naprawy satelity SMM
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/140.htm
http://www.astronautix.com/n/nelson.html
https://historycollection.jsc.nasa.gov/JSCHistoryPortal/history/oral_histories/NelsonGD/NelsonGD_5-6-04.htm
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3796.msg136938#msg136938
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1547101014414659586

Robert Franklyn Overmyer (14.07.1936-22.03.1996)
Pilot pierwszej 4-sobowej załogi wahadłowca.
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/112.htm
http://www.astronautix.com/o/overmyer.html
https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/atoms/files/overmyer_robert.pdf
https://www.nytimes.com/1982/11/12/us/sketches-of-the-astronauts-orbiting-earth-today-aboard-the-space-shuttle.html
https://www.smithsonianmag.com/air-space-magazine/a-sudden-loss-of-altitude-14456179/
https://twitter.com/ASE_Astronauts/status/1547612149429571588

Patrick Stewart 13.07.1940
Odtwórca głównej roli w Star Trek jako kapitan Jean-Luc Picard
https://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2022/mar/02/patrick-stewart-interview-star-trek-picard
https://www.forbes.com/sites/dawnstaceyennis/2022/03/02/sir-patrick-stewart-on-star-trek-and-our-very-troubled-world/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrick_Stewart
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1547325278346780674

Hubert Reeves 13.07.1932
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubert_Reeves
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1547098497597538304

Jocelyn Bell 15.07.1943
https://www.meteorologiaenred.com/pl/jocelyn-bell-burnell.html
https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories/31792
https://twitter.com/royalsociety/status/1547834855630598148

Jessica Ulrika Meir 15.07.1977 ?
Inne źródła wskazują jako dzień urodzenia 01.07.
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/561.htm
http://www.spacefacts.de/bios/astronauts/english/meir_jessica.htm
https://www.nasa.gov/astronauts/biographies/jessica-u-meir/biography
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1547825790368157697
https://twitter.com/Astro_Jessica/status/1410675955912351754

==============

Start radzieckiej sondy księżycowej Łuna-15 13.07.1969
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=800.msg135037#msg135037
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1547343362738495494

Fred Haise i Gordon Fullerton odbyli lot STA w ramach przygotowań do pierwszego lotu Enterprise ALT 13.07.1977
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1547102272529879040

STS-70 Discovery/F-21 (13.07.1995-22.07.1995)
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/loty/sts70.htm
https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-70.html
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1547322969621413888

ESA zatwierdziła przystąpienie Polski do ESA 13.07.2012
https://twitter.com/ESA_History/status/1547127690121170944

Start nowej wersji rakiety - Vega C 13.07.2022
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=5004.msg177542#msg177542
https://twitter.com/ESA_History/status/1547868087818407939

===================

RN Atlas-LV3C Centaur-D  wyniosła lądownik księżycowy Surveyor 4  14.07.1967
https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/surveyor-4/in-depth/
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1547464660655431680

RN Delta-2914 wyniosła satelitę do badania magnetosfery Ziemi ESA-GEOS 1 (Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite) 14.07.1978
http://www.astronautix.com/e/esa-geos.html
https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/esa-geos.htm
https://twitter.com/ESA_History/status/1547527368960610304

Zdjęcia okolic Paryża wykonane przez satelitę Envisat (Environmental Satellite)  14.07.2003
https://earth.esa.int/eogateway/missions/envisat
https://twitter.com/ESA_History/status/1547598547972792321

Zdjęcie wykonane podczas trzeciego przelot sondy Cassini koło Enceladusa (175 km) 14.07.2005
https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/resources/122/enceladus-in-false-color/
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/sondy/cass.htm
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1547611890099970052

Sonda New Horizons przeleciała  o 11:49:57 w pobliżu Plutona (12500 km), a o 12:03:50 koło Charona (29451 km) 14.07.2015
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/sondy/new-hor.htm
https://spaceflightnow.com/2015/07/14/ground-team-standing-by-for-new-horizons-signal/
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1547249505581645826
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1547626277221191683
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1547754074853953537

===================

Mariner-4 zbliżył się do Marsa na minimalną odległość 9 846 km 15.07.1965
Pierwszy udany amerykański przelot koło Marsa
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=2185.0
https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/mariner-04/in-depth/
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1547696748897845250

Pioneer 10 dotarł do pasa asteroid, stając się pierwszym statkiem kosmicznym, który tego dokonał 15.07.1973
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1547974289571213315

Wystrzelenie statków kosmicznych Sojuz 19 EPAS i Apollo ASTP/AS-210 do wspólnego lotu załogowego 15.07.1975
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/loty/s19.htm
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=255.msg2972#msg2972
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1547827048256765952
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1547954451037556740
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1548032160350621697

Lot F-8 DFBW pilotowanego przez Toma Mcmurtry'ego w ramach przygotowań do programu ALT  15.07. 1977
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1547970518636118022
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1548550565629673472

STS-127 Endeavour/F-23 ISS-2J/A 15.07.2009-31.07.2009
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/loty/sts127.htm
https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts127/launch/127_overview.html
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1547954687424442368

Łazik marsjański Opportunity zarejestrował swój pierwszy wir pyłowy  15.07.2010
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1548059046443249665

Sojuz TMA-05M start 15.07.2012
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/loty/stma05m.htm
https://twitter.com/ASE_Astronauts/status/1547929110390771714

RN Ariane-5ECA wyniosła dwa satelity geostacjonarne: telekomunikacyjnego Star One C4 i meteorologicznego MSG-4/Meteosat-11  15.07.2015
https://twitter.com/ESA_History/status/1547878638330163200

Jurij Borisow nowym dyrektorem Roskosmosu 15.07.2022
https://twitter.com/katlinegrey/status/1547915560351961090

===================

Stardust
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1547260684781715456

Mercury 7
https://twitter.com/NASAglenn/status/1547809184762056704

STS-51F Challenger/F-8
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/loty/sts51f.htm
https://twitter.com/NASA_APPEL/status/1547947609515429888
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CZ-3B/G2 | Tianlian-2 03 | 12.07.2022
« Odpowiedź #39 dnia: Lipiec 09, 2022, 12:44 »
Chiński satelita przekazu danych
  12.07. o 16:30 z Xichang wystrzelona została RN CZ-3B/G2, która wyniosła na orbitę o parametrach: hp=181 km, ha=35825 km, i=27,05° satelitę przekazu danych Tianlian-2 03.
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/n220701.htm#06

Long March-3B launches TianLian-2 03


https://twitter.com/CNSpaceflight/status/1546899940911157249

Third Tianlian II-series satellite launched
By ZHAO LEI | chinadaily.com.cn | Updated: 2022-07-13 12:56

China launched a Tianlian II-series satellite early on Wednesday morning to form a global network of the country's second-generation relay satellites.

A Long March 3B carrier rocket blasted off at 12:29 am from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in southwestern China's Sichuan province and then placed the Tianlian II-03 satellite into a geostationary orbit, according to China Aerospace Science and Technology Corp, the country's leading space contractor.

The State-owned conglomerate said in a news release that the spacecraft will form a network with its two predecessors, the Tianlian II-01 and Tianlian II-02. The second-generation relay system is expected to extensively improve the nation's space-based control, tracking and data relay capabilities, it said.

China began to establish its own relay satellite system in April 2008 when the first satellite in the Tianlian I series was launched from Xichang.

In July 2012, China became the second country, after the United States, to possess nonstop relay capability for its space-based infrastructure after the Tianlian I-03 was deployed that month to complete a basic system with global coverage.

In March 2019, China launched Tianlian II-01, the first of its second-generation data relay satellite system.

Currently, eight Tianlian satellites — five in the Tianlian I series and three in Tianlian II — have been launched.

Compared with the first-generation model, Tianlian II satellites are more capable, more durable and have a heavier carrying capacity, according to satellite designers at the China Academy of Space Technology.

The Tianlian family is playing a key role in China's space programs and has served a variety of functions. They serve as rendezvous and docking points between spaceships and space stations, provide video links between astronauts and people on the ground, and transmit data about their observations of the Earth, the weather and other low-orbit satellites, designers said.

http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/202207/13/WS62ce5095a310fd2b29e6c202.html

China launches Tianlian data relay satellite
July 13, 2022 Stephen Clark


A Long March 3B rocket lifts off with the Tianlian 2-03 data relay satellite. Credit: CASC

China launched the eighth satellite for its Tianlian data relay network in geostationary orbit on a Long March 3B rocket Tuesday, adding capacity to a constellation linking mission controllers with the Chinese space station and other low-orbiting spacecraft. (...)


Illustration of China’s network of Tianlian data relay satellites in geostationary orbit. The satellites’ large deployable antennas are visible in this artist’s concept. Credit: CASC

China launched five first-generation Tianlian satellites from 2008 through 2021. The first spacecraft in the second-generation Tianlian system launched in 2019, debuting a larger, more capable design with the ability to connect to more spacecraft at the same time, and provide higher data transmission rates. China sent a second Tianlian 2-series satellite into orbit in December 2021.

The second-generation satellites are based on the DFH-4 spacecraft bus produced by the China Academy of Space Technology.

With the satellite launched this week, the second-generation Tianlian system — now consisting of three spacecraft — will provide global coverage on its own. The new launch allows the network to “meet the global coverage of medium and low orbit spacecraft and provide 24-hour uninterrupted communication,” CASC said.

CASC said the Tianlian satellites provide “data relay, measurement, and control services for spacecraft, space laboratories, space stations and other manned spacecraft.” The data relay services support calls between astronauts and people on the ground, rendezvous and docking operations, and spacewalks at China’s Tiangong space station.

The data relay network also provides services for other satellites in China’s fleet, and helps track rockets during launch, CASC said. The Tianlian satellites are similar to NASA’s constellation of Tracking and Data Relay Satellites.

Before the Tianlian satellites, Chinese controllers relied on a patchwork of ground stations to link with space missions. Those only provided partial coverage, leaving mission controllers out of contact with satellites and astronaut crews for long periods of time.
https://spaceflightnow.com/2022/07/13/china-launches-tianlian-data-relay-satellite/

https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2022/07/tianlian-2-03/
https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/tl-2.htm
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Electron/Curie | NRO L-162 | 13.07.2022
« Odpowiedź #40 dnia: Lipiec 10, 2022, 08:07 »
Nieznany satelita
  13.07. o 06:30 z Onenui wystrzelona została RN Electron/Curie, która wyniosła na orbitę o przybliżonych parametrach: hp=600 km, ha=600 km, i=39,8° satelitę NRO L-162 (RASR-3).
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/n220701.htm#07

Rocket Lab launches NROL-162 spy sattilite for US from New Zealand


Rocket Lab launches first of two back-to-back missions for NRO


Rocket Lab’s Electron launcher lifts off from New Zealand on the NROL-162 mission. Credit: Rocket Lab

(...) The Electron rocket lifted off from Pad A on Mahia Peninsula in New Zealand at 2:30 a.m. EDT (0630 GMT) Wednesday, carrying the NRO’s top secret cargo on a mission the spy satellite agency codenamed NROL-162.

The launch Wednesday occurred 15 days after Rocket Lab’s previous flight, which hauled NASA’s CAPSTONE spacecraft into space on the way to the moon. The 15-day turnaround was the shortest span between missions in Rocket Lab’s history, but the company aims to improve on that record with another NRO launch from Pad B scheduled July 22.

The U.S. government’s spy satellite agency partnered with the Australian Department of Defence on the two Rocket Lab missions, which will also demonstrate Rocket Lab’s responsive launch capability. The two missions — designated NROL-162 and NROL-199 — are scheduled as little as nine days apart.

The higher launch rate is enabled by the operation of two launch pads at Rocket Lab’s privately-owned spaceport on the North Island of New Zealand. Rocket Lab launched the first mission from Pad B at Launch Complex 1 in February. The new site is located 383 feet (117 meters) from Pad A, which Rocket Lab has used since the first Electron launch in 2017.

“The NROL-162 and NROL-199 missions will carry national security payloads designed, built, and operated by the National Reconnaissance Office in partnership with the Australian Department of Defence as part of a broad range of cooperative satellite activities with Australia,” the NRO said. “The satellites will support the NRO to provide critical information to government agencies and decision makers monitoring international issues.”

The payloads are classified, as with most NRO satellites. They will operate in low Earth orbit, but the target orbital altitude and inclination have not been released. (...)
https://spaceflightnow.com/2022/07/13/rocket-lab-launches-first-of-two-back-to-back-missions-for-nro/

https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2022/07/rocket-lab-wise-one-looks-ahead/
https://www.nro.gov/Launch/
AA https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3856.msg174981#msg174981
https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/nrol-162.htm
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Vega-C | LARES-2 i 6 Cubesatów | 13.07.2022
« Odpowiedź #41 dnia: Lipiec 11, 2022, 09:23 »
Start nowej rakiety
  13.07. o 11:13:17 z Kourou wystrzelony został pierwszy egzemplarz RN Vega-C, która wyniosła w T+1h 23' 04" na orbitę o parametrach: hp=5893 km, ha=5893 km, i=70,16° satelitę LARES-2 (LAser RElativity Satellite), a w T+2h 07' 16" na orbitę o h=5841 km satelity ABCS (AstroBio CubeSat), GreenCube, Trisat-R, MTCube 2 (ROBUSTA-1E), CELESTA (ROBUSTA 1D) i ALPHA.
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/n220701.htm#08

Vega-C launch


Vega-C launch


https://twitter.com/ArianeGroup/status/1546875550769332224
https://twitter.com/arianespaceceo/status/1546888419338555392
https://twitter.com/Arianespace/status/1547243025520332800

Europe’s upgraded Vega-C launcher ready for first flight
July 12, 2022 Stephen Clark [SFN]


The first Vega-C launcher inside its mobile gantry at the Guiana Space Center in South America. Credit:
ESA-Manuel Pedoussaut


Europe’s new Vega-C launcher, debuting more powerful rocket motors and a larger payload volume, is set to lift off on its first flight Wednesday from Kourou, French Guiana, to cap more than seven years of development.

The Vega-C is an upgraded version of the European Vega launcher, which has flown 20 times since an inaugural test launch in February 2012.

“As with all maiden flights, there is a lot of tension and a lot of effort from all the teams,” said Stefano Bianchi, head of the flight programs department at the European Space Agency, which manages the Vega-C development in partnership with prime contractor Avio, an Italian aerospace company.

The new rocket design replaces the Vega’s solid-fueled first and second stages with wider, heavier motor casings. The third stage motor is unchanged, and the restartable liquid-fueled fourth stage has the same type of engine but carries more propellant.

The first 114-foot-tall (34.8-meter) Vega-C rocket — about 16 feet (5 meters) taller than the previous Vega rocket — is scheduled to lift off at 7:13 a.m. EDT (1113 GMT; 8:13 a.m. French Guiana time) Wednesday with an Italian research satellite and six small CubeSats, beginning a flight sequence lasting more than two hours until deployment of the final payload.

European officials conceived of the Vega-C program nearly a decade ago, and ESA member states approved the Vega-C for development in December 2014. At the same time, European governments greenlit the heavier Ariane 6 rocket, a cheaper, more flexible alternative to the Ariane 5.

The Vega and Ariane 5 rockets are slated for retirement, with the Vega-C and Ariane 6 expected to become mainstays in Europe’s rocket fleet for the coming years. The Ariane 6’s first launch is scheduled in 2023, a three-year delay from its original schedule.

With the propulsion upgrades, the Vega-C is capable of hauling up to 5,070 pounds (2.3 metric tons) of payload mass to a 435-mile-high (700-kilometer) polar orbit, an increase over the 3,300-pound (1.5-metric ton) capacity of the basic model of the Vega rocket.

“We’ll have 50% more performance with Vega-C with respect to Vega, with reduced costs with respect to Vega, so it’s a radical reduction the cost per kilo per launch,” Bianchi said in a pre-launch press briefing.


This artist’s illustration shows the lineup of European rockets currently flying or soon to debut. From left to right: Vega, Vega-C, Ariane 5 ECA, Ariane 62 and Ariane 64. Credit: ESA–David Ducros, Jacky Huart

(...) The Vega-C’s upper stage, called the AVUM+, will take over the mission to place the mission’s main payload into an unusual orbit about 3,661 miles (5,893 kilometers) above Earth at an inclination of 70 degrees to the equator.

The AVUM+ upper stage is a modified version of the Attitude Vernier Upper Module flown on earlier Vega rockets, with additional propellant capacity and the ability to support longer-duration operations in orbit. The heavier booster motors on the Vega-C, coupled with the changes to the upper stage, allow the new version of the Vega rocket to haul more massive payloads to a range of different altitudes and inclinations. This capability is useful for missions to deploy small satellites into constellations, or rideshare flights with numerous small payloads needing to launch into slightly different orbits, officials said.


Italy leads a consortium of 13 European Space Agency member states on the Vega-C program. This illustration labels major contributions to the Vega-C rocket from contractors in different parts of Europe. Credit: ESA-J. Huart

(...) For the long term, ESA and Avio are working on a next-generation version of the Vega rocket called the Vega-E, which could be ready to fly in the mid-2020s. The Vega-E will replace the hydrazine-fed AVUM engine with a European-made methane-fueled engine. (...)

According to Bianchi, there are 14 Vega-C missions planned through 2025 for European government missions and commercial customers.


This illustration shows the differences between the basic Vega launcher, the Vega-C, and the next-generation Vega-E. Credit: ESA

The main payload on the Vega-C test flight is LARES 2, an Italian spacecraft designed to help fine-tune an elusive measurement of a central tenet of Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity.

Carved out of a single ball of nickel, LARES 2 is covered with 303 laser retroreflectors, allowing a network of ranging stations around the world to track the spherical satellite in orbit.

By bouncing laser signals off reflectors on LARES 2, scientists can precisely compute its position in space. After comparing the actual location of LARES against predictions, researchers can measure the frame-dragging effect, part of Einstein’s theory of general relativity which states that a rotating mass can distort space-time around it.

The LARES 2 mission is managed by the Italian Space Agency, or ASI, with contributions from Italy’s National Institute for Nuclear Physics and the University of Rome. The spacecraft is 16.7 inches (42.4 centimeters) across, and weighs about 650 pounds (295 kilograms).

The satellite is entirely passive, with no propulsion or on-board electronics. The high density of LARES 2’s structure makes it well suited for testing general relativity predictions, according to mission officials.

LARES 2 will join three similar Italian satellites in orbit for laser tracking. Italy’s two LAGEOS satellites launched on a Delta rocket and on a space shuttle mission in 1976 and 1992, and remain in orbit. The first LARES satellite launched on the inaugural Vega rocket flight in 2012, and is also still in space.

There are six CubeSats on the Vega-C rocket from institutions in Italy, France, and Slovenia. Here are their descriptions from ESA:

AstroBio will test a solution for detecting biomolecules, a technology which could help monitor astronauts’ health and search for signs of life during planetary exploration missions.

Greencube carries an experiment to grow plants in microgravity, along with sensors and an internal camera to monitor the health of these “microgreens.”

Trisat-R aims to improve space radiation modeling and demonstrate techniques for protecting high-performance electronic components.

MTCube-2 will expose different types of flash memory to the space radiation environment while monitoring errors and broadcasting messages to the Ham radio community.

Celesta will study electronic system short-circuits caused by energetic particles and compare the radiation environment in orbit with that produced at CERN’s CHARM radiation chamber.

ALPHA will explore phenomena related to Earth’s magnetosphere, such as the Northern and Southern Lights, and demonstrate technologies designed to mitigate the effects of radiation.
https://spaceflightnow.com/2022/07/12/europes-upgraded-vega-c-launcher-ready-for-first-flight/

https://www.arianespace.com/press-release/following-the-success-of-the-inaugural-flight-arianespace-to-start-operations-of-vega-c-with-seven-launchers-already-sold/
https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2022/07/vega-c-debut-launch/
p https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=5067.msg177639#msg177639
AA  https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3894.msg177473#msg177473

LARES 2  https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/lares-2.htm
AstroBio CubeSat (ABCS)  https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/abcs.htm
GreenCube  https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/greencube.htm
TRISAT R  https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/trisat-r.htm
CELESTA (ROBUSTA 1D)  https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/celesta.htm
MTCube 2 (ROBUSTA 1F)  https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/mtcube.htm
ALPHA  https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/alpha_arca.htm
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Historyczny przegląd wydarzeń 16.07.-18.07. (6)
« Odpowiedź #42 dnia: Lipiec 12, 2022, 10:37 »
Louis William Butterworth 17.07.1948
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/butterworth.htm
https://twitter.com/aisoffice/status/1548594017117638659

Janet Lynn Kavandi  17.07.1959
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/380.htm
https://www.nasa.gov/content/biography-janet-l-kavandi-dr
http://www.astronautix.com/k/kavandi.html
https://twitter.com/ASE_Astronauts/status/1548789688596664320

John Herschel Glenn, Jr. (18.07.1921-08.12.2016)
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=494.msg167439#msg167439
https://historycollection.jsc.nasa.gov/JSCHistoryPortal/history/oral_histories/GlennJH/GlennJH_8-25-97.htm
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1549043196218335232
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1549091653641678848

Richard Branson 18.07.1950
https://www.oprah.com/world/oprah-interviews-richard-branson
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1548926848444387335

============

61. lot X-15 z Joe Walkerem, który osiągnął wysokość 32 670 metrów i prędkość 5911 km/h (mach 5,37) 16.07.1962
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1548094999606091777

Start Apollo 11 16.07.1969
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/loty/a11.htm
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=184.msg177713#msg177713
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1548299418721366017
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1548372149760495616
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1548462757564977152
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1548297944863870976
https://twitter.com/ESA_History/status/1548215864167645184

RN Sojuz-U/Fregat umieściła na orbicie eliptycznej  pierwszą z dwóch par satelitów Cluster-2 16.07.2000
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/n000716.htm#02
https://twitter.com/ESA_History/status/1548239516518871040

============

W 62. locie X-15, Robert White jako pierwszy  (według kryteriów USAF) osiągnął wysokość 95,9 km, tym samym sięgając kosmosu 17.07.1962
Pierwszy człowiek, który przekroczył Mach 5 oraz  Mach 6
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1548551824042405889

Apollo 11 17.07.1969
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1548781843323011072

W 62. locie X-15, Robert White jako pierwszy sięgnął kosmosu (według kryteriów USAF) na wysokości 95,9 km 17.07.1975
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1548551824042405889

Połączenie Apollo ASTP/AS-210 z Sojuzem-19 17.07.1975
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1548675142846406658

Tom Stafford i Aleksiej Leonow dokonują pierwszego międzynarodowego spotkania na orbicie 17.07.1975
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1548810784104497154

Bombowiec B-2 Spirit stealth wykonał pierwszy lot 17.07.1989
https://www.afgsc.af.mil/News/Article-Display/Article/1940993/b-2-spirit-marks-30th-anniversary-of-first-flight/
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1548746864564084736

RN Ariane44L V44 wyniosła m.in. satelitę ERS -1 pierwszego satelitę europejskiej serii teledetekcyjnej 17.07.1991
https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/ers-1.htm
https://twitter.com/ESA_History/status/1548593357106003970

Lądowanie STS-94 Columbia/F-23 17.07.1997
Jedyna misja w programie STS, która poleciała drugi raz z tą sama załogą i ładunkiem 17.07.2022
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1548699050165374980

========

89 lot X-15 z Robertem Rushworthem, który osiąga wysokość 31.940 metrów i prędkość 6315 km/h  18.07.1963
161 lot X-15 z Billem Daną osiągającym wysokość 29 290 metrów i prędkość 5 176 km/h  18.07.1966
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1548915470304043009

Gemini X/GT-10 18.07.1966-21.07.1966
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/loty/g10.htm
https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=1966-066A
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1549193559202488322
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1549061442589978624

========

John Glenn
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1548336659699118083

Apollo 11- skafandry załogi
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1549138447922757633

Langley Memorial Aeronautics Laboratory (now @NASA_Langley)
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1548759457601044482

Galileo Galilei
https://twitter.com/UNOOSA/status/1546796630761938950

Pierwsza mapa Księżyca
https://twitter.com/UNOOSA/status/1546887448487251974

Starshine-3
https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/starshine-3.htm
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1549393629332086790
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CZ-2C | Siwei Gaojing-1 03, Siwei Gaojing-1 04 | 15.07.2022
« Odpowiedź #43 dnia: Lipiec 13, 2022, 07:21 »
Dwa chińskie satelity
  15.07. o 22:57 z Taiyuan wystrzelona została RN CZ-2C, która wyniosła na orbitę satelity Siwei Gaojing-1 03 i Siwei
Gaojing-1 04.
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/n220701.htm#11

Long March-2C launches SuperView Neo 2-01 and SuperView Neo 2-02


China launches two new satellites
Source: XinhuaEditor: huaxia 2022-07-16 07:33:27
   
TAIYUAN, July 16 (Xinhua) -- China on Saturday launched a Long March-2C carrier rocket to place two satellites in space.

The pair of satellites, Siwei 03 and 04, were lifted at 6:57 a.m. (Beijing Time) from the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center in the northern province of Shanxi and soon entered the preset orbit.

They will provide commercial remote sensing services for sectors such as land resources investigation, natural disaster monitoring, urban planning and safety.

The mission marked the 427th flight of the Long March carrier rockets. ■
https://english.news.cn/20220716/bb4715d47fd74d70b63238916cd6d437/c.html

Long March rocket launches two radar satellites for China Siwei
July 18, 2022 Stephen Clark


A Long March 2C rocket lifts off from a fog-enshrouded launch pad at the Taiyuan space center. Credit: CASC

Two Earth observation satellites for China Siwei, a state-owned company aimed at the commercial remote sensing market, launched Friday on a Long March 2C rocket into an orbit more than 300 miles (490 kilometers) above Earth. (...)

The satellites are owned by China Siwei Surveying and Mapping Technology Ltd., a subsidiary of CASC. China Siwei sells satellite remote sensing imagery on a commercial basis.

China Siwei is deploying a constellation of 28 remote sensing satellites — 16 high-resolution optical satellites, eight radar observation spacecraft, and four spacecraft for wide-format optical imaging. (...)


Artist’s illustration of China Siwei’s constellation, with an optical imaging satellite at left and a radar imaging satellite second from left. Credit: China Siwei

The Gaojing 2-01 and 2-02 satellites are the first radar spacecraft in China Siwei’s fleet. Two high-resolution optical satellites launched on a Long March 2C rocket in April.

According to China Siwei, the high-resolution optical satellites have an imaging resolution of 30 centimeters, or 12 inches. The radar imaging satellites have a resolution of a half-meter, or 20 inches. Unlike optical imagers, a synthetic aperture radar instrument can peer through clouds and darkness, providing an all-weather, 24-hour-per-day imaging capability.

When complete, China Siwei’s constellation will have a revisit rate of 25 times per day around the world, the company says. The fleet will be able to image 11.6 million square miles (30 million square kilometers) of Earth’s surface per day, an area three times that of the United States.

China Siwei says its remote sensing products support applications in urban planning, 3D mapping, surveys of natural resources and crops, and natural disaster response.
https://spaceflightnow.com/2022/07/18/long-march-rocket-launches-two-radar-satellites-for-china-siwei/

https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2022/07/cz-2c-siwei-gaojing-2/

Siwei Gaojing 2-01 (SuperView Neo 2-01)  https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/siwei-gaojing-2.htm
Siwei Gaojing 2-02 (SuperView Neo 2-02)
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Historyczny przegląd wydarzeń 19.07.-21.07. (7)
« Odpowiedź #44 dnia: Lipiec 14, 2022, 11:13 »
Roy Dubard Bridges, Jr. 19.07.1943
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/174.htm
http://www.spacefacts.de/bios/astronauts/english/bridges_roy.htm
https://alchetron.com/Roy-D.-Bridges-Jr.
https://twitter.com/ASE_Astronauts/status/1549424176779468801
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1549275341595856901

Scott David Tingle 19.07.1965
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/552.htm
https://www.nasa.gov/astronauts/biographies/scott-d-tingle/biography
https://www.umassd.edu/news/2017/qa-scott-tingle.html
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1549377451847032837

Brian May 19.07.1947
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brian_May
https://twitter.com/ESA_History/status/1549337650556968961
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1549423835526619140

=====================

John Glenn na pokładzie Vought F8U Crusader przelatuje ze stacji lotniczej Los Alamitos (Kaliforbia) do Floyd Bennett Field na Brooklynie w 3 godziny 23 minuty 8 sekund (średnio 1167 km/h) 19.07.1957
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1549277354777661440

63. lot X-15 z Johnem McKayem, który osiągnął 25680 metrów i 5590 km/h (5,18 macha) 19.07.1962
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1549279116356210690

Kapsuła Friendship 7 podczas światowej trasy została wystawiona w Manili na Filipinach 19.07.1962
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1549376850719395842

Apollo 11 ​​wszedł na orbitę okołoksiężycową 19.07.1969
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1549458875434270723

Grecja podpisała Porozumienie w sprawie przystąpienia do ESA 19.07.2004
https://twitter.com/ESA_History/status/1549343037788106752

=================

185 lot samolotu X-15 z Billem Daną, który osiąga wysokość 25 720 metrów i 5942 km/h (mach 5,44) 20 lipca 1967
https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1549637729440321537

Viking-1 dokonał miękkiego lądowania na równinie Chryse na powierzchni Marsa 20.07.1976
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=2284.msg134442#msg134442
https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/viking-1/in-depth/
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1549812390451200004
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1549771148405182465

Start Sojuza MS-13 ISS-59S/Beyond Utios 20.07.2019
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/loty/sms13.htm
https://twitter.com/ESA_History/status/1549676538156748800

===============

21.07.1962 
21.07.1977

https://twitter.com/spacemen1969/status/1550131993907589122

Pierwsi ludzie postawili stopę na powierzchni Księżyca 21.07.1969
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/loty/a11.htm
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1549774902852567042
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1549902494872076288
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1549951295485796354
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1549816413023617026
https://twitter.com/ESA_History/status/1549660969672097795
https://twitter.com/UNOOSA/status/1547914431773884418
https://twitter.com/spacerockslive/status/1549760557917560832

Fragmenty komety Shoemaker-Levy 9 uderzyły w Jowisza 16-24.07.1994
https://earthsky.org/space/shoemaker-levy-9-impact-jupiter-july-1994/
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1549454024650498050

==========

Mercury 4 MR-4/Liberty Bell 7 - drugi załogowy lot suborbitalny 21.07.1961
http://www.astronautix.com/m/mercurymr-4.html
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=800.msg168016#msg168016
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1550178799412809728
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1550193505754046467

Gemini X/GT-10 - wodowanie 21.07.1966
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/loty/g10.htm
https://twitter.com/NASAhistory/status/1550148621399736321
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1550267507130392577

Orzeł wystartował z powierzchni Księżyca 21.07.1969
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1550237804734676997

Koniec ery promów kosmicznych 21.07.2011
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=3719.msg134022#msg134022
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=424.msg8234#msg8234
https://twitter.com/Space_Station/status/1549909520284917760

Pierwszy kosmiczny spacer Europejki (Samantha Cristoforetti) 21.07.2022
https://twitter.com/esa/status/1550417896655953920

==============

Neil Armstrong
https://twitter.com/airandspace/status/1549922134008512514
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Polskie Forum Astronautyczne

Historyczny przegląd wydarzeń 19.07.-21.07. (7)
« Odpowiedź #44 dnia: Lipiec 14, 2022, 11:13 »