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« Odpowiedź #270 dnia: Lipiec 27, 2021, 06:11 »
Will suborbital space tourism take a suborbital trajectory?
by Jeff FoustvMonday, July 26, 2021


Jeff Bezos, founder of Blue Origin, celebrates after his suborbital spaceflight on New Shepard July 20. (credit: Blue Origin)

After an extended launch delay, suborbital space tourism is finally ready for liftoff.

Many in the industry thought that was the case nearly 17 years ago, when SpaceShipOne, built by Scaled Composites and funded by billionaire Paul Allen, won the $10 million Ansari XPRIZE. Around the same time, Virgin Galactic announced a deal to license the technology, proposing to start flying people in 2007 or 2008.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4221/1

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« Odpowiedź #271 dnia: Sierpień 03, 2021, 13:22 »
Review: America’s New Destiny in Space
by Jeff Foust Monday, August 2, 2021

America’s New Destiny in Space
by Glenn Harlan Reynolds
Encounter Books, 2020
paperback, 54 pp.
ISBN 978-1-64177-182-5
US$9.99
https://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1641771828/spaceviews



The suborbital flights last month of Richard Branson on SpaceShipTwo and Jeff Bezos on New Shepard triggered an avalanche of criticism of the two men specifically and of privately funded spaceflight more generally. Some were outraged at Bezos in particular, the world’s wealthiest person, for spending money on spaceflight rather than on climate change or alleviating poverty or simply improving the wages and working conditions of employees at Amazon—criticism he did little to assuage afterwards by thanking Amazon employees and customers for making his flight possible. Others worried more broadly about giving the private sector too much control over what happens in space, fearing a mostly harmless suborbital race could turn into a high-stakes battle over the heavens.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4222/1

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« Odpowiedź #272 dnia: Sierpień 03, 2021, 13:22 »
Six things to think about (besides the price) for prospective space tourists
by Steven Freeland
Monday, August 2, 2021


Blue Origin’s successful flight last month, along with one by Virgin Galactic days earlier, suggests the era of suborbital space tourism is finally here. (credit: J. Foust)

It’s been a momentous month for space-faring billionaires. On July 11, British entrepreneur Richard Branson’s VSS Unity rocketplane flew him and five fellow passengers about 85 kilometers above Earth. Nine days later, Amazon founder Jeff Bezos’ New Shepard capsule reached an altitude of 106 kilometers, carrying Bezos, his brother, and the oldest and youngest people ever to reach such a height. Passengers on both flights experienced several minutes of weightlessness and took in breathtaking views of our beautiful and fragile Earth.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4223/1

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« Odpowiedź #273 dnia: Sierpień 03, 2021, 13:22 »
Relaunching a lunar lander program
by Jeff Foust Monday, August 2, 2021


NASA con move ahead with the contract it awarded to SpaceX to develop a lunar lander based on its Starship vehicle after the GAO rejected protests from the two losing bidders July 30. (credit: SpaceX)

No doubt there were some sighs of relief among NASA leadership on Friday afternoon, and they had nothing to do with the situation on the International Space Station.

NASA leadership, including administrator Bill Nelson, had traveled to the Kennedy Space Center in hopes of observing the launch of an Atlas V carrying Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner on a second uncrewed test flight, a rerun of the December 2019 test flight cut short by problems with the spacecraft. But a day earlier, NASA postponed the launch after the station temporarily lost attitude control when the new Russian Nauka module, which docked to the station Thursday morning, started firing its thrusters hours later. Controllers were able to get the station reoriented after about an hour, but the incident led NASA to delay the launch until this week to give the station time to get back to normal.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4224/1

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« Odpowiedź #273 dnia: Sierpień 03, 2021, 13:22 »

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« Odpowiedź #274 dnia: Sierpień 03, 2021, 13:22 »
Little Wizards: Signals intelligence satellites during the Cold War
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, August 2, 2021


A Titan II rocket on the launch pad at Vandenberg Air Force Base in 1988. This rocket apparently carried the FARRAH III satellite into orbit, one of the last P-11 signals intelligence satellites launched. According to ground observers, the satellite is still in operation 33 years later. (credit: USAF)

In the early 1960s, somebody at Lockheed Missiles and Space Company—it is not clear who—came up with the idea of putting a small satellite on the back end of an Agena spacecraft and popping it off when the Agena reached orbit. The Agena served as a second stage and also provided stability, power, and communications for numerous military and intelligence payloads, making it both a rocket stage and a spacecraft. There was extra room near the Agena’s engine, and somebody realized that a small satellite could be placed there, getting a free ride to orbit. The deployed satellite could even have a small solid rocket motor that could propel it to a higher orbit.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4225/1

Note: The Space Review is going on a reduced publishing schedule for August. We will not publish the weeks of August 9 and 23. We will publish August 16 and resume our regular weekly schedule August 30.

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« Odpowiedź #275 dnia: Sierpień 17, 2021, 07:18 »
Review: The Impact of Lunar Dust on Human Exploration
by Jeff Foust Monday, August 16, 2021



The Impact of Lunar Dust on Human Exploration
by Joel S. Levine (ed.)
Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2021
hardcover, 303 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-5275-6308-7
GBP64.99 (approx. US$90)
https://www.cambridgescholars.com/product/978-1-5275-6308-7

NASA’s inspector general last week dealt another blow to the agency’s plans to return humans to the surface of the Moon by 2024. A report concluded that the next-generation spacesuits that the astronauts would wear on the moonwalks won’t be ready until at least April 2025, thanks to a mix of technical, funding, and management issues. The spacesuits, called Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Units or xEMUs, will cost about $1 billion to develop.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4226/1

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« Odpowiedź #276 dnia: Sierpień 17, 2021, 07:18 »
Is it time to create the designation of non-governmental astronaut?
by Michael Listner Monday, August 16, 2021


Jeff Bezos and others celebrated the first crewed flight of New Shepard last month, but they may not qualify as “astronauts” under some legal definitions. (credit: Blue Origin)

The flights of Virgin Galactic and Blue Origin with their respective founders has reinvigorated the debate as to what an astronaut is and, specifically, whether non-governmentals are indeed astronauts. Nevertheless, these two flights open a broader discussion as non-governmental space activities increase in measure and scope how they will be looked upon and treated by international law, especially as outer space activities expand.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4227/1

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« Odpowiedź #277 dnia: Sierpień 17, 2021, 07:18 »
The little satellite that could

How a vice president’s dream led—after a very long delay—to the DSCOVR spacecraft
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, August 16, 2021


The first image taken by the DSCOVR satellite from space showing the Earth’s day side. DSCOVR was originally named Triana and conceived by Vice President Al Gore in 1998. It did not launch until 17 years later. (credit: NOAA)

If satellites had personalities, DSCOVR would be a scrappy little fighter: battered, bloody, but always stumbling back to its feet and getting back into the ring to fight some more. This little satellite, about the size of a college dorm room refrigerator, finally launched in February 2015, 16 years after it was first thought up in a dream.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4228/1

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« Odpowiedź #278 dnia: Sierpień 17, 2021, 07:18 »
ISRO’s cryogenic conundrum
by Ajey Lele Monday, August 16, 2021


A GSLV Mark II rocket lifts off August 12, only to suffer a mission-ending malfunction of its cryogenic upper stage five minutes into the flight. (credit: ISRO)

On August 12, the Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO’s) GSLV-F10 mission failed. This GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle) was a three-stage rocket carrying the EOS-03 (GISAT-1) Earth observation satellite. The mission took off correctly and the performance of first and second stages was normal. However, ignition of the Cryogenic Upper Stage (CUS) did not happen due to a technical anomaly, resulting in a disastrous failure.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4229/1

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« Odpowiedź #279 dnia: Sierpień 17, 2021, 07:18 »
Space exploration and development is essential to fighting climate change
by Alex Gilbert Monday, August 16, 2021


Vice President Kamala Harris has said she will make climate change a priority of the National Space Council, expected to hold its first meeting of the Biden Administration this fall. (credit: White House photo by Cameron Smith)

The recently released Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change presents a worrying scientific consensus: climate change is happening, humans are causing it, even our best efforts cannot prevent negative effects, and reducing emissions now is essential to preventing catastrophic consequences. The Biden Administration recognizes the urgency of addressing this challenge. In continuing as head of the National Space Council, Vice President Kamala Harris has made climate one of her priorities for the interagency White House office. This prioritization rightly reflects the growing capabilities of the public and private space sectors to help our society understand, adapt, and mitigate climate change.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4230/1

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« Odpowiedź #280 dnia: Sierpień 17, 2021, 07:18 »
Starliner sidelined
by Jeff Foust Monday, August 16, 2021


The Boeing CST-100 Starliner spacecraft in July, being prepared for the OFT-2 mission. That mission is now facing an indefinite delay because of problems with valves in its propulsion system. (credit: Boeing)

On the morning of July 29, NASA held a pair of press conferences that marked, in retrospect, the peak of their optimism about the upcoming uncrewed test flight of Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner spacecraft. At the first, agency leadership, including administrator Bill Nelson, talked up the Orbital Flight Test (OFT) 2 mission, scheduled at the time to lift off the next afternoon.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4231/1

Note: The Space Review will not publish the week of August 23. We will resume our normal weekly publication schedule on August 30.

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« Odpowiedź #281 dnia: Sierpień 31, 2021, 12:50 »
Review: European-Russian Space Cooperation
by Gurbir Singh Monday, August 30, 2021


European-Russian Space Cooperation: From de Gaulle to ExoMars

by Brian Harvey
Springer Praxis, 2021
Paperback 391 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-3-030-67684-1
US$34.99
https://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3030676846/spaceviews

The Cold War was primarily the story of the USSR and the USA and their respective allies. By chronicling in meticulous detail European-Russian space cooperation, Brian Harvey has uncovered a strategic relationship between France and the USSR that modulated the larger USSR-USA Cold War relationship that dominated geopolitics between the end of World War II and demise of the USSR in 1991. It is not just about historical events. The final chapter illustrates the same geopolitical forces are at work shaping international cooperation in space today with the turbulent story of ExoMars.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4232/1

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« Odpowiedź #282 dnia: Sierpień 31, 2021, 12:50 »
The billionaires compete and the US wins the 21st century space race
by Eytan Tepper Monday, August 30, 2021


Richard Branson floats through the cabin of SpaceShipTwo during the microgravity phase of his July 11 SpaceShipTwo flight. (credit: Virgin Galactic)

Whoever is declared the winner in the so-called billionaire space race, the US wins the new space race. In the new era of space exploration, where commercial companies are taking the lead, they are mostly US-based. Symbolically, British billionaire Richard Branson, the first in space, launched from Spaceport America in New Mexico, where his company is based.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4233/1

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« Odpowiedź #283 dnia: Sierpień 31, 2021, 12:50 »
“Starship to orbit” ought to be a tipping point for policy makers
by Doug Plata Monday, August 30, 2021


Construction workers between the stages of the Starship while undergoing a stacking test. (credit: SpaceX)

We are watching history in the making.

Starship represents a turning point in human history because it will be the vehicle upon which humans start spreading beyond Earth. When Starship reaches orbit, it will fundamentally bring into question which path forward the United States should take. Given the likelihood that a reusable, very cost-effective, super-heavy-lift vehicle (SHLV) with a high flight rate will become available for the nation to use, we call upon the decision makers in Washington (i.e., the administration, Congress, and NASA) to place Starship at the center of the country’s human spaceflight program after it achieves orbit.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4234/1

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« Odpowiedź #284 dnia: Sierpień 31, 2021, 12:50 »
Cooperation, competition, conferences, and COVID
by Jeff Foust Monday, August 30, 2021


NASA administrator Bill Nelson (fourth from right) speaks during a panel featuring heads of agencies at the 36th Space Symposium August 25. (credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

The largest in-person space event in nearly 18 months was a reminder of what had changed—and what hadn’t—in the industry over that time.

The 36th Space Symposium at The Broadmoor in Colorado Springs last week looked, at first glance, like many of its predecessors. There were the usual government officials and industry executives speaking in sessions over three days, an exhibit hall with companies displaying their wares and offering tchotchkes, and side meetings and general networking that often went well into the evening.
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4235/1

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« Odpowiedź #284 dnia: Sierpień 31, 2021, 12:50 »