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« Odpowiedź #480 dnia: Styczeń 31, 2021, 13:14 »
'We Gave It Away': Remembering the Unhappy Flight of Ham the Chimp, 60 Years On

By Ben Evans, on January 31st, 2021



Sixty years ago today, on 31 January 1961, a young chimpanzee named “Ham” was launched into space aboard a tiny Mercury capsule. His suborbital flight, lasting only 16 minutes, was meant to clear the final hurdles before the launch of the United States’ first astronaut, Alan Shepard, later that spring.

https://www.americaspace.com/2021/01/31/we-gave-it-away-remembering-the-unhappy-flight-of-ham-60-years-on/
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« Odpowiedź #481 dnia: Luty 01, 2021, 23:59 »
Druga dekada bez katastrof w misjach załogowych
BY KRZYSZTOF KANAWKA ON 1 LUTEGO 2021

(...) Poszczególne misje, które zakończyły się katastrofami, to:

Sojuz 1 (kwiecień 1967),
Sojuz 11 (czerwiec 1971),
Prom Challenger podczas startu misji STS-51-L (styczeń 1986),
Prom Columbia podczas kończącej się misji STS-107 (luty 2003).
(...)
https://kosmonauta.net/2021/02/druga-dekada-bez-katastrof-w-misjach-zalogowych/


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« Odpowiedź #482 dnia: Luty 06, 2021, 17:26 »
America's Destiny: Remembering the Launch of the U.S. Lab, 20 Years On

By Ben Evans, on February 6th, 2021



Marsha Ivins gingerly maneuvers Destiny out of the shuttle’s cavernous payload bay for installation onto the International Space Station (ISS). Photo Credit: NASA

https://www.americaspace.com/2021/02/06/americas-destiny-remembering-the-launch-of-the-u-s-lab-20-years-on/

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« Odpowiedź #483 dnia: Luty 09, 2021, 00:19 »
Room With A View: Remembering STS-130 and the Cupola, OTD in 2010

By Ben Evans, on February 8th, 2021

Today, it celebrates 11 years since the six astronauts of STS-130—shuttle Endeavour’s second-to-last orbital voyage—launched it to orbit and, in doing so, completed the delivery of the last major U.S.-provided ISS component.



The Tranquility node and cupola sit in Endeavour’s payload bay, shortly after reaching orbit. Photo Credit: NASA

https://www.americaspace.com/2021/02/08/room-with-a-view-remembering-sts-130-and-the-cupola-otd-in-2010/
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« Odpowiedź #483 dnia: Luty 09, 2021, 00:19 »

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« Odpowiedź #484 dnia: Luty 11, 2021, 05:02 »
30 lat temu 7 lutego 1991 roku doszło do deorbitacji zespołu orbitalnego Salut-7/Kosmos 1686 ( http://www.russianspaceweb.com/tks.html )
Końcowy okres  załogowego użytkowania Saluta-7 obfitował w nietypowe zdarzenia.
Po awarii stacji odbyła się udana wyprawa naprawcza załogi na pokładzie Sojuza T-13.
( https://astronomy.com/news/2020/10/the-forgotten-rescue-of-the-salyut-7-space-station )
( https://arstechnica.com/science/2014/09/the-little-known-soviet-mission-to-rescue-a-dead-space-station/ )

Później z powodu problemów zdrowotnych Władimira Wasjutina załoga musiała przedwcześnie powrócić na Ziemię.
( AA https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=4238.msg150496#msg150496 )
Były jeszcze w planach 3 wyprawy załogowe , w tym jedna całkowicie kobieca. Zostały odwołane.

W 1986 roku dwójka kosmonautów na pokładzie Sojuza T-15 dokonała przelotu między dwoma stacjami orbitalnymi.

Były też plany połączenia się wahadłowca Buran ze stacją.

Paliwo na stacji się skończyło i zwiększona aktywność słoneczna finalnie zakończyła istnienie kompleksu orbitalnego.

Правда о «Салюте-7»
142 941 wyświetleń•13 paź 2017



Как мы спасали «Салют-7» // Интервью Виктора Савиных
45 546 wyświetleń•19 paź 2017



Salyut-7 heads for crash-landing ..
2 February 1991

Sometime in the next few days, the abandoned Soviet space station Salyut-7 will fall, uncontrolled, to Earth. The European Space Agency is betting on 6 February, plus or minus 4 days.

The 20-tonne space station, which is connected to another 20-tonne spacecraft, Kosmos-1686, orbits the Earth every 90 minutes between the latitudes of 52 degrees North and South, making it virtually impossible to predict where
it will fall. It passes over southern England and Wales, but only for about a miunte twice in every 24 hours.

According to the Soviet news agency Tass, the station contains no radioactive material and most of the debris should burn up during re-entry into the atmosphere. But there is a chance that a 3-tonne heat-resistance sphere could reach Earth.

Salyut-7 was abandoned in a high orbit in 1986 after the Mir space station was launched. But increased solar activity in the past few years has caused the upper layers of the atmosphere to heat up and expand. This caused drag on the space station, and its orbit decayed.

According to official Soviet sources, the solar activity was unforeseen, and no one is to blame. This view is not shared by the leading Soviet daily Izvestiya, which quotes Vladislav Sal’nikov, who worked in the Military-Industrial Commission of the Council of Ministers of the USSR for 25 years. Sal’nikov says that five years ago he warned that the station did not have enough fuel for a controlled re-entry. He predicted that the station would fall to Earth ‘at the beginning of 1991’ unless the fuel was topped up.

The director of the Institute of Applied Geophysics, Sergei Avdyushin, also rejects the official view. ‘It is insulting to hear the report that solar bursts are unpredictable. The burst was not a surprise at all. We had foreseen it, but the trajectory of the Salyut-7 station was calculated using a model which did not take the increase of solar activity into account.’

https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg12917540-900-salyut-7-heads-for-crash-landing/

Salyut 7, Soviet Station in Space, Falls to Earth After 9-Year Orbit
By John T. McQuiston Feb. 7, 1991

After nine years in orbit, the abandoned Soviet Salyut 7 space station re-entered the earth's atomosphere in a fiery show over Argentina last night, American officials said.

Traveling at a speed in excess of 17,000 miles an hour, the 90-foot-long, 43-ton space station entered the atmosphere at 10:44 P.M., Eastern time, said Comdr. Charles Connor of the Navy, spokesman for the United States Space Command and the North American Aerospace Defense Command in Colorado Springs.

The craft left a trail of fire as it traveled in a northeasterly direction across the Argentine sky, he said. Little Evidence of Debris

"Looking at its trajectory and a map, it looks as if any debris, if there is any, came down in mountainous areas," Commander Connor said.

There were no immediate reports of any debris striking the ground. Debris from the main part of the multisection craft could have weighed 2,600 to 4,000 pounds, depending on how much was destroyed by atmospheric friction, according to recent reports by Tass, the official Soviet press agency.

The station's orbit has carried it across a broad swath of the earth, including the United States, Central and South America, Africa, southern Europe, the Middle East, China, Japan and Australia, as well as vast reaches of ocean.

American space experts believe that the Soviets intended to keep Salyut 7 aloft far longer. In 1986 it was boosted to an unusually high point about 300 miles above the earth, where it should have remained in orbit until 1994. But unexpectedly high solar activity in the last few years increased atmospheric drag on the station and sped its orbital decay.

Salyut 7 was lauched in 1982 and last inhabitated in 1986. It once held as many as six astronauts. It was a precursor of the current Mir space station, now manned by two astronauts.

https://www.nytimes.com/1991/02/07/world/salyut-7-soviet-station-in-space-falls-to-earth-after-9-year-orbit.html

http://www.astronautix.com/s/salyut7.html
http://www.russianspaceweb.com/spacecraft_manned_salyut.html
https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%B0%D0%BB%D1%8E%D1%82-7
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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #485 dnia: Luty 14, 2021, 16:19 »
25, 21, 20 lat temu...

NEAR Shoemaker launched by a Delta 2 rocket, February 17, 1996



NEAR na orbicie wokół Erosa !
  14.02. 2000 sonda NEAR wykonała manewr satelizacji na orbicie wokół planetoidy (433) Eros. W wyniku pracy
silnika (15:33:06-15:34:03) sonda osiągnęła orbitę o wysokości około 330 km nad powierzchnią Erosa.
Ostatnio o locie NEAR-a pisałem 08.02. Strona internetowa misji jest tutaj.
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/n000201.htm#13

Lądowanie na planetoidzie
  12.02.2001 rozpoczęła się pierwsza próba osadzenie sondy na powierzchni planetoidy. Manewr EMM-1 został
wykonany o 15:32 i spowodował zejście sondy NEAR-Shoemaker z orbity, które trwało łącznie około 4,5
godziny. Kolejny manewr, EMM-2 wykonany został o 19:16 i również zakończył się sukcesem, pomimo
minimalnie mniejszego ciągu, niż wymagany (o ułamek procenta). O 19:27 wysokość wynosiła 5,4 km.
Manewr EMM-3 rozpoczął się o 19:31 i tym razem był minimalnie za duży, jednak nie wpłynęło to na przebieg
zejścia. EMM-4 rozpoczął się o 19:47 i zakończył prawidłowo. Ostatni manewr rozpoczął się o 19:59.
Jedno ze zdjęć powierzchni Erosa, wykonanych podczas lądowania. Ostatnie pełne zdjęcie. Ostatnie zdjęcie,
częściowo przekazane na Ziemię.

Lądowanie nastąpiło o 20:02:10. Prędkość lądowania w punkcie o współrzędnych 35°S, 81°E była rzędu 1 m/s.
Ostatni ostry obraz, o rozdzielczości około 10 cm otrzymano z wysokości 400 metrów. Kontakt z sondą został
utrzymany również po lądowaniu. Szansa przetrwania lądowania przez sondę była oceniana na 1%. Ostatnio
o sondzie NEAR pisałem w 06.02. (...)
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/n010201.htm#08

USA: NASA SPACE CRAFT ORBITS EROS ASTEROID
2328 wyświetleń•21 lip 2015



NEAR: The First Discovery Mission (Andrew Cheng)
742 wyświetlenia•15 wrz 2011



In a First, a Spacecraft Is Orbiting an Asteroid
February 15, 2000 By WARREN E. LEARY

LAUREL, Md., Feb. 14 -- With a nudge from its small rockets, the spacecraft NEAR gently embraced the asteroid Eros today to become the first man-made object to orbit such a space rock.

In a circuitous four-year journey through the inner solar system, which included a swing by Earth for a gravity boost and a failed effort to link up with Eros last year, the spacecraft became the first artificial satellite to circle an asteroid.



NASA/JPL/JHUAPL The spacecraft NEAR sent back this photograph of its rendezvous yesterday with the asteroid Eros, 160 million miles from Earth.

The robot spacecraft, called NEAR for Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous, fired its thrusters for less than a minute to slow it enough to be captured by the weak gravity of the asteroid, a potato-shaped rock roughly twice the size of Manhattan. Because the computer-controlled maneuver took place 160 million miles from Earth, it took 20 minutes for news of its success to reach the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory here, which built the craft and controls the mission.

With confirmation of the orbit, happy scientists and engineers gave thumbs-up signs and slapped hands to celebrate their space first.

"We're orbiting around Eros," said Dr. Robert W. Farquhar, the mission director, "This is an historic day, a real milestone."

Dr. Andrew F. Cheng, the project scientist, said NEAR's success was more than a Valentine's Day gift. The spacecraft will orbit Eros for a year, slowing moving closer to the surface to make ever more precise measurements, and greatly increase the understanding of what scientists believe are remnants of the formation of the solar system some four billion years ago, Dr. Cheng said.

"Today may be Valentine's Day for most people, but it's Christmas Eve for me," Dr. Cheng said, "And all the presents are piled about, waiting to be opened."

Daniel S. Goldin, administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, which sponsored the $224 million mission, praised the Johns Hopkins team for persevering.

"This is tough stuff," Mr. Goldin said after NEAR went into orbit. "This is very hard work, and they've done a terrific job. But they still have a long way to go to declare mission success."

NEAR, loaded with six instruments to determine the mass, density, chemical composition and other characteristics of an asteroid, was launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla., on Feb. 17, 1996. Its target was 433 Eros, a large, rocky body named for the Greek god of love.

After circling back by Earth in January 1997, NEAR flew within 750 miles of another asteroid, Mathilde, in June 1997, to take measurements and 500 distant photographs. Unlike rocky Eros, Mathilde is a less dense aggregation of dust and materials rather than a solid piece.

Eros is called a near-Earth asteroid because its orbit crosses that of Earth and poses a potential collision danger. The elongated asteroid, measuring about 21 miles by 9 miles by 8 miles, came within 14 million miles of Earth in 1975.

Dr. Carl Pilcher, of NASA's Office of Space Science, said it was important to study different types of asteroids not only out of scientific curiosity but in self-defense. People may one day have to defend Earth against a deadly asteroid that could collide with the planet and destroy all life, he said. Such an asteroid is believed to have hit Earth 65 million years ago, setting off a chain of events that wiped out the dinosaurs.

"Understanding the physical characteristics of asteroids will be very important if we are ever called on to deflect one coming at the Earth," Dr. Pilcher said at a news conference.

NEAR was supposed to go into orbit around Eros last January, but its main engine misfired several weeks before, plunging the craft into a comatose "safe" mode while controllers tried to figure out the problem. NEAR missed its chance for an orbital maneuver and flew by Eros at a distance of 2,500 miles. But the spacecraft's controllers positioned the craft to chase Eros around the sun for a year to get another chance, which proved successful.

Dr. Joseph Veverka of Cornell University, head of the project's imaging team, said NEAR took its first major scientific reading the night before going into orbit. Using its infrared spectrometer, an instrument that tells chemical composition by analyzing light reflected from an object, the spacecraft took advantage of the sun's ideal position to map an entire face of the asteroid. "We're some very happy, very excited people," Dr. Veverka said.

Dr. Farquhar said that after scientists learned more about Eros's mass and orientation, they would slowly lower the spacecraft's orbit from about 300 miles down to about 30 miles in the next two months. Then the craft will climb back to 300 miles to compile images of the asteroid's entire surface.

When the mission is at its end next year, the scientists want NASA to consider allowing the craft to brush the asteroid's surface with one of its solar panels and then rise to photograph the resulting mark before crashing on the rocky body.

https://archive.nytimes.com/www.nytimes.com/library/national/science/021500sci-near-eros.html

NEAR Shoemaker's visit to the Valentine asteroid Eros
By Ben Evans  |  Published: Friday, February 12, 2021

Twenty years ago, just before Valentine’s Day, the plucky spacecraft NEAR Shoemaker managed to cuddle up close with an asteroid for the first time in history.



As hearts across the globe flutter this weekend for Valentine’s Day, spare a thought for a long-dead space probe, which for 20 years has sat in forlorn silence and solitude on a tiny peanut-shaped world at the fringe of the inner solar system.

NEAR Shoemaker — NASA’s Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous mission, a name later modified to honour planetary scientist Eugene Shoemaker — may now be far from Earthly companionship. But over the course of its life, it’s had frequent run-ins with the romantic holiday. The spacecraft launched during Valentine’s week in 1996, reached its destination during Valentine’s week in 2000, and it landed during Valentine’s week in 2001.

And as if that were not enough, the target of NEAR Shoemaker’s insatiable desire was none other than the stony asteroid Eros, a Staten Island-sized lump of primordial silicate-rich rubble named after the ancient Greek god of love. (...)
https://astronomy.com/news/2021/02/near-shoemaker-visits-the-valentine-asteroid-eros

https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/near-shoemaker/in-depth/

https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/near.htm

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« Odpowiedź #486 dnia: Luty 16, 2021, 03:31 »
12 lutego minęło 60 lat od pierwszego wysłania sondy na trajektorię międzyplanetarną w kierunku Wenus, co zaowocowało, wg obliczeń, przelotem nieczynnej sondy w pobliżu planety w odległości ok. 100 000 km.

Sputnik-7
Próba wysłania pierwszej radzieckiej sondy w kierunku Wenus zakończona niepowodzeniem.
4 lutego 1961 r. rakieta Mołnia wyniosła sondę na orbitę parkingową wokół Ziemi, jednak zawiódł IV stopień rakiety, który miał wprowadzić sondę na trajektorię międzyplanetarną. Razem z tym stopniem pozostawała na orbicie wokółziemskiej przez 22 dni, spłonęła w atmosferze 26 lutego 1961 r. Obiekt nie otrzymał oficjalnej nazwy, znany jest jako Tiażołyj Sputnik (ros. "Ciężki satelita") lub Sputnik-7.
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/sondy/sputnik7.htm

Wieniera-1

Pierwsza radziecka sonda międzyplanetarna i pierwsza sonda pomyślnie wysłana w kierunku Wenus.



12 lutego 1961 r. rakieta Mołnia wyniosła sondę o masie 644 kg najpierw na orbitę parkingową wokół Ziemi, a następnie na trajektorię międzyplanetarną. Łączność z sondą utracono już 27 lutego, kiedy odległość od Ziemi wynosiła 3 mln km. Z obliczeń wynika, że Wieniera-1 w dniach 19-20 maja 1961 r. przeleciała w odległości 100 tys. km od Wenus.
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/sondy/wieniera1.htm

Venera 1
Venera 1 was the first spacecraft to fly by Venus. The 6424 kg assembly was launched first into a 229 x 282 km parking orbit, then boosted toward Venus by the restartable Molniya upper stage. On 19 February, 7 days after launch, at a distance of about two million km from Earth, contact with the spacecraft was lost. On May 19 and 20, 1961, Venera 1 passed within 100,000 km of Venus and entered a heliocentric orbit. (...)
http://www.astronautix.com/d/details64.html

1961: Venera 1 (USSR)
19 544 wyświetlenia•16 maj 2008 International Astronautical Federation


60 лет со дня запуска межпланетной станции «Венера-1»
12.02.2021 01:30

60 лет назад, 12 февраля 1961 года, с космодрома Байконур стартовала четырехступенчатая ракета-носитель «Молния» с автоматической межпланетной станцией «Венера-1». Она стала первым в истории искусственным объектом, отправленным с Земли к другой планете Солнечной системы.

Разработка первых межпланетных научно-исследовательских аппаратов началась по инициативе Главного конструктора ОКБ-1 Сергея Павловича Королева и академика Мстислава Всеволодовича Келдыша еще в середине 1958 года. Для реализации этой программы ученые математического института Академии наук СССР теоретически обосновали ближайшие сроки и возможные схемы полета к Марсу и Венере. В это же время инженеры-проектировщики ОКБ-1 (сейчас — Ракетно-космическая корпорация «Энергия» имени С.П. Королёва, входит в состав Госкорпорации «Роскосмос») приступили к созданию четырехступенчатой ракеты-носителя, способной вывести необходимую полезную нагрузку на заданные траектории. Новая мощная ракета 8К78 «Молния», оснащенная разгонным блоком Л, была разработана в сжатые сроки на основе межконтинентальной баллистической ракеты Р-7.

Унифицированные венерианские аппараты серии 1ВА стартовой массой 643,5 кг были изготовлены на базе первых марсианских станций 1М, неудачно стартовавших в конце 1960 года. Они были оборудованы комплексом исследовательской аппаратуры и предназначались прежде всего для проверки методов выведения космических объектов на межпланетную трассу с отработкой средств сверхдальней радиосвязи и дистанционного управления. На случай непосредственного достижения планеты Венера обе станции несли спускаемую капсулу с советской государственной символикой. Кроме того, для управления станцией, измерения траектории их полета и обеспечения связи на расстоянии до 100 млн км был впервые развернут наземный автоматизированный радиотехнический комплекс.

Для запуска станции 1ВА руководители программы воспользовались февральским астрономическим «окном» 1961 года. 1ВА № 1 стартовала 4 февраля, но из-за проблем с включением блока Л она осталась на околоземной орбите. Вторая отправилась к месту назначения 12 февраля 1961 года и получила название «Венера-1». С аппаратом была установлена нестабильная радиосвязь, которая к 22 февраля на расстоянии 2 млн км от Земли была окончательно потеряна из-за нарушения бортового энергоснабжения в результате нештатной работы системы солнечной ориентации. Дальнейшие попытки восстановления контакта с помощью 76-метрового радиотелескопа английской обсерватории Джодрелл-Бэнк также не увенчались успехом. Согласно баллистическим расчетам к 20 мая 1961 года станция «Венера-1» пролетела на расстоянии около 100 тыс. км мимо Венеры и вышла на гелиоцентрическую орбиту.

Миссия «Венеры-1» имела важное практическое значение для дальнейшего развития отечественной ракетно-космической техники. С ее помощью впервые была испытана сверхдальняя двухсторонняя связь через параболическую антенну, проверена технология трехосной ориентации аппарата по Солнцу и звездам, а также получены уникальные на то время данные измерений солнечного ветра, космических излучений и метеорной обстановки в межпланетном пространстве.

https://www.roscosmos.ru/29953/

Cytuj
Последний сеанс связи с «Венерой-1» состоялся 19 февраля 1961 года. Через 7 суток, когда станция находилась на расстоянии около 2 миллионов километров от Земли, контакт со станцией «Венера-1» был потерян.
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« Odpowiedź #487 dnia: Luty 20, 2021, 04:00 »
America's Destiny: Remembering the Launch of the U.S. Lab, 20 Years On
https://www.americaspace.com/2021/02/06/americas-destiny-remembering-the-launch-of-the-u-s-lab-20-years-on/

A 20 lat temu nastąpił powrót 7. wyprawy wahadłowca do ISS STS-98
Z powodu zmian personalnych w obsadzie misji przydzielono do niej Roberta Lee Curbeama, Jr.
https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=4436.msg158673#msg158673

Space Shuttle STS-98 Landing Video (www.shuttlesource.com)



ISS01-E-5396 (16 February 2001) --- This rarely seen image of the underside of the Space Shuttle Atlantis was photographed by the three-man Expedition One crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS) after the shuttle and the outpost unlinked following several days of joint operations of the two crews. The scene was recorded with a digital still camera.


KSC-01PP-0265 (07 February 2001) --- The STS-98 crew gathers around a table for a snack before getting ready for launch on Space Shuttle Atlantis. Seated left to right are Mission Specialist Thomas Jones, Pilot Mark Polansky, Commander Ken Cockrell and Mission Specialists Marsha Ivins and Robert Curbeam. STS-98 is the seventh construction flight to the International Space Station. Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the ShuttleÆs robotic arm. Three spacewalks, by Curbeam and Jones, are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. Launch is targeted for 6:11 p.m. EST and the planned landing at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASAÆs Space Shuttle program.


KSC-01PP-0272 (07 February 2001) --- The STS-98 crew leaves the Operations and Checkout Building and heads for the "Astrovan" that will take them to Space Shuttle Atlantis on Launch Pad 39A. From left are Mission Specialists Robert Curbeam, Thomas Jones and Marsha Ivins, Pilot Mark Polansky and Commander Ken Cockrell. They will be flying the seventh construction flight to the International Space Station. Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station.


STS98-E-5316 (16 February 2001) --- The International Space Station (ISS) backdropped against Brazilian topography following undocking. The photo was taken with a digital still camera.
https://spaceflight.nasa.gov/gallery/images/shuttle/sts-98/ndxpage25.html

https://spaceflight.nasa.gov/shuttle/archives/sts-98/
« Ostatnia zmiana: Kwiecień 18, 2021, 23:29 wysłana przez Orionid »

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« Odpowiedź #488 dnia: Luty 22, 2021, 01:53 »
Space Station 20th: STS-98 Delivers Destiny to the International Space Station
Feb 11, 2021 John Uri NASA Johnson Space Center

After more than three months living and working aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Expedition 1 crew of NASA astronaut William P. Shepherd, Yuri P. Gidzenko, and Sergei K. Krikalev of Roscosmos received their second group of visitors. The STS-98 crew of Kenneth D. Cockrell, Mark L. Polansky, Robert L. Curbeam, Marsha S. Ivins, and Thomas D. Jones arrived aboard space shuttle Atlantis to deliver the U.S. Laboratory module Destiny to the ISS. During three spacewalks, the astronauts attached the module to the front of the station, greatly expanding its habitable volume. The joint crews began activating the new element, preparing it for the arrival of future systems and research facilities on subsequent space shuttle missions. The delivery of Destiny marked a milestone in the establishment of a world-class research facility in low-Earth orbit.


Progress M1-4, also known as 2P in the International Space Station (ISS) assembly sequence, approaches
the ISS just before docking.



Left: Expedition 1 astronaut William M. Shepherd works with the Middeck Active Control Experiment-II (MACE-II) in the Node 1 module.
Right: Shepherd building the temporary wardroom table in the Zvezda Service Module.


Shepherd, Gidzenko, and Krikalev continued to improve the habitability of their orbital outpost. They deployed the Interim Resistive Exercise Device (IRED), delivered during the STS-97 mission in December 2000, in the Node 1 module. The IRED provided a third exercise device for the onboard crew with Shepherd declaring on Dec. 12, 2000, “The weight room is open” on the ISS. The Progress M1-4 cargo vehicle that undocked just prior to STS-97 and had been station keeping nearby, re-docked with the ISS on Dec. 26. Using leftover stowage frames from the cargo craft, Shepherd, Gideznko, and Krikalev designed and built a temporary wardroom table since the permanent one was not due to arrive for several months. The table gave them a place to enjoy their meals together. The crew members set up the Chibis Lower Body Negative Device to monitor and challenge their cardiovascular systems, in the Zvezda Service Module. Shepherd, Gidzenko, and Krikalev were the first expedition team to spend Christmas and New Year’s aboard the ISS. For Christmas, they sent a holiday message to the ground that began, “As the most ‘forward deployed’ citizens of the planet at this moment, We, the first expedition crew aboard Space Station Alpha, send our holiday greetings to Earth.” For New Year’s Day, Shepherd honored a naval tradition by writing a poem as the first entry in the onboard logbook for 2001. In January 2001, Shepherd conducted the Middeck Active Control Experiment-II, the first active American research experiment aboard the ISS. On Feb. 2, the crew participated in an event to open the Payload Operations and Integration Center (POIC) at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The POIC became the nerve center of research operations aboard the ISS. On Feb. 7, the crew celebrated its 100th day in space, and the next day undocked the Progress M1-4 cargo craft for the second and final time.


At NASA’s Kennedy Space Center’s (KSC) Space Station Processing Facility, KSC Director Roy D. Bridges, left, Randy H. Brinkley, International Space Station Program Manager, and Kenneth D. Cockrell, commander of STS-98, at the Nov. 30, 1998 Destiny naming ceremony.


Left: The payload canister containing the Destiny module arriving at Launch Pad 39A at KSC.
Right: The Destiny module installed in the payload bay of space shuttle Atlantis.


The primary objective of the STS-98 mission was to deliver the U.S. Laboratory module to the ISS. Construction of the 28-foot-long research module began in 1995, and after it arrived at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC), it formally received the name Destiny during a ceremony on Nov. 30, 1998. Destiny became the centerpiece of NASA’s research activities at the orbiting facility while also providing essential core systems functions. Designed to house 10 systems and 13 research racks, each weighing about 1,200 pounds, Destiny launched with only five systems racks due to upmass constraints on the space shuttle. Those five racks provided critical functions to the station, such as electrical power distribution, cooling, air revitalization, and temperature and humidity control. The remaining racks arrived on subsequent space shuttle flights. Destiny also included a nadir-facing optical quality window for Earth observations.


Left: The STS-98 crew patch.
Right: STS-98 astronauts Robert L. Curbeam, left, Mark L. Polansky, Marsha S. Ivins, Kenneth D. Cockrell, and Thomas D. Jones.


The seventh space shuttle assembly and resupply mission to the orbital facility began a few minutes after sunset on Feb. 7, 2001, with the launch of space shuttle Atlantis from KSC’s Launch Pad 39A on the STS-98 mission. Less than two days later, Cockrell guided Atlantis to a smooth docking with the ISS at the Pressurized Mating Adapter-3, or PMA-3, located on the nadir or Earth-facing port of the Node 1 module, also known as Unity. The Expedition 1 crew observed the docking, the third visit by Atlantis to the ISS. The astronauts opened the hatches between Atlantis and the ISS for about four hours for some early transfers and then closed them to allow the spacewalks of the next few days to proceed.


Left: Launch of Atlantis on space shuttle mission STS-98.
Right: View of the International Space Station (ISS) from Atlantis during the rendezvous and docking maneuver.



Left: View from inside the ISS of space shuttle Atlantis with the Destiny laboratory module visible in the payload bay.
Right: The joint crews of STS-98 and Expedition 1 pose in the Unity Node 1 module.



Left: The shuttle’s remote manipulator lists the U.S. laboratory module Destiny for transfer to the International Space Station.
Right: NASA astronaut Robert L. Curbeam during the first STS-98 spacewalk.


On Feb. 10, the mission’s fourth day, using the shuttle’s robotic arm, Ivins grappled the PMA-2 on the forward port of the Unity module and removed it to begin its transfer to a temporary location on the Z1 truss, this clearing the port for Destiny. Meanwhile, Jones and Curbeam exited the shuttle’s airlock to begin the first spacewalk. First working in separate locations, Curbeam disconnected cables between Atlantis and Destiny while Jones translated up to the Z1 truss to assist Ivins with relocating and securing the PMA-2 in that location. Ivins then grappled Destiny, lifted it out of the payload bay, rotated it 180 degrees, and steered it to attach it to Unity’s forward port. Bolts in the berthing mechanism ensured a tight link between the two modules. The mission’s first spacewalk lasted 7 hours 33 minutes. The arrival of Destiny added 32,000 pounds to the overall mass of the ISS and increased its habitable volume by 41%. After its installation, Cockrell and Shepherd began to remotely activate Destiny’s systems. The next morning, the Expedition 1 and STS-98 crews entered Destiny for the first time to continue its activation.


Left: The interior of the Destiny laboratory module after hatch opening.
Right: An image taken during the second STS-98 spacewalk showing the complex connection between Destiny at right and the Z1 truss.



Left: NASA astronaut Robert L. Curbeam during the second STS-98 spacewalk.
Right: STS-98 astronauts Kenneth D. Cockrell, left, Thomas D. Jones, Mark L. Polansky, and Curbeam prepare for the third spacewalk



Jones during the third spacewalk of the mission.

On Feb. 12, Jones and Curbeam ventured outside for their second spacewalk. Their first major task involved assisting Ivins with removing the PMA-2 from its temporary location and attaching it to the forward hatch of Destiny to allow future shuttles to dock there. During the remainder of the 6-hour 50-minute spacewalk, they completed numerous other tasks to prepare Destiny for its long orbital stay. Jones and Curbeam ventured out a third time on Feb. 14 to complete the remaining installation tasks during a spacewalk lasting 5 hours 25 minutes. The two crews spent the next two days completing transfers between Atlantis and the ISS and readying Destiny for its operations.


Left: The STS-98 and Expedition 1 crews pose inside the newly activated Destiny module.
Right: The STS-98 crew poses for a photo on the flight deck of Atlantis.


With Polansky at the controls, Atlantis undocked from the ISS on Feb. 16 and completed a fly-around of the expanded station, with the crew taking photographs to document its condition. Inclement weather at KSC forced the crew to stay in orbit an extra two days and diverted the landing to Edwards Air Force Base in California. On Feb. 20, the astronauts closed Atlantis’ payload bay doors, put on their launch and entry suits, strapped into their seats, and fired the shuttle’s engines for the trip back to Earth. Cockrell guided Atlantis to a smooth landing, ending a highly successful 13-day mission, adding the Destiny module to enable a robust research program aboard the ISS.


Left: A view of the International Space Station as seen from Atlantis during its departure, with the newly added Destiny module at lower right.
Right: Atlantis makes a smooth landing at Edwards Air Force Base in California.


Enjoy the crew-narrated about the STS-98 mission.

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/space-station-20th-sts-98-delivers-destiny-to-the-international-space-station

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« Odpowiedź #489 dnia: Marzec 11, 2021, 02:35 »
35 lat temu misja STS-61E Columbia z obserwatorium ASTRO-1 została odwołana. Wiązano z nią duże nadzieje.

The Sun Kept Rising: Remembering Columbia's Unflown Mission, 35 Years On
By Ben Evans, on March 6th, 2021

(...) “We were preparing to fly in 40 days to observe Halley’s Comet,” Parker later told the NASA oral historian. “Obviously we didn’t fly 40 days later!” Yet the bullish attitude of NASA management in the weeks and months leading up to the Challenger tragedy had different priorities … and those were governed almost exclusively by the need to meet launch schedules. (...)


Had Challenger not been lost, these seven men were the next scheduled Shuttle crew. Seated from left to right are Pilot Dick Richards, Commander Jon McBride and Mission Specialist Dave Leestma, the ‘orbiter’ crew in charge of Shuttle systems. Standing from left to right are the ‘science’ crew: Payload Specialist Sam Durrance, Mission Specialists Bob Parker and Jeff Hoffman and Payload Specialist Ron Parise. Photo Credit: NASA

(...) It has long been the subject of both idle and informed coffee-table gossip to ponder the what-if scenarios of spaceflight history. With more than 800 “Criticality One” items aboard the shuttle which could cause a Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) in the event of a failure, every astronaut knew that tragedy lurked around each corner. But STS-61E in particular felt the full weight of the dice loaded against it. Years later, Mission Specialist Bob Parker remembered that the frigid weather conditions which conspired to doom Challenger were even colder on the night of 5/6 March. (...)

When the Crew Activity Plan (CAP) for STS-61E was published by NASA in November 1985, it was expected that the flight would be the second-longest shuttle mission in history at that time. Landing was scheduled for 3:47 a.m. EST on 15 March, producing a planned duration of eight days, 22 hours and two minutes and 140 orbits of Earth.

In the aftermath of Challenger, STS-61E crew was stood down, indefinitely. For Jeff Hoffman, the decision to stick around and wait for ASTRO-1 was an easy one to make, but other astronauts felt otherwise. At length, in November 1988, a new ASTRO-1 crew was formed from the remnants of 61E: Hoffman, Parker, Durrance and Parise would fly aboard the redesignated STS-35, together with McBride in command and two other astronauts, Guy Gardner as pilot and a third mission specialist, Mike Lounge. A few months later, in May 1989, McBride abruptly resigned his post to return to his native West Virginia, and NASA replaced him with veteran astronaut Vance Brand. (...)

https://www.americaspace.com/2021/03/06/the-sun-kept-rising-remembering-columbias-unflown-mission-35-years-on/
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« Odpowiedź #490 dnia: Marzec 11, 2021, 02:51 »
'Up Against a Wall': What 1986 Might Have Been
By Ben Evans, on February 8th, 2015

(...) The flight of Challenger on Mission 51L was actually the second of a planned 15 shuttle flights in 1986 (...)


Had Challenger not been lost, the retrieval of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) would have taken place in September 1986. Photo Credit: NASA
https://www.americaspace.com/2015/02/08/up-against-a-wall-what-1986-might-have-been/
« Ostatnia zmiana: Marzec 11, 2021, 02:53 wysłana przez Orionid »

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« Odpowiedź #491 dnia: Marzec 12, 2021, 13:39 »
12.03. mija 40 lat od początku misji z 1981 roku Sojuz T-4, która trwała prawie 75 dni na pokładzie stacji Salut-6.

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« Odpowiedź #492 dnia: Marzec 13, 2021, 02:26 »
Była to ostatnia wyprawa załogi podstawowej na stację  Salut-6. Podczas jej trwania miały miejsce  3 załogowe loty kosmiczne z udziałem kosmonautów i astronautów z 4 krajów.



Сорок лет назад, 12 марта 1981 года, с космодрома Байконур был запущен космический пилотируемый корабль «Союз Т-4», доставивший на орбитальную станцию «Салют-6» космонавтов Владимира Коваленка и Виктора Савиных. Их полет продлился 74 дня 17 часов. Об этом полете «Известия» рассказали на первой полосе.

«К 13 марта к 13 часам московского времени космический корабль «Союз Т-4» совершил десять оборотов вокруг Земли.



Члены экипажа космического корабля «Союз Т-4» перед стартом. Летчик-космонавт СССР, Герой Советского Союза, командир корабля Владимир Коваленок и космонавт СССР, бортинженер корабля Виктор Савиных
Фото: РИА Новости/Александр Моклецов


В соответствии с программой полета космонавты Владимир Коваленок и Виктор Савиных продолжают подготовку к стыковке с орбитальным комплексом «Салют-6» — «Прогресс-12». Экипаж проверил работу бортовых систем, а на четвертом витке была произведена коррекция траектории движения корабля.

На борту станции им предстоят запланированные ремонтно-профилактические работы, научно-технические исследования и эксперименты».

https://iz.ru/1135817/svetlana-kazantceva-iana-abu-zeid/dezhurnye-po-strane-13-marta-izvestiia-otmechaiut-104-i-den-rozhdeniia


ПОСЛЕДНЯЯ ОСНОВНАЯ ЭКСПЕДИЦИЯ НА «САЛЮТ-6»


Экипаж КК «Союз Т-4» космонавты В.В. Коваленок и В.П. Савиных. РГАНТД. Арх. № 0-4941цв

Срок эксплуатации долговременной орбитальной станции «Салют-6» (ДОС, ОС, станция), запущенной в 1977 году, подошел к концу. Очередной и последний этап работы на ОС предстояло совершить экипажу космического корабля (КК) «Союз Т-4» в составе космонавтов Владимира Ковалёнка и Виктора Савиных.

Программа пятой основной экспедиции (ЭО-5) предполагала проведение ряда ремонтных работ на станции с целью ее последующей консервации, разгрузку транспортного космического корабля «Прогресс-12», совместную деятельность с международными экипажами экспедиций посещения в рамках программы «Интеркосмос» и др.

В процессе подготовки к ЭО-5 состав основного, дублирующего и резервного экипажей менялся трижды. Только в конце февраля 1981 года Государственная комиссия приняла окончательное решение о составе основного экипажа, руководствуясь имеющимся опытом командира корабля Владимира Ковалёнка и подготовкой к полету на кораблях типа «Союз Т» бортинженера Виктора Савиных. Для Владимира Васильевича этот полет стал третьим и последним, для Виктора Петровича – первым из трех совершенных. Запланированный на 10 марта старт был перенесен на несколько дней.

12 марта 1981 года с космодрома Байконур стартовал пилотируемый космический корабль «Союз Т-4». Стыковка с ДОС была осуществлена 13 марта 1981 года. Сразу после перехода на «Салют-6» космонавты приступили к выполнению программы полета. Груз, доставленный на «Прогрессе-12», был перенесен в жилые помещения станции, проведено перекачивание воды в ёмкости ОС посредством системы «Родник», осуществлен ремонт кабельной сети, бортового коммутатора, посеяны семена арабидопсиса (цветкового растения семейства капустных) в установке «Фитон», к проведению биологических исследований подготовлена оранжерея «Малахит», установлен новый блок управления ориентацией солнечных батарей, заменен насос откачки конденсата в системе терморегулирования, выполнена коррекция орбиты станции. В течение дальнейшей работы экипаж провел ряд биологических экспериментов с целью изучения влияния неоднородного магнитного поля на ориентацию проростков высших растений. Отходы и отработанное оборудование были перенесены на грузовой корабль.

В рамках совместной программы с экспедициями посещения при участии монгольского и румынского космонавтов (22 марта 1981 года и 14 мая 1981 года соответственно) проведены ряд экспериментов, в том числе геофизические (исследование оптических характеристик атмосферы и выявление погрешностей, вносимых атмосферой в фотоизображения), по космическому материаловедению (фотографирование отдельных областей на Земле), физические (измерение потоков гамма-излучения и заряженных частиц в околоземном пространстве), медицинские (исследование функций сердечно-сосудистой системы) и другие.

Срок пребывания В.В. Ковалёнка и В.П. Савиных на станции составил более 74 суток. 26 мая 1981 года космический полет был завершен, программа полета успешно выполнена, станция «Салют-6» проводила своих последних посетителей, а следующая ЭО-5 стартовала уже к новому орбитальному комплексу «Салют-7.

Фотокаталог Российского государственного архива научно-технической документации (архив, РГАНТД) содержит более двухсот документов о работе экипажа «Союз Т-4» на ОС «Салют-6», встречах с международными экипажами, их совместной деятельности. В коллекции аудиовизуальных документов по пилотируемой космонавтике хранятся переговоры (сеансы связи) сотрудников Центра управления полетами с членами экипажа КК. Специальный выпуск газеты «Известия» для экипажа ОК «Союз-6» - «Союз Т-4» - «Союз-40» содержится в личном фонде Голованова Ярослава Кирилловича - журналиста, писателя, популяризатора космонавтики (РГАНТД. Ф. 211. Оп. 18. Д. 111). Акты о взвешивании транспортного космического корабля «Союз Т-4», старте ракеты с КК, продолжительности совестного полета научно-исследовательского орбитального комплекса «Салют-6» - «Союз Т-4» в состыкованном состоянии с транспортным космическим кораблем «Союз-39» находится в составе дела о космическом полете международного экипажа на научно-исследовательском орбитальном комплексе «Салют-6» – «Союз-Т-4» - «Союз-39» фонда Федерации космонавтики СССР (РГАНТД. Ф. 24. Оп. 1 НД. Д. 53).

В публикации были использованы материалы из источников, находящихся на хранении в архиве, книг «Мировая пилотируемая космонавтика. История. Техника. Люди» (под ред. Ю.М. Батурина, М.: «РТСофт», 2005), «Космонавтика СССР» (гл. ред. Ю.А. Мозжорин, М.: Машиностроение, Планета, 1986), справочно-информационный фонд РГАНТД.

http://rgantd.ru/news/pamyatnye-daty/poslednyaya-osnovnaya-ekspeditsiya-na-salyut-6/

http://www.april12.eu/soyuz/soyuzt/syzt4ru.html

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« Odpowiedź #493 dnia: Marzec 14, 2021, 20:51 »
'Out on Parole': Remembering STS-29, OTD in 1989

By Ben Evans, on March 13th, 2021

Flying in space, remembered astronaut John Blaha—who began the first of his five missions on this day, way back in 1989—vanished in the flicker of an eye. On 13 March 1989, Blaha and his four crewmates launched aboard shuttle Discovery on the relatively “vanilla” STS-29 flight to deliver a major NASA communications satellite into space.


Seated on the flight deck of the shuttle simulator, the STS-29 crew consisted of (from left) John Blaha, Jim Bagian, Jim Buchli, Bob Springer and Mike Coats. Photo Credit: NASA

https://www.americaspace.com/2021/03/13/out-on-parole-remembering-sts-29-otd-in-1989/
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« Odpowiedź #494 dnia: Marzec 16, 2021, 17:38 »
55 lat od startu statku Gemini-8 w 1966 roku.

'Really a Smoothie': Remembering Gemini VIII, OTD in 1966 (Part 1)

By Ben Evans, on March 16th, 2021


The Gemini VIII prime and backup crews (from left) Dave Scott, Neil Armstrong, Charles “Pete” Conrad and Dick Gordon take journalists’ questions at a pre-launch press conference. Photo Credit: NASA

https://www.americaspace.com/2021/03/16/really-a-smoothie-remembering-gemini-viii-otd-in-1966-part-1/


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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
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