Autor Wątek: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń  (Przeczytany 206316 razy)

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Offline juram

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« Odpowiedź #180 dnia: Październik 04, 2017, 11:40 »
Oczywiście, lot Apollo 11 oglądałem od deski do deski - zarówno w specjalnie na tę okazję utworzonych programach tv i radiowych, śledziłem wszelkie możliwe doniesienia prasowe. Na tę historyczną wyprawę byłem przygotowany znacznie wcześniej, bo w mediach PRL-u dużo się o tym pisało i mówiło. Ukazywało się dużo wydawnictw książkowych, itp. Równolegle z zainteresowaniami w dziedzinie astronautyki, interesowała mnie astronomia, kontakty z PTMA, itp, dlatego łatwo przyswajałem to wszystko, podobnie jak moi koledzy, również zafascynowani tą tematyką. 

Kumulacja zainteresowań lotami załogowymi to krótki okres trwania programu GEMINI, o którym było tyle doniesień prasowych, że ledwo nadążałem z wklejaniem wycinków prasowych ma temat kolejnych lotów! Szkoda, że się nie zachowały.
Ech, co to były za czasy? ;D

Offline ekoplaneta

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« Odpowiedź #181 dnia: Październik 04, 2017, 11:56 »
Oczywiście, lot Apollo 11 oglądałem od deski do deski - zarówno w specjalnie na tę okazję utworzonych programach tv i radiowych, śledziłem wszelkie możliwe doniesienia prasowe. Na tę historyczną wyprawę byłem przygotowany znacznie wcześniej, bo w mediach PRL-u dużo się o tym pisało i mówiło. Ukazywało się dużo wydawnictw książkowych, itp. Równolegle z zainteresowaniami w dziedzinie astronautyki, interesowała mnie astronomia, kontakty z PTMA, itp, dlatego łatwo przyswajałem to wszystko, podobnie jak moi koledzy, również zafascynowani tą tematyką. 

Kumulacja zainteresowań lotami załogowymi to krótki okres trwania programu GEMINI, o którym było tyle doniesień prasowych, że ledwo nadążałem z wklejaniem wycinków prasowych ma temat kolejnych lotów! Szkoda, że się nie zachowały.
Ech, co to były za czasy? ;D

Szkoda że wycinki prasowe zaginęły :-( Jeśli Muskowi uda się wystartować z ITS na Marsa to mam nadzieję, że przyszłe dekady dorównają a może i przebiją czasy kosmicznego wyścigu pomiędzy ZSRR i USA. Ale z drugiej strony w historii zawsze wraca się do początków, więc czasy Sputnika 1 i Apollo 11 na zawsze zapisały się w historii ludzkości i warto było być naocznym świadkiem wydarzeń  :)

Offline Orionid

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« Odpowiedź #182 dnia: Październik 05, 2017, 07:53 »

Szkoda że wycinki prasowe zaginęły :-( Jeśli Muskowi uda się wystartować z ITS na Marsa to mam nadzieję, że przyszłe dekady dorównają a może i przebiją czasy kosmicznego wyścigu pomiędzy ZSRR i USA. Ale z drugiej strony w historii zawsze wraca się do początków, więc czasy Sputnika 1 i Apollo 11 na zawsze zapisały się w historii ludzkości i warto było być naocznym świadkiem wydarzeń  :)

A ja odziedziczyłem stare gazety, z których wycinki porobiłem. Parę z nich już na Forum zamieściłem.
Też książkowe "Kalendarze robotnicze" posiadam. Można w nich znaleźć artykuły o początkach radzieckiej kosmonautyki.
Przypadkowo trafił do mnie  rocznik Astronautyki z 1977. Można tam znależć bardzo obszerny artykuł podsumowujący 20-lecie ery kosmicznej autorstwa Olgierda Wołczka. Jest tam też program  IAC 28, który miał wtedy miejsce w Pradze.

Offline Orionid

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« Odpowiedź #183 dnia: Październik 05, 2017, 07:58 »
Replika Sputnika i dziś jest w cenie

Sputnik replica sells for $850K sixty years after launch of original satellite


A vintage test model of the Sputnik-1 satellite sold for $847,000 on Sept. 27, 2017 at Bonhams' sale in New York. (Bonhams)

September 27, 2017 — A full-scale, vintage test model of the world's first artificial satellite sold for more than three-quarters of a million dollars on Wednesday (Sept. 27), one week before the 60th anniversary of the launch of Sputnik-1 and the start of the Space Age.

Bonhams auctioned the "beeping" replica of the now-iconic satellite, with its polished metal sphere and four protruding antennas, for $847,500 (including the premium charged to the buyer) at its New York gallery. The winning bid, placed by an unidentified buyer on the telephone, far surpassed the pre-auction estimate and the amount paid for a similar Sputnik replica sold by Bonhams for $269,000 in 2016.

"The telephone [bidder] seems to hold it at $700,000," said Bonhams' auctioneer, citing the hammer price to applause in the room. (...)
http://www.collectspace.com/news/news-092717a-sputnik-satellite-auction-bonhams.html

Polskie Forum Astronautyczne

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« Odpowiedź #183 dnia: Październik 05, 2017, 07:58 »

Offline Orionid

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« Odpowiedź #184 dnia: Październik 05, 2017, 08:18 »
60 years ago, Sputnik shocked the world and started the space race
Here’s how it all began.
By Mary Beth Griggs  Yesterday at 8:00pm

It was 8:07 p.m. on a Friday night in Riverhead, Long Island, when the operators at an RCA Communications outpost picked up a signal that had never been heard before on Earth. A sharp, insistent beep sang out over short-wave radios, filling up our ears with the knowledge that humans had succeeded in sending something outside our protective blanket of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.

Within hours of the announcement, diligent searchers of the skies—all volunteer amateur astronomers who had trained for this moment—assembled, and confirmed with their eyes what our ears already knew. In Terre Haute, Indiana; Whittaker, California; and Columbus, Ohio, these stargazers tracked a faintly shining object as it sped around Earth at 18,000 miles per hour, heading from west to east across the darkened sky.

The appearance of a second, 184 pound moon in the skies above America shocked the nation, not in the least because our new moonlet had been sent there by the rival Soviets.

Newspaper reports at the time asked the man who oversaw America’s yet-to-launch satellite program, Rear Admiral Rawson Bennett, for a reaction to Sputnik’s launch. He replied by saying that the push to put satellites in space had never been conceived of as ‘a race.'

To which the entire world responded; “Yep, uh-huh, sure, this isn’t some kind of space race or anything.”

Laying the rocket work

Though Sputnik’s launch is looked at today as the moment that sparked the space race between the US and USSR, the push to leave the limits of the planet started much earlier. Scientists during WWII had started to work with rockets—with devastating and deadly results. Starting with the German V2 that obliterated parts of London during the last part of the war, rockets were used to ferry weapons of increasing strength to ever-more distant targets.

But some researchers in both the Soviet Union and the United States had already begun to contemplate other uses for the missiles, building on theories established before the war. One of the of the first people to propose that a rocket could be used to reach space was Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky, a Russian scientist who figured out rocket dynamics in 1903. Nearly 50 years after his work was published, a new generation of scientists were about to get the perfect platform to test those theories.

During the years after the war, nations were understandably focused on rebuilding (and making sure that another similarly-scaled war wouldn’t break out), not on an international exchange of ideas. But by 1950, scientists were eager to start learning more about the Earth instead of fighting over who got which bit of it.

In the spirit of two other massive international efforts—the International Polar Years of 1882 and 1932, which saw hundreds of scientists banding together to study the polar reaches of the planet—a small group of American researchers proposed that 1957-1958 would be an International Geophysical Year dedicated to learning more about the world, from mapping out the seafloor to sending rockets into space to get a better view of Earth.

The United States was quick to announce that it would launch artificial satellites during the IGY. The Soviets weren’t far behind, though the latter kept most details about their program secret. That's one reason that Sputnik I was such a shock to the world—very few people knew how far along the Soviets were in their program.

The race is on

In one of the few concessions to public interest in the launch of artificial moons, the USSR did release the information about what frequency their satellite would broadcast on in the weeks prior to their successful launch. As Sputnik circled overhead, newspapers posted details about when the best time to see the satellite would be. People peered through binoculars in backyards during the brief hours between dusk and dawn when it was most visible, or tuned in to ham radios to witness Sputnik passing overhead.

America, bereft in its second place status, panicked, and started pushing students towards Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math in the hopes of catching up. Serious op-eds were posted in major publications decrying America’s failure to educate successful engineers. Money was thrown at science departments at major universities. And in the aftermath of Sputnik, the United States founded NASA.

Needless to say, scientific competition got heated at the height of the cold war.

The United States launched a satellite, Explorer 1, four months after Sputnik, but the Soviets stayed one step ahead of the Americans for most of the space race. The USSR launched Laika, the first living animal to head into orbit. Yuri Gagarin beat John Glenn into space by 10 months, and Valentina Tereshkova beat Sally Ride to being the first woman in space by nearly 20 years. Russian cosmonauts made the first harrowing spacewalk. They also crash-landed a probe into the Moon, and took pictures of the far side of our natural satellite in 1959—10 years before Neil Armstrong ever walked on the lunar surface.

That’s not to say that the American space program was slacking. In a push to catch up to the Soviets, they developed the Gemini capsule, which allowed two astronauts to spend up to two weeks in space, and gave them the capability to rendezvous with other spacecraft and maneuver in orbit. Those capabilities prepared NASA to finally land on the moon in 1969, something that no other country has managed even today.

Competition between the two superpowers continued on space stations and spaceflights for years after the moon landing, ostensibly until the Apollo-Soyuz mission, when a Soviet and American spacecraft docked in space and symbolically opened a new era of cooperation. A closer relationship in space followed the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Post-race recovery

In a two-person race, there’s a winner and a loser. But with a finish line that kept moving, participants that continue to change, and new equipment and hurdles both constantly added to the course, declaring a definitive winner is tricky. Soviet fans might point to a long track record of hitting their mile markers first. For proponents of the American space program, there’s the whole Moon-landing thing.

But in the end, both nations got farther racing against each other than they ever would have managed if they were just trudging along at their own pace. The space race pushed both countries to innovate, challenge their technical limits, and stretch the boundaries of what was supposed to be possible.

The winner of the space race wasn’t the US or the USSR. It was all of us. Without it, we wouldn’t have weather satellites, telecommunications, GPS. We wouldn't be able to contemplate visiting not our moon, let alone other worlds.
It’s not just a two-person race anymore. China joined the United States and Russia as a space-faring country in 2003, becoming the third nation to launch a human into space. Currently, China and Russia are the only two countries with the capability to launch crewed missions (the United States' space shuttle retired in 2011). But plenty more are clamoring to get there. There are now 71 different national or international groups with space agencies, and Australia just announced that it would set up one of its own. Private space companies regularly launch cargo into space, and hope to deliver humans into orbit shortly.

A lot has changed in the past 60 years—but it all started with that beep.

https://www.popsci.com/sputnik-shocked-world-and-started-space-race

Offline Orionid

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« Odpowiedź #185 dnia: Październik 05, 2017, 08:29 »
60th Anniversary Of Sputnik: 10 Photos Of The Space Race
BY ELANA GLOWATZ @ELANAGLOW ON 10/04/17 AT 2:02 PM
http://www.ibtimes.com/60th-anniversary-sputnik-10-photos-space-race-2597437
« Ostatnia zmiana: Październik 05, 2017, 08:34 wysłana przez Orionid »

Offline ekoplaneta

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« Odpowiedź #186 dnia: Październik 05, 2017, 08:52 »
A mało naprawdę malutko (pod względem technologicznym) brakowało aby to USA jako pierwsze wystrzeliły sztucznego satelitę Ziemi. Tylko amerykańska poprawność polityczna samym Amerykanom pokrzyżowała plany.  Ciekawe jakby ułożyły się dalsze dzieje astronautyki, gdyby rakieta Jupiter wyniosła pierwszego satelitę Ziemi? Może wówczas obyłoby się bez wyścigu o Księżyc?  :P

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« Odpowiedź #187 dnia: Październik 05, 2017, 09:44 »
60 years after Sputnik, Russian space program faces troubles
October 4, 2017 by Vladimir Isachenkov



In this file photo taken on Thursday, April 28, 2016, A Russian Soyuz 2.1a rocket carrying Lomonosov, Aist-2D and SamSat-218 satellites lifts off from the launch pad at the new Vostochny Cosmodrome outside the city of Uglegorsk, about 200 kilometers (125 miles) from the city of Blagoveshchensk in the far eastern Amur region, Russia. Six decades after Sputnik opened the space era, Russia has struggled to build up on its Soviet-era space achievements and space research now ranks very low among the Kremlin's priorities. (Kirill Kudryavtsev/Pool Photo via AP, File)

Six decades after Sputnik, a refined version of the rocket that put the first artificial satellite in orbit remains the mainstay of Russia's space program—a stunning tribute to the country's technological prowess, but also a sign it has failed to build upon its achievements.

And unlike the Cold War era, when space was a key area of the rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union, space research now appears to rank low on the Kremlin's priorities.

The Soyuz booster, currently the only vehicle that launches crews to the International Space Station, is a modification of the R-7 rocket that put Sputnik in orbit on Oct. 4, 1957.

Another Soviet-designed workhorse, the heavy-lift Proton rocket that has been used to launch commercial satellites to high orbits, was developed in the 1960s.

Both rockets established a stellar reputation for their reliability, but their record was tarnished by a string of failed launches in recent years that have called into question the Russian space industry's ability to maintain the same high standards of manufacturing.

Glitches found in Proton and Soyuz in 2016 were traced to manufacturing flaws at the plant in Voronezh that builds engines for both rockets. The Russian space agency, Roscosmos, sent more than 70 rocket engines back to production lines to replace faulty components, a move that resulted in a yearlong break in Proton launches.


In this file undated photo, Soviet cosmonaut Major Yuri Gagarin, first man to orbit the earth, is shown in his space suit in this undated photo. On the 12th April 1961, the Russian cosmonaut became the first man in space when he orbited the Earth once during a 108 minute flight. Six decades after Sputnik opened the space era, Russia has struggled to build up on its Soviet-era space achievements and space research now ranks very low among the Kremlin's priorities. (AP Photo, File)

The suspension eroded the nation's niche in the global market for commercial satellite launches. Last year, Russia for the first time fell behind both the U.S. and China in the number of launches.

Clients have increasingly opted for new, more efficient and affordable choices, such as the Falcon 9 built by SpaceX, which broke ground in reducing costs by making its rockets reusable.

Russian officials have recognized the challenge posed by SpaceX and others, but they have offered few specifics on how the nation hopes to retain its place in the global market. The only short-term answer appears to be a plan to manufacture a less-powerful version of the Proton booster to lower costs.

In an astonishing recognition of the depth of Russia's space woes, Roscosmos chief Igor Komarov declared earlier this week that the Voronezh factory used substandard alloys because of a logistical failure that occurred after a warehouse worker had become ill.

The Khrunichev company that assembles the Proton also has fallen on hard times amid criminal investigations into alleged mismanagement and a decision to sharply cut its assets. Much of the prized real estate it occupies in western Moscow has been designated for development.


In this file photo taken on Tuesday, Sept. 12, 2017, The Proton-M rocket booster blasts off at the Russian leased Baikonur cosmodrome, Kazakhstan. Six decades after Sputnik opened the space era, Russia has struggled to build up on its Soviet-era space achievements and space research now ranks very low among the Kremlin's priorities. (AP Photo/Dmitri Lovetsky, File)

Meanwhile, the development of the Angara, a booster rocket intended to replace both the Soyuz and the Proton, has been repeatedly pushed back, and its future remains uncertain. More expensive and lacking the long-established track record of its predecessors, the Angara probably will find it hard to compete with SpaceX rockets and others in the international market.

The first tests of the Angara have been successful, but full-scale production is yet to be organized at a plant in the Siberian city of Omsk.

And while the Soyuz is now the only vehicle for ferrying crews to the International Space Station following the retirement of the U.S. space shuttle fleet, Russia stands to lose the monopoly soon as the SpaceX's Dragon v2 and Boeing's Starliner crew capsules are to fly test missions next year.

Work on a new spacecraft intended to replace the Soyuz crew capsule designed 50 years ago has crawled slowly. The ship, called Federation, is tentatively set for its first manned flight in 2023, but little is known about it.

Roscosmos also has talked about sending several unmanned missions to the moon in the next decade, but details are yet to be worked out. Attempts to send unmanned probes to Mars in 1996 and to the Martian moons Phobos in 2011 failed due to equipment problems.


FILE In this file photo taken on Saturday, April 2, 2011, the scene as service towers lift to the Russian Soyuz TMA-21 space ship that will carry new crew to the International Space Station, ISS, at the launch pad in Russian leased Baikonur cosmodrome, Kazakhstan. Six decades after Sputnik opened the space era, Russia has struggled to build up on its Soviet-era space achievements and space research now ranks very low among the Kremlin's priorities.(AP Photo/Dmitry Lovetsky, File)

Russia also has struggled for years to build its own scientific module for the International Space Station. Originally set for 2007, the launch of the Nauka, or Science, module has been pushed back repeatedly. A 2013 check revealed that its systems had become clogged with residue and required a costly cleaning. The launch is now tentatively set for next year, but some reports suggest it could be delayed further.

Amid funding shortages, Roscosmos has decided to cut the size of its ISS crews from three to two, a move criticized by many in Russia.

"It's very bad when we have to cut the number of cosmonaut seats," cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya said in parliament this year. "The situation in our space industry is quite alarming."

One Russian cosmonaut currently in orbit, Sergei Ryazanskiy, on Wednesday posted a picture of himself holding a tiny replica of Sputnik on Twitter to mark the 60th anniversary. Ryazanskiy's grandfather, the chief designer of radio guidance systems for space vehicles during Soviet times, was involved in Sputnik's launch.

While other space programs faced cutbacks, Russia spent billions to build the new Vostochny launch pad in the Far East as a possible alternative to the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan that Moscow has leased from its former Soviet neighbor.


In this file photo taken on Sunday, Sept. 10, 2017, Russia's Soyuz-FG booster rocket with the Soyuz MS-06 space ship that will carry new crew to the International Space Station (ISS) being raised at the launch pad at the Russian leased Baikonur cosmodrome, Kazakhstan. Six decades after Sputnik opened the space era, Russia has struggled to build up on its Soviet-era space achievements and space research now ranks very low among the Kremlin's priorities. (AP Photo/Dmitri Lovetsky, file)

Many have questioned the feasibility of the expensive new facility, given the fact that Russia intends to continue using Baikonur for most of its launches. Work at Vostochny has also been dogged by scandals involving protests by unpaid workers and the arrests of construction officials accused of embezzlement.

A launch pad for Soyuz finally opened in 2016, but another one for heavier Angara rockets is only set to be completed in late 2021.

Amid massive spending on Vostochny, whose future remains unclear, some have criticized Roscosmos for cutting corners on personnel. Cosmonaut Maxim Surayev, who now serves as a lawmaker, lamented the poor conditions for future space crews at the Star City training center outside Moscow.

"It's wrong when, instead of fulfilling their task to prepare for space flight, they have to find side jobs and a place to live," Surayev said in parliament.

Several veteran cosmonauts were forced to retire earlier this year amid vicious infighting at Star City. One of the retirees was Gennady Padalka, who holds the world record for the longest time in orbit—879 days over five space missions.

In a letter to the media, Padalka urged authorities to fire the director of Star City to prevent the facility from falling into "complete ruin."


In this file photo taken on Friday, April 11, 2014, Russia's President Vladimir Putin, foreground left, looks at exhibits as he visits the Cosmonautics Memorial Museum in Moscow, Russia. Six decades after Sputnik opened the space era, Russia has struggled to build up on its Soviet-era space achievements and space research now ranks very low among the Kremlin's priorities. (Alexei Nikolsky, Sputnik, Kremlin Pool Photo via AP, File)


In this file photo taken on Wednesday, Sept. 13, 2017, The Soyuz-FG rocket booster with Soyuz MS-06 space ship carrying a new crew to the International Space Station, ISS, blasts off at the Russian leased Baikonur cosmodrome, Kazakhstan. Six decades after Sputnik opened the space era, Russia has struggled to build up on its Soviet-era space achievements and space research now ranks very low among the Kremlin's priorities. (AP Photo/Dmitri Lovetsky, File)

A life-size mock-up of the First Earth Sputnik is on display at the Museum of Cosmonautics in Moscow, Russia, Tuesday, Oct. 3, 2017. The launch of Sputnik 60 years ago opened the space era and became a major triumph for the Soviet Union, showcasing its military might and technological edge. (AP Photo/Alexander Zemlianichenko)

© 2017 The Associated Press.
https://phys.org/news/2017-10-years-sputnik-russian-space.html

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« Odpowiedź #188 dnia: Październik 08, 2017, 08:44 »
60 years after Sputnik, Russia is lost in space
by Matthew Bodner — October 4, 2017


A Soyuz 2.1a rocket in the lead up to its April 2016 launch from Vostochny — the first and only launch to date from Russia's newly constructed cosmodrome. Credit: Roscosmos

MOSCOW — Just over 30 years after the Soviet Union launched the world’s first satellite, Sputnik 1, the nation that opened the space race stood on the precipice of a second golden age of space exploration. A major program, the Energia heavy booster rocket and the Buran space shuttle, was nearing completion — making its maiden flight in November 1988.

Another three decades later, on the 60th anniversary of Sputnik 1, the Russian space program is a shadow of its Soviet predecessor. The Energia-Buran project, its last major accomplishment, flew just once before the fall of communism gutted Moscow’s space program. For nearly three decades now, the Russian space industry has been in a state of triage, teetering on collapse.


A replica of the Soviet Union’s Sputnik 1. Credit: National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution

But the Russian space program has consistently defied the dire predictions of those foretelling an imminent end to the program. Today, amid a major effort to reform and reorganize the Russian space industry under the new Roscosmos state corporation, there are signs that the bleeding has been slowed. But major questions about Russia’s future in space linger.

“Russia’s space industry is in deep crisis,” says Pavel Luzin, a Russian space industry expert and CEO of research startup Under Mad Trends. “We are able to maintain some of our capabilities, especially military ones, but without significant reforms we will be unable to go further. Soon, Russia will face a choice: either change itself or lose its space capabilities.”

Why do it?

To understand the current state of the Russian space program, it is important to take stock of why Moscow pursues space activities at all. Generally speaking, the Russian space program today — like its Soviet predecessor — is primarily focused on the military applications of space technology. Almost all Russian space technology was built for or derived from military purposes.

This was true from the very beginning. The R-7 rocket that launched Sputnik in 1957 was itself a modified ICBM, constructed for the Soviet Union’s fledgling nuclear program. The Soyuz launch vehicle used today to fly to the International Space Station was derived from the R-7. The Proton rocket, too, was derived from an ICBM. Soviet space stations began as military outposts.

Only recently has modern Russia began in earnest to develop new space technology, but for the moment the majority of its assets have military heritage. Looking at Moscow’s satellite constellation, according to open source estimates, 80 of its 134 spacecraft on orbit are military hardware, says Luzin. In this way, the Russian program looks very similar to the Soviet one.

The major difference is the political and ideological context that amplified those efforts into an ambitious, broad-spectrum space program that launched Sputnik, cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, the first space stations, and the Energia-Buran project — as well as a wealth of scientific missions to Venus and other far-off locales. Simply put: modern Russia lacks political rationale to do more than it does.

Loss of vision

The major challenge facing the Russian space program today is lack of vision. The Soviet Union, an ideological superpower, had very clear reasons to push forward into space: Communism was humanity’s future, they believed, and that future was in space. The Cold War gave additional ideological impetus, as space could demonstrate the superiority of their system.

“The space race gave people a dream, a vision: space would be a place where the new man of the future, the communist man, would live, explore and create,” explains Ivan Kosenkov, an analyst at the Skolkovo Space Cluster — the epicenter of modern Russia’s private space efforts. “This motivated people to work hard and achieve goals faster than any time since then.”

Post-Soviet Russia is not an ideological nation. In many ways, it is a nostalgic nation. This nostalgia has been expertly co-opted by the government under President Vladimir Putin. Under him, Russians largely draw pride from looking back, rather than looking forward. And in this regard, the space program has already provided what it needs to.

Yury Gagarin is a national hero on the level of Peter the Great and Stalin. The iconography of Soviet space achievements litters Moscow to this day. And a 2015 survey conducted by the state-owned VTsIOM pollster found that 87 percent of respondents supported Russia’s presence in space — far outpacing public support for space exploration in the United States (A 2015 Pew Research Center poll found that just 68 percent of Americans viewed NASA favorably).

Earthly concerns

Russia’s priorities in space today are far more grounded that its Soviet predecessor. The primary task for the Russian space industry is to retain Soviet-era capabilities. These efforts since at least 2014 have been enshrined in the massive reorganization and consolidation of the space industry under Roscosmos, which in 2015 became a state-owned corporation.

These capabilities are important for Russia from a national security standpoint.

“During the Cold War,” says Kosenkov, “the Soviet Union’s survival was largely dependent on the success of the nuclear program and the space program, which together enabled the development of a nuclear deterrent for the country and allowing the USSR to achieve parity in the field of weapons of mass destruction with the United States.”

This logic is mostly unchanged today. Nuclear missiles remain Russia’s only real guarantee of national defense. Its territory is simply too large to reasonably defend conventionally. But there is little, if anything, left to develop other that new ICBMs and new rockets — efforts that Russia struggles with now but is making progress. Exploration and science efforts have withered.

“Scientific space activity and space exploration were always a kind of ‘side effect’ of the military and political purposes of the U.S.-Soviet space race,” Luzin says. “Even now, space exploration and space science are not Russia’s priorities. That is why we have such a decline. Without commercial and scientific achievements, it is hard to lead in technology and industry.”

However, Kosenkov argues that the situation isn’t that dire.

“Yes, the pace of space exploration has slowed significantly in light of the lack of interest from the state and a lack of vision for exploration,” Kosenkov says. Russia is one of three nations capable of launching humans into space, the Glonass navigation system is used by iPhones, and Russian Earth-observation and meteorology satellites contribute greatly to science and weather forecasting.

“Just take a look at the photos taken by the Electro-L satellite,” Kosenkov says. “They were acknowledged by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration as one of the best meteorological spacecraft out there.”

10-year Outlook

Still, Russia contributes less to space science than the United States. And the situation with science and exploration is not expected to radically improve under the new Roscosmos structure. For starters, Russia’s projected spending on space over the next decade has been radically downsized.

In 2014, when efforts to create a 10-year plan for space began, officials spoke of a 3.4 trillion ruble (then $70 billion) budget. But that proposal spent two years in government offices being trimmed and rewritten as Russia’s economy felt the twin effects of a global decline in oil prices and Western sanctions imposed for the 2014 annexation of Crimea from Ukraine.

When in 2016 the 10-year plan was finally approved by the government, the budget stood at a mere 1.4 trillion (then $20 billion). And science was far from the nation’s top priority in space. According to the program, the key areas of Roscosmos’ focus over the next decade will be satellites, streamlining rocket production with an eye on competing with the likes of SpaceX, whose billionaire founder and CEO Elon Musk is fueled by a drive to colonize Mars — with or without government assistance.

It remains unclear just how Roscosmos intends to compete with the rise of Western commercial launch companies, which are already eroding Russia’s traditionally dominant share of the commercial launch market. No one really knows what Russia’s production costs are, and companies like SpaceX can outcompete just by cost-cutting.

During the late 1990s transtion from Mir to the International Space Station, necessity compelled Russia’s space program to embrace a freewheeling cowboy capitalism. It leased Mir’s final days to a U.S. startup, began to fly Western millionaires to ISS, and cut deals with Pizza Hut and RadioShack to film commercials in orbit.

Although efforts are underway to develop a true, sustainable commercial space industry in Russia, the program is conservative and highly government dependent.

“Roscosmos struggles to become more agile, compact and market-oriented amid budget cuts,” Kosenkov, who is actively involved in private space efforts in Russia, says. “It seems to embrace new practices, like open innovations, and providing venture capital (only in 2017 did it establish a venture fund). And as a corporation Roscosmos can now claim a private sector exists.”

But institutional problems across Russia will limit efforts for Roscosmos to keep up with commercial trends in space. The industry remains heavily dependent on the government, and the workforce itself is aging along with the enterprises that build Russian space hardware. A funding and legal environment do not yet exist for space startups to fully flourish.

“Without real changes,” Luzin argues, “without the liberalization of domestic politics and the economy, we will not even be able to repeat Soviet achievements in space. Our institutions contradict the idea of space exploration. Yes, we can maintain our military space capabilities, but we will not be able to go further, or make our industry effective and profitable.”

For Russia, it seems, a second golden age of space exploration may be further away than Sputnik 1.

http://spacenews.com/60-years-after-sputnik-russia-is-lost-in-space/

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« Odpowiedź #189 dnia: Październik 08, 2017, 08:46 »
60 lat temu na orbitę wyniesiony został pierwszy Sputnik
04.10.2017

Sześćdziesiąt lat temu - 4 października 1957 roku - rakieta Sojuz wyniosła na orbitę okołoziemską Sputnika - pierwszego sztucznego satelitę. Zmodernizowana wersja tej rakiety do dziś jest podstawą rosyjskiego programu kosmicznego - pisze w środę agencja AP.

Associated Press zwraca uwagę, że Sojuz jest obecnie jedyną rakietą, dostarczającą załogi na Międzynarodową Stację Kosmiczną ISS. Z kolei rakieta Proton, również zaprojektowana w czasach radzieckich, jest obecnie wykorzystywana do umieszczania komercyjnych satelitów na orbicie okołoziemskiej.
 
Agencja AP odnotowuje, że obie te rakiety zyskały świetną reputację za swą niezawodność, ale zmieniło się to w ostatnich latach, kiedy seria nieudanych startów podała w wątpliwość zdolność rosyjskiego przemysłu kosmicznego do utrzymania wysokich standardów produkcji.
 
Ustalono, że winę za problemy z Sojuzem i Protonem, które wystąpiły w 2016 roku ponosi fabryka w Woroneżu, budująca silniki do tych rakiet. Rosyjska agencja kosmiczna Roskosmos odesłała do producenta ponad 70 silników rakietowych w celu wymiany wadliwych części. Starty Protona wstrzymano na rok.
 
W zeszłym roku Rosja po raz pierwszy straciła pozycję lidera w branży umieszczania komercyjnych satelitów na orbicie. Wyprzedziły ją USA i Chiny. AP zwraca uwagę, że klienci coraz częściej wybierają nowe, skuteczniejsze i tańsze rozwiązania, takie jak rakieta Falcon 9 firmy SpaceX. Pierwszy stopień tej rakiety może lądować i zostać użyty ponownie, co obniża koszty.
 
Associated Press odnotowuje, że szef Roskosmosu Igor Komarow ujawnił w tym tygodniu, że zakłady w Woroneżu wykorzystywały stopy metali nie odpowiadające standardom. Powodem miała być "awaria logistyczna", do której doszło, kiedy zachorował jeden z pracowników magazynu.
 
AP wskazuje, że prace nad rakietą Angara, mającą zastąpić Sojuza i Protona, wielokrotnie odkładano i "jej przyszłość jest niepewna". Co prawda pomyślnie przeprowadzono pierwsze testy, ale w zakładach w syberyjskim Omsku nie zorganizowano dotąd produkcji na pełną skalę.
 
Konkurencją dla Sojuza, dostarczającego załogi na ISS, mają się wkrótce stać załogowe statki kosmiczne Dragon v2 firmy SpaceX oraz Starliner firmy Boeing; ich testowe loty mają się rozpocząć w przyszłym roku.
 
Rosyjskie prace nad zastąpieniem statku kosmicznego Sojuz (ma tę samą nazwę co jego rakieta nośna) zaprojektowanego przed 50 laty, przebiegają powoli. Nowy statek ma się nazywać Federacja; jego pierwszy lot załogowy wstępnie zaplanowana na rok 2023. Na razie niewiele wiadomo o parametrach i funkcjonalności Federacji. (PAP)
http://naukawpolsce.pap.pl/aktualnosci/news,459974,60-lat-temu-na-orbite-wyniesiony-zostal-pierwszy-sputnik.html

SPUTNIK – 60 YEARS OF THE SPACE AGE
3 October 2017


The dawn of the Space Age, and the start of the space race – the launching of a Soviet Union's first articficial Earth satellite, Sputnik 1, on 4 October 1957 (5 October local time, Tyuratam)

Sixty years ago, the first ‘beep-beep’ signal from Sputnik was heard from the heavens on the night of 4 October 1957, marking the beginning of a new era for humankind.

The goal of launching an artificial satellite to orbit Earth had been one for the international scientific community for some time, and had helped inspire the International Geophysical Year 1957–58, but the successful launch by the Soviet Union came as a shock, and the reception of the signal worldwide was incontrovertible proof of their success.

The launch of Sputnik-1, as it was officially called, signalled the start of the ‘Space Age’, and fuelled the space race between the Soviet Union and the United States that was to result in more than a decade of unprecedented achievement. Initial reactions to Sputnik were guarded – the ability to launch an artificial satellite could also indicate the development of new weapons.

But the arrival of Space Age also inspired science and engineering to take new peaceful steps. Just months after the launch of Sputnik, Frank McClure, of the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, described the potential of satellites for a space-based navigation system. Visions of sending robots and humans into space were becoming reality.

Satellites and spaceprobes have dramatically changed our way of living, they have turned the world into a global village where an unprecedented wealth of information is at hand anywhere, at any time. The world has shrunk, and our perception of our planet has changed too. Thanks to remote sensing and Earth observation, we can now take the pulse of our environment and respond based on an increasing knowledge of the way our world is evolving.


Technician working on Sputnik 1, 1957

We have explored many worlds in the Solar System and our space-based instruments have been able to open large windows into previously unknown realms of the Universe. We have revealed thousands of galaxies in areas of the sky that, until recently, looked like empty blackness.

Women and men have ventured out of their planetary cradle and have succeeded in their first explorations of another world. They have settled in space and started to work there, first in competition, and then in global cooperation, in a spirit of peace and for the benefit of humankind. On the ground, engineers, scientists, technicians, politicians and visionaries have all worked together to make dreams come true, changing our lives for ever, and for the better.

Europe has taken its own part in this great adventure. From the theories that spawned great achievements to the science and technology that completed them, Europe has shared in global progress. From rocket design to geostationary orbits, European scientists have been involved in many of the successes of the past six decades.

The surprise and anxiety of that night 60 years ago have been replaced with wonder and amazement at the achievements of the Space Age. As humans look to travel farther and experiment further, the decades ahead appear full of adventure.

http://m.esa.int/About_Us/Welcome_to_ESA/ESA_history/Sputnik_60_years_of_the_space_age

Sputnik 1: Celebrating 60 Years of Spaceflight
By: David L. Chandler | October 4, 2017
http://www.skyandtelescope.com/astronomy-news/sputnik-1-60-years-of-spaceflight/

Sputnik at 60: How Elon Musk and Jeff Bezos Started a New Space Age
From one tiny satellite to reusable rockets in just 60 years.
OCT 03, 2017 | By RAND SIMBERG
http://www.weeklystandard.com/sputnik-at-60-how-elon-musk-and-jeff-bezos-started-a-new-space-age/article/2009928

The Golden Era of Space – A Personal Journey from Toy Sputniks to the Stars
https://ebanspace.org/the-golden-era-of-space-a-personal-journey-from-toy-sputniks-to-the-stars-2/

Read TIME's Original Report on the Sputnik 1 Launch
Lily Rothman Oct 03, 2017
http://time.com/4958422/sputnik-1957-report/

60-летие запуска первого в мире искусственного спутника Земли - начало космической эры в истории человечества
04 октября 2017

4 октября 1957 года с 5-го Научно-исследовательского полигона Министерства обороны СССР, получившего впоследствии название космодром БАЙКОНУР, ракетой-носителем «Спутник» (Р-7) был запущен первый искусственный спутник Земли. Через 295 секунд после старта первый спутник был выведен на эллиптическую орбиту высотой в апогее 947 км, в перигее 288 км. На 315 секунде после старта произошло отделение спутника, и он подал свой голос. «Бип! Бип!» – именно так звучали его позывные. ПС-1 стал первым искусственным объектом на орбите Земли. Спутник летал 92 дня, совершил 1440 оборотов вокруг планеты (пролетев около 60 млн. км), а его радиопередатчики на батарейках работали в течение двух недель после старта.



Создание первого космического аппарата началось в ОКБ-1 в ноябре 1956 г. Спутник был разработан как очень простой аппарат, поэтому и получил название – космический аппарат ПС-1 (простейший спутник). Он представлял собой шар диаметром 58 сантиметров и весом 83,6 килограмма. ПС-1 был оснащен четырьмя штырьковыми антеннами для передачи сигналов работающих от батареек передатчиков.Над созданием искусственного спутника Земли работала целая группа ученых, конструкторов во главе с основоположником практической космонавтики Сергеем КОРОЛЁВЫМ.



В сентябре 1967 года Международная федерация астронавтики провозгласила 4 октября Днем начала космической эры человечества. Также дата запуска первого искусственного спутника Земли считается днем Космических войск. Именно частями запуска и управления космическими аппаратами был осуществлён запуск и контроль полета первого искусственного спутника Земли. В дальнейшем первый полет человека в космос и многие отечественные и международные космические программы осуществлялись с непосредственным участием воинских частей запуска и управления космических аппаратов. В связи с увеличением роли космоса в вопросах национальной безопасности Указом Президента России в 2001 году был создан самостоятельный род войск - Космические войска. Сегодня Космические войска входят в состав ВКС ВС России.


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0djP1FFfL0o&feature=youtu.be

http://www.gctc.ru/main.php?id=3953

Chronology of Space Launches
http://space.skyrocket.de/directories/chronology.htm
« Ostatnia zmiana: Październik 09, 2017, 22:47 wysłana przez Orionid »

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« Odpowiedź #190 dnia: Listopad 12, 2017, 18:25 »
''O dwóch takich, co ukradli Księżyc'': Nieznane kulisy powstania kultowego filmu
12 październik 2017
Kaczyńscy byli niesforni nie tylko na ekranie...



Obraz w reżyserii Jana Batorego, oparty na powieści Kornela Makuszyńskiego, zebrał doskonałe recenzje i zgarnął kilka nagród na festiwalach. Historia Jacka i Placka, niesfornych i leniwych bliźniaków mieszkających we wsi Zapiecek, którzy wyruszają w podróż - by ukraść księżyc - a w jej trakcie przechodzą przemianę duchową i wracają do domu zupełnie odmienieni, podbiła serca widzów w każdym wieku.

Zachwycano się baśniowym klimatem, doskonałymi scenografiami, scenariuszowym humorem i moralizatorską, acz nienachalną wymową dzieła, a przede wszystkim aktorami - Heleną Grossówną wcielającą się w matkę, jak również tytułowymi bohaterami, których zagrali debiutujący na ekranie Lech i Jarosław Kaczyńscy.

Dokładnie 55 lata temu, 12 listopada 1962 r.miał swoją premierę film "O dwóch takich, co ukradli księżyc”. Poznajcie kulisy powstawania produkcji oraz zobaczcie unikatowe zdjęcia niesfornych bliźniaków.



Ogłoszenie o przesłuchaniach do powstającego właśnie filmu "O dwóch takich, co ukradli księżyc” znalazł w gazecie Stanisław Miedza-Tomaszewski, wuj Kaczyńskich, który od razu uznał, że jego krewniacy byliby idealnymi kandydatami do głównych ról.

Podobno chłopcy wcale nie mieli wielkiej ochoty na aktorską przygodę i ulegli dopiero na prośbę matki, Jadwigi.

Jarosław i Lech trafili do ostatniego etapu przesłuchania i, choć wywołało to niemałe protesty wśród części ekipy filmowej, zaproponowano im angaż: Lech miał zagrać Jacka, a Jarosław Placka.



Film kręcono w Łodzi i mama chłopców zrezygnowała z pracy w szkole, by na planie mieć oko na swoich synów. Ale bynajmniej nie cieszyła się z tego przymusowego urlopu, gdyż mali Kaczyńscy nie pozwalali jej odpocząć ani przez chwilę.

- Byli oczywiście nieznośni - wyznawała w jednym z wywiadów. - Zamykali na klucz kierownika produkcji. Zaprzyjaźnili się z rekwizytorem, aby wyłudzić od niego świecę dymną. Musiałam zapłacić za remont dwóch pokoi hotelowych.

I choć debiutujący bracia zdobyli uznanie krytyki, nie wiązali swojej przyszłości z graniem.

- Aktorami zostać nie chcieli - dodawała ich matka. - Najwyżej reżyserami.



Na planie Kaczyńscy zaprzyjaźnili się z Markiem Kondratem, który akurat pracował nad "Historią żółtej ciżemki”. We trójkę dawali się wszystkim we znaki.

To były dwa czorty, które ze swoją piękną matką mieszkały w tym samym hotelu i przewracały go do góry nogami - wspominał bliźniaków w "Gazecie Wyborczej" Kondrat.

- Byli żywiołem nie do opanowania, problemem edukacyjnym dla wszystkich, bo, żeby zrobili coś na gwizdek, trzeba ich było najpierw spacyfikować. Oni byli żywi, normalni, niezwykle inteligentni i, co ważne, wspierali się, jeden miał koło siebie drugiego.



O tej wielkiej, niespożytej energii filmowych bliźniaków opowiadał również ojciec Krzysztofa Krawczyka.

- Ojciec grał w filmie "O dwóch takich co ukradli księżyc” - wspominał w radiu Złote Przeboje piosenkarz. - Wracał z planu i mówił: Cholera, oni mają tyle energii, mają wentylatory w tych pupach, mówi, latają, i mamy nawet zdjęcie, jak ojciec jednego, chyba Lecha, Kaczyńskiego, prowadzi na łańcuchu, bo oni tam coś do tego miasta się dostali. I na łańcuch przyszłego prezydenta... na łańcuchu. Gruby burmistrz, ojciec miał wtedy 120 kilo żywej wagi.



Młodych braci Kaczyńskich dobrze zapamiętała również Małgorzata Potocka.

- Tato robił scenografię do "O dwóch takich, co ukradli księżyc" - mówiła w "Wysokich Obcasach".

- W moim pokoju stały dwa pelikany z "O dwóch takich, co ukradli księżyc". Bracia Kaczyńscy przychodzili do nas, żeby na tych pelikanach posiedzieć, co mnie doprowadzało do szału. Biłam ich wtedy linijką po nogach, liczyłam do dziesięciu i kazałam schodzić. Po latach pan prezydent Lech Kaczyński przypomniał mi jeszcze, że kiedy pelikany były podłączane do elektrycznego sterownika (by ruszały im się oczy), to co rusz prąd przebijał przez pióra i raził ich po nogach.



Zupełnie inaczej zapamiętał za to Kaczyńskich aktor Henryk Staszewski.

- To byli bardzo dobrze wychowani chłopcy - twierdził w "Fakcie". - Choć na planie były różne kłopoty związane z filmem, oni zawsze wiedzieli jak się zachować. Kiedyś jednego z nich zatrzymałem, tylko nie wiem teraz którego, i on bardzo ładnie i składnie mi odpowiedział.

- Ja nie miałem problemu, by odróżnić Jarka od Leszka - dodawał. - Ale pamiętam, że oni robili różne kawały ekipie. Kilka razy się nawet zamieniali i było dużo śmiechu. To świadczy tylko o ich inteligencji. Obydwaj byli bardzo grzeczni, i świetnie przygotowani. To co mieli do wykonania, zrobili profesjonalnie. Nie wiem teraz, kto ich tak przygotował ...może reżyser. Oni nie dość, że grali, to jeszcze przy tym świetnie się bawili. To jest w ogóle fenomen. Pytałem ich często o zupełnie banalne rzeczy. Jak się uczą, do jakiej szkoły chodzą. A oni mi bardzo ładnie opowiadali. Byli bardzo rezolutni, już wtedy zastanawiałem się, co wyrośnie z tych chłopców, którzy byli tak zmobilizowani, tak świetnie zorganizowani.



Prawdziwą medialną aferę rozpętał jednak Daniel Olbrychski, który w "Rzeczpospolitej" nie szczędził Kaczyńskim nieprzyjemnych słów:

- Patrząc na nich jak aktor starający się zrozumieć postać, którą zagra, widzę, że musieli być bici przez kolegów z klasy. Kolega z produkcji "O dwóch takich" opowiadał, że Kaczyńscy płakali wniebogłosy, że muszą wracać do szkoły, a tam to ich będą bili jeszcze bardziej niż wcześniej. Byli bici. Może niesłusznie, może prowokowali ludzi do agresji i teraz się w pewien sposób odgrywają.

- Miałem wyjątkowo dobre dzieciństwo i nikt mnie nie bił - komentował to w "Super Expressie" Jarosław.

- Mieliśmy już doświadczenia z dziećmi grającymi w filmach; sława sprawiała, że po prostu głupiały, odbijało im. Wkładaliśmy ogromny wysiłek, żeby z nimi nie stało się to samo. Chcieliśmy im uświadomić, że poza filmem mają wciąż normalne obowiązki: naukę, utrzymywanie porządku wokół siebie - cytuje "Polityka" słowa Włodzimierza Grocholskiego, kierownika produkcji.

Prawdą jest, że po premierze filmu Kaczyńskim nie było łatwo - rówieśnicy zazdrościli im ekranowej przygody i bracia stracili wielu kolegów z podwórka. Sami jednak podobno nigdy nie wywyższali się z powodu swojego aktorskiego epizodu. I, jak twierdzili, zawsze mogli liczyć na siebie nawzajem.

- Nigdy nie czuliśmy się samotni - mówili.

https://film.wp.pl/o-dwoch-takich-co-ukradli-ksiezyc-nieznane-kulisy-powstania-kultowego-filmu-6185904959060097g/9

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« Odpowiedź #191 dnia: Grudzień 06, 2017, 07:35 »
Satelity Meteosat mają już 40 lat!
Wysłane przez kuligowska w 2017-12-04

(...) Pierwszy satelita z serii Meteosat był ważnym kamieniem milowym dla kosmicznej współpracy z udziałem krajów Europy. Początkowo stanowił projekt naukowców z Francji, ale pomysł ten szybko podchwyciła w latach siedemdziesiątych europejska agencja ESRO (European Space Research Organisation, prekursor współczesnej ESA). Jej zarząd opracowywał w tym czasie koncepcję najbardziej wydajnych satelitów meteorologiznych, ostatecznie decydując się właśnie na satelity geostacjonarne. Po paru latach negocjacji uznano projekt Meteosat za wspólny i europejski - choć wywodzący się właśnie z Francji.

Ten pierwszy satelita, Meteosat-1, został wystrzelony w kosmos 23 listopada 1977 roku z kosmodromu na przylądku Cape Canaveral na Florydzie. Swą właściwą orbitę operacyjną osiągnął 7 grudnia tego samego roku. Dwa dni później przesłał na Ziemię pierwsze zdjęcie satelitarne naszego globu. Ukazywało ono planetę widzianą w zakresie promieniowania tzw. pary wodnej (kanał water vapour, WV), którą meteorolodzy wykorzystują także dziś do śledzenia globalnych ruchów i zmian w ilości wilgoci w powietrzu.

Meteosat-1 obserwował Ziemię ze stałej pozycji ponad południkiem Greenwich i mógł skanować (obrazować) pełen dysk Ziemi co 30 minut. Dane te były przesyłane użytkownikom na Ziemi niemal w czasie rzeczywistym. Satelita pracował nieco ponad dwa lata i szybko doczekał się swego następcy. (...)
http://www.urania.edu.pl/wiadomosci/satelity-meteosat-maja-juz-40-lat-3849.html


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PFwnbHvTvmA&feature=youtu.be




Meteosat-1 was launched on a Delta rocket from Cape Canaveral and moved to its nominal operational location over the equator at 0° Longitude. The check-out of all systems was followed within a month by the start of routine image acquisition and distribution. This immediately became part of the operational system for weather forecasting across many countries in Europe.


Meteosat-1, launched in 1977, was Europe’s first meteorological satellite.

Satelity Meteosat pierwszej generacji (MFG):

Meteosat-1 1977-1979
Meteosat-2 1981-1991
Meteosat-3 1988-1995
Meteosat-4 1989-1995
Meteosat-5 1991-2007
Meteosat-6 1993-2012
Meteosat-7 1997-2016

Satelity Meteosat drugiej generacji (MSG):

Meteosat-8 2002-(2019)
Meteosat-9 2005-(2021)
Meteosat-10 2012-(2022)
Meteosat-11 2015-
wiki https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meteosat

http://www.airbus.com/newsroom/news/en/2017/11/meteosat.html
http://m.esa.int/About_Us/Welcome_to_ESA/ESA_history/Forty_years_of_Meteosat
https://www.eumetsat.int/website/home/News/DAT_3729453.html
https://businessmonkeynews.com/en/en/forty-years-of-meteosat/

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« Odpowiedź #192 dnia: Grudzień 23, 2017, 00:28 »
First black astronaut honored on 50th anniversary of death (Update)
December 8, 2017 by Marcia Dunn


In this June 30, 1967 file photo, Maj. Robert H. Lawrence Jr., the first black astronaut in the U.S. space program, is introduced at a news conference in El Segundo, Calif. Lawrence was part of a classified military space program in the 1960s called the Manned Orbiting Laboratory, meant to spy on the Soviet Union. He died before ever flying in space when his fighter jet crashed on Dec. 8, 1967. (AP Photo)

America's first black astronaut, Air Force Maj. Robert Lawrence Jr., finally got full honors Friday on the 50th anniversary of his death.

Several hundred people gathered at Kennedy Space Center to commemorate Lawrence, who almost certainly would have gone on to fly in space had he not died in a plane crash on Dec. 8, 1967.

The crowd included NASA dignitaries, astronauts, fellow Omega Psi Phi fraternity members, schoolchildren, and relatives of Lawrence and other astronauts who have died in the line of duty.

Lawrence was part of a classified military space program in the 1960s called the Manned Orbiting Laboratory, meant to spy on the Soviet Union. He died when his F-104 Starfighter crashed at Edwards Air Force Base in California. He was 32.

Astronauts at Friday's two-hour ceremony said Lawrence would have gone on to fly NASA's space shuttles and that, after his death, he inspired all the African-American astronauts who followed him.

Like Lawrence, Robert Crippen was part of the Air Force's program. It was canceled in 1969 without a single manned spaceflight, prompting Crippen and other astronauts to move on to NASA. Crippen was pilot of the first space shuttle flight in 1981.



With a doctoral degree in physical chemistry—a rarity among test pilots—Lawrence was "definitely on the fast track," Crippen said. He graduated from high school at age 16 and college at 20.

"He had a great future ahead of him if he had not been lost 50 years ago today," Crippen said.

Lawrence paved the way for Guy Bluford, who became the first African-American in space in 1983, Dr. Mae Jemison, the first African-American woman in space in 1992, and Charles Bolden Jr., a space shuttle commander who became NASA's first black administrator in 2009. Next year, the International Space Station is getting its first African-American resident: NASA astronaut Jeanette Epps.

Another former African-American astronaut, Winston Scott, said his own shuttle rides into orbit would not have happened if not for a trailblazers like Lawrence. In tribute to Lawrence, a jazz lover, Scott and his jazz band serenaded the crowd with "Fly Me to the Moon" and other tunes.

Lawrence's sister, Barbara, a retired educator, said he considered himself the luckiest man in the world for being able to combine the two things he loved most: chemistry and flying.


This undated photo shows U.S. Air Force Maj. Robert H. Lawrence Jr. Lawrence was part of a classified military space program in the 1960s called the Manned Orbiting Laboratory, meant to spy on the Soviet Union. He died before ever flying in space when his fighter jet crashed on Dec. 8, 1967. (AP Photo)

Lawrence's name was etched into the Astronauts Memorial Foundation's Space Mirror at Kennedy for the 30th anniversary of his death in 1997, following a long bureaucratic struggle. It took years for the Air Force to recognize Lawrence as an astronaut, given he'd never flown as high as the 1960s-required altitude of 50 miles.

The Space Mirror Memorial bears the names of two other African-Americans: Ronald McNair, who died aboard space shuttle Challenger in 1986, and Michael Anderson, who died on shuttle Columbia in 2003.

Marsalis Walton, 11, who drove from Tampa with his father, Sam, came away inspired. He dreams of becoming an astronaut.

"It feels good that everyone has a chance to do anything," the boy said.

© 2017 The Associated Press
https://phys.org/news/2017-12-black-astronaut-honored-50th-anniversary.html#nRlv

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« Odpowiedź #193 dnia: Grudzień 23, 2017, 00:29 »
'The first, but not the last': Lawrence remembered as pioneering black astronaut
James Dean, FLORIDA TODAY Published 5:08 p.m. ET Dec. 8, 2017 | Updated 10:34 p.m. ET Dec. 8, 2017

The Astronauts Memorial Foundation and NASA today honored Maj. Robert H. Lawrence, the nation's first black astronaut, on the 50th anniversary of his death. Video by Craig Bailey. Posted Dec. 8, 2017.


Maj. Robert H. Lawrence, America's first black astronaut (Photo: U.S. Air Force)

“He would have been the first black person to fly in space, and he would have been famous,” said Bob Crippen, pilot of the first shuttle mission, at a memorial service Friday. “And he’s still famous with a lot of us, and he is still missed today.”

At the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex on Friday, NASA and the Astronauts Memorial Foundation hosted a service honoring Lawrence, a two-hour tribute providing recognition some said was overdue.


Astronaut Al Crews, Barbara Lawrence, sister of Robert H. Lawrence, Jr., astronaut James "Abe" Abrahamson, Lorne Cress Love, sister-in-law of Robert H. Lawrence, Jr, and astronaut Bob Crippen place a wreath at the Space Mirror at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex Friday, Dec. 8, 2017 during a memorial for astronaut Robert H. Lawrence, Jr. Lawrence, the first black astronaut, died 50 years ago in a jet crash.  (Photo: Craig Bailey, Craig Bailey/FLORIDA TODAY)

Lawrence’s sister and sister-in-law joined Crippen and two other former Air Force astronauts laying a wreath at the Space Mirror Memorial, where Lawrence’s name was inscribed in granite alongside other fallen astronauts in 1997.


The name of Robert H. Lawrence, Jr is etched into the Space Mirror at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex Friday. Lawrence, the first black astronaut, was killed in a plane crash in December 1967. (Photo: Craig Bailey/FLORIDA TODAY)

The Air Force’s classified Manned Orbiting Laboratory program, which intended to spy on Russia, was canceled two years after Lawrence’s selection to its third astronaut group.

NASA accepted seven MOL astronauts who were 35 or younger at that time, as Lawrence would have been.

Friday’s tribute celebrated Lawrence not for what fate prevented him from becoming, but for his trailblazing career and ongoing inspiration to younger generations.


Former NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks during a memorial for astronaut Robert H. Lawrence, Jr at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex Friday, Dec. 8, 2017. (Photo: Craig Bailey, Craig Bailey/FLORIDA TODAY)

“He is one of the giants on whose shoulders I stand,” said Charles Bolden, a four-time shuttle astronaut and former NASA administrator. “He was the first, but definitely not the last.”

Guion Bluford became NASA’s first black astronaut in space in 1983, and Mae Jemison the first black woman in 1992.

A Chicago native, Lawrence achieved his selection as an astronaut during a period of national turmoil, amid the civil rights movement and Vietnam War.

“He was undeterred by segregation and discrimination that he would find at every turn,” said Bolden.

Lawrence distinguished himself first academically and later as a pilot.


Flowers are placed in the fence at the Space Mirror during Friday's memorial for astronaut Robert H. Lawrence, Jr at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. Lawrence, the first black astronaut, died in a plane crash Dec. 8, 1967. (Photo: Craig Bailey, Craig Bailey/FLORIDA TODAY)

He grew up playing sports and piano, and games like chess and bridge. He earned a high school degree at 16 and a bachelor’s degree in chemistry at 20. He served in Germany with the Air Force and came home to earn a doctorate in chemistry before completing test pilot school at Edwards and being welcomed into the MOL program.

“He never was interested in being the first of anything,” said Barbara Lawrence, Robert’s older sister. “He was only interested in being given an opportunity to do what he could do, and the Air Force gave him that opportunity.”

At Edwards, he impressed fellow MOL astronaut James “Abe” Abrahamson with his smarts, flying ability and demeanor.

“One of his unique abilities was to be calm in every circumstance, even when his fellow pilot on the mission was going nuts,” recalled Abrahamson, a retired Air Force lieutenant general.

Leaders and members of Lawrence’s fraternity, Omega Psi Phi, attended the service and discussed his legacy of inspiration.

“Because of the fact that he was willing to risk his life to go out and make a difference for others, people are learning and having that opportunity today,” said Antonio Knox, the fraternity’s national president.

Barbara Lawrence said her brother embodied principles instilled in them as children to work with and get along with others.

“I’m only sorry that he didn’t get an opportunity to work a little bit longer, but I think his job was well done,” she said.
http://www.floridatoday.com/story/tech/science/space/2017/12/08/first-but-not-last-lawrence-remembered-first-black-astronaut/931631001/

Robert Lawrence: First African-American Astronaut
Feb 21, 2018

The Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) was a joint project of the US Air Force (USAF) and the National Reconnaissance Office to obtain high-resolution photographic imagery of America’s Cold War adversaries.  Authorized in August 1965, the MOL Program envisioned a series of mini-space stations in low polar Earth orbit, occupied by 2-man crews for 30 days at a time, launching and returning to Earth aboard modified Gemini capsules. (...)
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/robert-lawrence-first-african-american-astronaut
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« Odpowiedź #194 dnia: Grudzień 30, 2017, 20:17 »
W 2018 lista powinna być skorygowana


Top 20 Tallest Space Rockets in the World

The list of Rockets in order of height:

1. Saturn V (Apollo)
2. N1 (L3)
3. Ares I-X
4. Delta IV Heavy
5. Falcon 9 FT
6. Saturn IB (Apollo)
7. Delta IV Medium+ (5,4)
8. Atlas V 551
9. Long March 2F
10. Titan IV-B
11. Zenit-3SL
12. Energia (Buran)
13. Ariane 4 (44LP)
14. Proton-M
15. Long March 5 (CZ-5)
16. H-IIB 304
17. Long March 3B/E
18. STS - Space Shuttle
19. Angara A5
20. Atlas III B
« Ostatnia zmiana: Luty 19, 2022, 21:07 wysłana przez Orionid »

Polskie Forum Astronautyczne

Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
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