Autor Wątek: The Space Review  (Przeczytany 2416 razy)

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« Odpowiedź #45 dnia: Lipiec 28, 2020, 05:23 »
Irregular disorder and the NASA budget
by Jeff Foust Monday, July 27, 2020


The lunar lander concept by the “national team” led by Blue Origin, one of three that NASA is currently supporting through the Human Landing System program. The House version of a fiscal year 2021 spending bill provides NASA with only a fraction of the funding the agency requested for that program. (credit: Blue Origin)

It’s been a long time since there’s been anything like “regular order” in the congressional appropriations process: individual bills passed by the House and Senate, their differences resolved in conference to produce a final version that’s signed into law before the beginning of the fiscal year October 1. Instead, there are usually stopgap funding bills, called continuing resolutions, that extend for weeks or months before a massive omnibus bill, combining up to a dozen different bills, is eventually passed. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3996/1

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« Odpowiedź #46 dnia: Sierpień 04, 2020, 02:15 »
Sending Washington to the Moon: an interview with Richard Paul
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, August 3, 2020


A celebration of the 50th anniversary of Apollo 11 last year in Washington. A radio show two decades earlier examined the political issues behind the program. (credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

Recently, the BBC World Service podcast “13 Minutes to the Moon” finished its second season, focusing on the Apollo 13 mission during seven episodes. It has been an outstanding series so far. But this was not the first time that radio has addressed the Apollo program in an interesting and substantive way. Two decades ago there was a two-part radio broadcast that also told a complicated space story involving multiple actors. In 1999, in honor of the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing, radio station WAMU in Washington, DC, aired a program about the role of Washington politics in the lunar landing. “Washington Goes to the Moon” (WGTTM) was written and produced by Richard Paul and featured interviews with a number of key figures in the story, from historians to NASA and congressional officials to famed newsman Walter Cronkite. After the radio program aired Paul, the author of We Could Not Fail: The First African Americans in the Space Program, turned transcripts of the interviews over to NASA as historical documents. These transcripts included unaired portions of the interviews. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3997/1

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« Odpowiedź #47 dnia: Sierpień 04, 2020, 02:15 »
Mars race rhetoric
by Ajey Lele Monday, August 3, 2020


NASA launched the Mars 2020 mission, featuring the Perseverance rover, last week, bound for a landing on Mars next February. (credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

Science gets viewed as the search for truth. It helps to remove bias and bring in objectivity. But the intimacy of science and politics is also well-known. Depending upon the purpose, science could have societal, political, economic, and strategic backdrops. Science requires political patronage, mainly for funding. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3998/1

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« Odpowiedź #48 dnia: Sierpień 04, 2020, 02:15 »
Propelling Perseverance: The legacy of Viking is helping NASA get to Mars
by Joe Cassady Monday, August 3, 2020


The same thruster design used for the Viking landers was resurrected for the Curiosity landing (above) and will be used on the Perseverance landing next year. (credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

Much has been written in the past few weeks about the NASA Mars 2020 mission that will carry the rover Perseverance and the helicopter Ingenuity to Mars. But did you know that the transportation system that will deliver these phenomenal machines to the surface of the Red Planet actually owes much to the original Viking landers back in the 1970s? It’s true. This is a tale of tried and true engines and a little bit of perseverance to accomplish the task that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) liked to proclaim as “Dare Mighty Things!” (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3999/1

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« Odpowiedź #48 dnia: Sierpień 04, 2020, 02:15 »

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« Odpowiedź #49 dnia: Sierpień 04, 2020, 02:15 »
How the “Department of Exploration” supports Mars 2020 and more
by Paul Dabbar Monday, August 3, 2020


An Atlas V rocket carrying the Mars 2020 Perseverance rover lifts off July 30 from Cape Canaveral, Florida. (credit: NASA/Joel Kowsky)

Rovers can’t rove without persistent sources of power. That’s especially true when it comes to space exploration. And when NASA’s Perseverance rover begins exploring the Red Planet next February after its launch last Thursday, it will do so thanks to power supplied by the Department of Energy (DOE), which may be better dubbed the “Department of Exploration.” (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4000/1

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« Odpowiedź #50 dnia: Sierpień 04, 2020, 02:15 »
Captured flag
by Jeff Foust Monday, August 3, 2020


The Crew Dragon spacecraft Endeavour moments before splashdown August 2 that ended the Demo-2 mission. (credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

During a ceremony on the final space shuttle mission, STS-135 in July 2011, astronauts on the International Space Station spoke with then-President Barack Obama. During the call, the astronauts showed off a small American flag, 10 by 15 centimeters, that has also flown on the first shuttle mission three decades earlier. That flag, they said, would remain on the station until the next crewed American spacecraft arrived at the station. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4001/1

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« Odpowiedź #51 dnia: Sierpień 11, 2020, 08:27 »
Review: War in Space
by Jeff Foust Monday, August 10, 2020


War in Space: Strategy, Spacepower, Geopolitics
by Bleddyn E. Bowen
Edinburgh University Press, 2020
hardcover, 288 pp.
ISBN 978-1-4744-5048-5
US$110.00
https://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1474450482/spaceviews

The latest salvo, if you will, in the debate about a space arms race came last month. US Space Command announced that Russia conducted what it considered an anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons test in orbit when the Kosmos 2543 satellite deployed an object in the vicinity of another Russian satellite. The speed of the deployed object led the US government to conclude this was a test of a kinetic projectile. “This is further evidence of Russia’s continuing efforts to develop and test space-based systems, and consistent with the Kremlin’s published military doctrine to employ weapons that hold US and allied space assets at risk,” said Gen. Jay Raymond, head of both Space Command and the US Space Force, in a statement. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4002/1

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« Odpowiedź #52 dnia: Sierpień 11, 2020, 08:27 »
Orbital space tourism set for rebirth in 2021
by Tony Quine Monday, August 10, 2020


Both Axiom Space and Space Adventures have announced contracts for Crew Dragon missions, either to the International Space Station or a free-flyer mission to a higher orbit. (credit: SpaceX)

Orbital space tourism has been in a holding pattern since 2009, a decade-long hiatus caused, indirectly, by the end of the space shuttle in 2011. However, orbital space tourism is finally due to return in 2021, perhaps on a scale unimaginable back in 2009.

According to media releases from the two main protagonists in the sector, Space Adventures and Axiom Space, up to nine seats to orbit will be available for purchase, by either individuals or organizations, during the final quarter of 2021. These will be spread across three spaceflights, using both the tried and tested Russian Soyuz, and SpaceX’s Dragon, two of which will dock at the International Space Station. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4003/1

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« Odpowiedź #53 dnia: Sierpień 11, 2020, 08:27 »
Virgin Galactic, still awaiting liftoff, spreads its wings
by Jeff Foust Monday, August 10, 2020


The interior of SpaceShipTwo features reclining seats, lots of cameras, and a mirror in the back. (credit: Virgin Galactic)

For the last 15 years, Virgin Galactic has been very clear about its plans: develop a suborbital vehicle, SpaceShipTwo, that will fly customers and payloads to the edge of space on a regular basis. It’s kept a focus on that goal despite extensive delays, testing setbacks, and a fatal test flight accident nearly six years ago. When the company did develop a side business, a small launch vehicle called LauncherOne, it spun that out into Virgin Orbit, a separate business that now shares little with Virgin Galactic other than founder Richard Branson and the “Virgin” in their names. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4004/1

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« Odpowiedź #54 dnia: Sierpień 11, 2020, 08:27 »
After the fire: a long-lost transcript from the Apollo 1 fire investigation
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, August 10, 2020


The crew of Apollo 1 crosses the gantry to the spacecraft on the day of the fire, January 27, 1967. (credit: NASA)

As long as there has been spaceflight, there have been conspiracy theories. There were conspiracy theories about Sputnik in the late 1950s (“their Germans are better than our Germans”) and dead cosmonauts in the early 1960s. Even before some people claimed—on the very day that it happened—that the Moon landing was faked, Apollo had its own conspiracy theories. In those days it was difficult for them to propagate and reach a wide audience, unlike today, when they can spread around the world at the speed of light. One of those Apollo conspiracy theories was about a whistleblower named Thomas Baron, who later died under mysterious circumstances. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4005/1

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« Odpowiedź #55 dnia: Sierpień 11, 2020, 08:27 »
Upgrading Russia’s fleet of optical reconnaissance satellites
by Bart Hendrickx Monday, August 10, 2020


Early concept for a 2.4 m primary mirror scheduled to fly on Russia’s next-generation Razdan reconnaissance satellites. (credit: Kontenant magazine)

Russia currently has only two operational optical reconnaissance satellites in orbit, both of which may already have exceeded their design lifetime. They are to be replaced by more capable satellites carrying a primary mirror about the same size as of those believed to be flown aboard American reconnaissance satellites, but it is unclear when these will be ready to fly. An experimental satellite launched in 2018 likely is the precursor of a constellation of much smaller spy satellites that will augment the imagery provided by the big satellites. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4006/1

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« Odpowiedź #56 dnia: Sierpień 25, 2020, 03:44 »
Review: Shuttle, Houston
by Jeff Foust Monday, August 24, 2020



Shuttle, Houston: My Life in the Center Seat of Mission Control
by Paul Dye
Hachette Books, 2020
Hardcover, 320 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-0-316-45457-5
US$28.00
https://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0316454575/spaceviews

The recent SpaceX commercial crew mission offered a look at the future of mission control, or at least the concept of mission control. There was the traditional NASA Mission Control at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, overseeing the operations of the International Space Station. There was also, though, SpaceX’s own mission control center at its Hawthorne, California, headquarters, which handled the Crew Dragon itself. During their trip to the station in May, and back home in August, the NASA astronauts on the spacecraft communicated directly with the SpaceX mission control rather than with JSC. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4007/1

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« Odpowiedź #57 dnia: Sierpień 25, 2020, 03:44 »
Reaching for the stars: structural reform in the private space sector in India
by Anirudh Rastogi and Varun Baliga Monday, August 24, 2020


New privatization initiatives by the Indian government may help space startups in the country, like small launch vehicle developer Skyroot Aerospace. (credit: Skyroot Aerospace)

India has taken steps in quick succession to liberalize its private space industry. In May, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced the opening up of the Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO’s) facilities to the country’s private sector as part of its COVID-19 special economic stimulus. More recently, the Indian Cabinet approved the setting up of the Indian National Space Promotion and Authorisation Centre (IN-SPACe) to facilitate private sector participation “through encouraging policies and a friendly regulatory environment.” These are early but laudable steps. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4008/1

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« Odpowiedź #58 dnia: Sierpień 25, 2020, 03:44 »
NASA’s Artemis Accords: the path to a united space law or a divided one?
by Guoyu Wang Monday, August 24, 2020


The Artemis Accords are intended to ensure partners in NASA’s Artemis program agree to a set of principles, but some of those principles may raise international space law issues. (credit: NASA)

On May 15, NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine presented the critical points of The Artemis Accords Principles for a Safe, Peaceful, and Prosperous Future (the Artemis Accords) publicly (see “What’s in a name when it comes to an ‘accord’?”, The Space Review, July 13, 2020). The Artemis Accords attempt to clarify basic principles and rule frameworks in international law for the sake of lunar activities which are led by the US, and then to influence and promote the international community to reach a consensus on the legality of space resources activities. It shows that the US carries on the rationale of the Space Resource Exploration and Utilization Act of 2015, along with the Presidential Decree No.13914, and continues to promote the construction of legal and political certainties on space resource activities. In this way, more countries will be attracted to participate in not just the Artemis program, but also future space resources activities on other celestial bodies, such as extracting and utilizing resources on Mars or asteroids. This will have a certain impact not just on the nature of space activities and the relations between spacefaring countries, but also on the discussion of relevant international rules. The main question to be discussed here is whether it will bring to a united space law or a divided one. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4009/1

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« Odpowiedź #59 dnia: Sierpień 25, 2020, 03:44 »
The National Aeronautics and Space and Arms Control Administration (NASACA)?
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, August 24, 2020


A missile during a May Day Parade in Red Square. In 1969, NASA sought a role in arms control negotiations between the US and USSR.

Nineteen sixty-nine was a key turning point for NASA. In July, the agency landed Apollo 11 on the Moon, a stunning achievement that culminated more than eight years of frantic effort. But by that time the agency’s future was already in question. The Nixon administration had begun questioning the agency’s budget and looking for ways to cut it. Advisers had indicated that there were major policy issues to address about what would happen after Apollo landed on the Moon, and soon some in the administration would question if NASA was even necessary. It was in the midst of this uncertain environment that NASA Administrator Thomas Paine made a surprising suggestion that has been classified for 50 years: NASA could become the key US government agency for monitoring arms control agreements. Newly declassified documents are now shedding some light on this previously unknown proposal, but they raise many questions requiring further study. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/4010/1

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« Odpowiedź #59 dnia: Sierpień 25, 2020, 03:44 »