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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #390 dnia: Luty 21, 2020, 23:46 »
53 lata temu 5 lutego 1967 roku wystartowała sonda Lunar Orbiter 3

Lewis Launched Lunar Orbiter 3 to the Moon in the 1960s
Feb. 21, 2020

The Atlas-Agena rocket launches Lunar Orbiter 3 on a mission to image the Moon’s surface to determine future Apollo landing sites. Credits: NASA

Before Apollo missions landed on the Moon, NASA launched a series of orbiters to photographically explore the lunar surface to identify possible landing sites.

On February 4, 1967*, engineers from the Lewis Research Center (now Glenn) directed the launch of Lunar Orbiter 3. The nearly nine-month mission provided NASA planners with the imagery and data necessary to decide on the final landing sites. (...)

Surveyor 1 As Seen By Lunar Orbiter III
« Ostatnia zmiana: Wrzesień 10, 2020, 04:38 wysłana przez Orionid »

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #391 dnia: Luty 22, 2020, 06:22 »
Orionidzie pomyłka w pierwszym zdaniu posta
Lunar Orbiter 3 nie leciał w 1987 roku  ;)

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #392 dnia: Luty 22, 2020, 07:03 »
Orionidzie pomyłka w pierwszym zdaniu posta
Lunar Orbiter 3 nie leciał w 1987 roku  ;)

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #393 dnia: Luty 25, 2020, 20:16 »
410 Years Ago: Galileo Discovers Jupiter’s Moons
Jan. 9, 2020

Left: Two of Galileo’s telescopes.
Middle: Painting by Giuseppe Bertini (1858) of Galileo demonstrating his telescope to the Doge of Venice.
Right: Page from Galileo’s notebook about his observations of Jupiter’s satellites.
Credits: National Geographic,, University of Michigan Special Collections Library.

Peering through his newly-improved 20-power homemade telescope at the planet Jupiter on Jan. 7, 1610, Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei noticed three other points of light near the planet, at first believing them to be distant stars. Observing them over several nights, he noted that they appeared to move in the wrong direction with regard to the background stars and they remained in Jupiter’s proximity but changed their positions relative to one another. He later observed a fourth star near the planet with the same unusual behavior. By Jan. 15, Galileo correctly concluded that they were not stars at all but moons orbiting around Jupiter, providing strong evidence for the Copernican theory that most celestial objects did not revolve around the Earth. In March 1610, Galileo published his discoveries of Jupiter’s satellites and other celestial observations in a book titled Siderius Nuncius (The Starry Messenger).

As their discoverer, Galileo had naming rights to Jupiter’s satellites. He proposed to name them after his patrons the Medicis and astronomers called them the Medicean Stars through much of the seventeenth century, although in his own notes Galileo referred to them by the Roman numerals I, II, III, and IV, in order of their distance from Jupiter. Astronomers still refer to the four moons as the Galilean satellites in honor of their discoverer. The German astronomer Johannes Kepler suggested naming the satellites after mythological figures associated with Jupiter, namely Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, but his idea didn’t catch on for more than 200 years. Scientists didn’t discover any more satellites around Jupiter until American astronomer E.E. Barnard found Jupiter’s fifth moon Amalthea in 1892, much smaller than the Galilean moons and orbiting closer to the planet than Io. It was the last satellite in the solar system found by visual observation – all subsequent discoveries occurred via photography or digital imaging. As of today, astronomers have identified 79 satellites orbiting Jupiter. (...)

Polskie Forum Astronautyczne

Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #393 dnia: Luty 25, 2020, 20:16 »

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« Odpowiedź #394 dnia: Luty 25, 2020, 21:04 »
60 Years Ago: Soviets Select Their First Cosmonauts
Feb. 25, 2020

In April 1959, the United States announced the selection of its seven Mercury astronauts, M. Scott Carpenter, L. Gordon Cooper, John H. Glenn, Virgil I. Grissom, Walter M. Schirra, Alan B. Shepard and Donald K. Slayton. The announcement, made before a group of media and widely reported in the press, capped a four-month process to select the nation’s first group of astronauts. The men had undergone a rigorous series of medical, physical and psychological evaluations to be chosen from more than 500 potential candidates from the nation’s military services. The Space Task Group (STG), led by Robert L. Gilruth at NASA’s Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, managed the Mercury program.

Left: The seven Mercury astronauts during their inaugural press conference (left to right) Slayton, Shepard, Schirra, Grissom, Glenn, Cooper and Carpenter.
Right: A publicity shot of the Mercury Seven taken in 1960 (front row, left to right) Schirra, Slayton, Glenn and Carpenter, (back row, left to right) Shepard, Grissom and Cooper.

In the Soviet Union, a similar process to select its first group of cosmonauts began in late 1959. After reviewing the records of Soviet Air Force pilots who met the age, weight and height criteria and putting those pilots through grueling interviews, the Central Military Scientific Aviation Hospital in Moscow conducted medical evaluations on 154 promising candidates in groups of 20. Of these, 29 passed all the tests but the selection committee decided to select only the top 20 candidates to form the Soviet Union’s first group of cosmonauts – Ivan N. Anikeyev, Pavel I. Belyayev, Valentin V. Bondarenko, Valery F. Bykovsky, Valentin I. Filatyev, Yuri A. Gagarin, Viktor V. Gorbatko, Anatoli Y. Kartashov, Yevgeni V. Khrunov, Vladimir M. Komarov, Aleksei A. Leonov, Grigori G. Nelyubov, Andriyan G. Nikolayev, Pavel R. Popovich, Mars Z. Rafikov, Georgi S. Shonin, Gherman S. Titov, Valentin Varlamov, Boris V. Volynov and Dmitry A. Zaikin.

Several of the first group of cosmonauts during their medical evaluation (left to right) Gagarin, Nelyubov, Titov, Nikolayev, Gorbatko, Khrunov, Leonov, Anikeyev, Popovich, Shonin and Bykovsky.

Group photo of most of the first group of cosmonauts at the Sochi Black Sea resort.

In sharp contrast to the very public announcement of the Mercury astronauts’ selection, the Soviets chose to keep their selection on Feb. 25, 1960, secret. They would not identify any cosmonauts until they safely reached orbit, and the names of the unflown cosmonauts remained unknown until the advent of Glasnost in the 1980s. As such, no photograph of the entire group is known to exist. The best known picture shows 16 of the team, taken in May 1961 during a group holiday at the Black Sea resort of Sochi about one month after Gagarin’s historic flight. Kartashov and Varlamov had already left the team for medical reasons, Bondarenko had died in a training accident in March 1961, and Komarov was not on the trip.

The famous Sochi photo showing most of the first group of Soviet cosmonauts – (seated, left to right) Popovich, Gorbatko, Khrunov, Chief Designer Sergei P. Korolev, Gagarin, Cosmonaut Training Center Director Yevgeni A. Karpov, parachute instructor Nikolai K. Nikitin and physician Yevgeni A. Fyodorov; (first row standing, left to right) Leonov, Nikolayev, Rafikov, Zaikin, Volynov, Titov, Nelyubov, Bykovsky and Shonin; (back row standing, left to right) Filatyev, Anikeyev and Belyayev.  Credits: I. Snegirev.

On May 30, 1960, Soviet managers selected six from among the 20 cosmonauts in training for in-depth preparations for upcoming Vostok space missions. That group included Gagarin, Kartashov, Nikolayev, Popovich, Titov and Varlamov. In July Kartashov and Varlamov suffered injuries during training that led to their medical disqualification from the cosmonaut team, and Nelyubov and Bykovsky replaced them in the elite group known as the Vanguard Six. An official order by the Soviet Air Force commander formally endorsed this "group within a group" on Oct. 11, 1960. After further training and examinations, on Jan. 18, 1961, managers selected the top three from among this elite group, in priority ranking Gagarin, Titov and Nelyubov. Each of the three men hoped that he would make the Soviet Union’s, and quite possibly, the world’s first human spaceflight.

Sochi photograph of the Vanguard Six cosmonauts (seated, left to right) Nikolayev, Gagarin, Chief designer Korolev, Cosmonaut Training Center Director Karpov and parachute instructor Nikitin; (standing, left to right) Popovich, Nelyubov, Titov and Bykovsky.

The Vanguard Six examining the Vostok ejection seat.

The Soviet Air Force established the Cosmonaut Training Center, today named after Gagarin, outside of Moscow on Jan. 11, 1960, under the direction of Yevgeni A. Karpov, himself an unsuccessful candidate for the cosmonaut team. Cosmonaut training began March 15, 1960, at the nearby Frunze airfield. In addition to theoretical classroom work, the cosmonauts received familiarization with spacecraft systems, and participated in physical training, parachute jumps, and experienced g-forces in a centrifuge and short-term weightlessness during parabolic aircraft flights.

Left: Parachute training in April 1960.
Right: Physical exercise in 1960.

The top three candidates for the first Vostok mission (left to right) Gagarin, Titov and Nelyubov in March 1961.

The Vanguard Six cosmonauts examining the Vostok booster at Baikonur; a Vostok spacecraft is in the background at right.

Engineers meanwhile designed, fabricated, and assembled the spacecraft and rockets to take the cosmonauts into space. To test the spacecraft’s life support and recovery systems, the Soviets flew several precursor missions including spaceflights of dogs and instrumented mannequins. Two dogs named Belka and Strelka completed the first successful flight to space and back aboard the Korabl-Sputnik 2 spacecraft on Aug. 20, 1960. Launched the day before inside a precursor version of the crew-rated Vostok spacecraft, the two dogs were accompanied by a rabbit, two rats, 40 mice, and other biological specimens. After completing 17 orbits in about 24 hours they became the first living organisms to be safely recovered after a spaceflight. As an historical footnote, in 1961 Soviet Premier Nikita S. Khrushchev gifted one of Belka’s puppies named Pushinka to President John F. Kennedy and his family as a goodwill gesture. Two more flights of dogs and instrumented mannequins in March 1961 cleared the way for the first human spaceflight the following month that catapulted Gagarin into the history books.

Left: Engineers assemble a Vostok spacecraft.
Right: Academician Oleg G. Gazenko holds up Strelka (left) and Belka for assembled reporters after their successful recovery.

While the Russian cosmonauts worked and trained in secrecy, their American counterparts enjoyed the attention of the media and public. To maintain their piloting skills they flew high-performance jets. They conducted survival training exercises in extreme environment such as deserts and jungles in case their spacecraft landed off course in a remote area. They visited various NASA facilities, such as the Army Ballistic Missile Agency led by rocket pioneer Wernher von Braun in Huntsville, Alabama, that NASA absorbed as the Marshall Space Flight Center in July 1960. To familiarize themselves with the spacecraft they would fly, the spacesuits they would wear, and other systems critical to their safety and operations, they also visited various contractor facilities around the country.

Mercury 7 astronauts during desert survival training in Nevada.

Mercury 7 astronauts visiting with von Braun (at far right) in Huntsville.

Mercury 7 astronauts in front of a F-106B aircraft.

Mercury 7 astronauts examine their form-fitting couches with STG Chair Gilruth (at far right).

Like their Soviet counterparts, American space engineers prepared and tested the Mercury spacecraft and the rockets needed to send astronauts into space. For suborbital Mercury missions, Americans relied on the Redstone rocket, a derivative of a missile developed by Wernher von Braun at the Army Ballistic Missile Agency in Huntsville, Alabama, now the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. For the orbital flights, NASA used the more powerful Atlas rocket. And instead of dogs, American scientists used chimpanzees in the precursor flights before declaring the system safe for humans. On Jan. 31, 1961, Mercury-Redstone 2 lifted off from Cape Canaveral, Florida, carrying the chimpanzee Ham who completed a 16-minute 39-second suborbital flight. He was safely recovered by the USS Donner in the Atlantic Ocean in good condition, clearing the way for Shepard’s flight three months later. On Nov. 29, 1961, the chimpanzee Enos rode aboard Mercury-Atlas 5, completed two orbits around the Earth, and was safely recovered by the USS Stormes. Despite some technical issues with the spacecraft, the flight cleared the way for Glenn’s orbital mission two months later.

Left: Launch of Mercury-Redstone 2 with chimp Ham aboard.
Right Ham after his recovery.

Left: Launch of Mercury-Atlas 5 with chimp Enos aboard.
Right: Enos with his handler.

Of the 20 cosmonauts selected in 1960, only 12 completed space flights. As noted above, Kartashov and Varlamov left the group after training accidents in July 1960 and Bondarenko died in an isolation chamber fire in March 1961. Managers dismissed Rafikov in 1962 and Nelyubov, Anikeyev and Filatyev in 1963 for disciplinary reasons and Zaikin in 1969 for medical reasons. Many of the 12 who flew in space distinguished themselves – five of the group completed a single spaceflight, five completed two, and two completed three, for a total of 21 spaceflights. Gagarin completed history’s first human spaceflight in April 1961, followed by Titov in August of that year who flew the first day-long mission. Nikolayev and Popovich completed the first group flight in August 1962 and Bykovksy took part in the second in June 1963 with Valentina V. Tereshkova, the first woman in space. Bykovsky’s then-record breaking five-day mission still remains the longest solo flight. Komarov commanded the first three-person spacecraft in October 1964, while Belyayev commanded the first space mission to carry out an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) or spacewalk, carried out by Leonov, in March 1965. Komarov was the first cosmonaut to return to space in April 1967 but was tragically killed when his spacecraft’s parachute lines tangled. Volynov and Khrunov took part in the first docking of two crewed spacecraft in January 1969 that also included the first EVA transfer of crewmembers between spacecraft. Shonin and Gorbatko were the last two of the group to make it into space during the first triple spacecraft mission in October 1969. Several commanded missions to Salyut space stations beginning in the 1970s and Leonov commanded the Soviet portion of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project in July 1975. Gorbatko completed the final spaceflight from the group in July 1980, making his second flight to a space station.  As of February 2020, Volynov remains the only surviving member of the group.

John Uri
NASA Johnson Space Center

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #395 dnia: Luty 26, 2020, 15:59 »
30 stycznia 1996 podczas konferencji prasowej w Waszyngtonie  wiceprezydent USA  „Al” Gore i rosyjski premier Wiktor Czernomyrdin ogłosili skład pierwszej Ekspedycji i załogi rezerwowej.

Space Station 20th: Expedition 1 Crew Named
Jan. 30, 2020

During a Jan. 30, 1996, press conference in Washington, DC, US Vice President Albert A. “Al” Gore and Russian Prime Minister Viktor S. Chernomyrdin announced the assignment of American astronaut William M. Shepherd and Russian cosmonaut Sergei K. Krikalev to the first team of crewmembers to occupy the International Space Station (ISS). Shepherd had completed three Space Shuttle missions and Krikalev had flown two long-duration missions aboard the Mir space station as well as on STS-60, becoming the first Russian cosmonaut to fly aboard the Space Shuttle. At the time of the announcement, Shepherd and Krikalev planned to launch to ISS in May 1998 with a third crewmember, another Russian cosmonaut. Initially, the Russians designated Anatoli Y. Solovyev, a veteran of several missions to Mir, as that third crewmember but they ultimately replaced him with Yuri P. Gidzenko, also a Mir veteran. The partners later announced a backup crew composed of veteran Shuttle commander Kenneth D. Bowersox, Mir veteran Vladimir N. Dezhurov, and space rookie Mikhail V. Tyurin.

The primary tasks expected of the Expedition 1 crew included activating various systems on board the station, unpacking equipment that had been delivered, and hosting three visiting Space Shuttle crews and two unmanned Russian Progress resupply vehicles. The Shuttles planned to deliver new components to ISS including the first set of US solar arrays and the US Laboratory Module. Although the crewmembers would remain busy with the high-priority commissioning tasks, time would be set aside to conduct the first research experiments aboard ISS.

Prime Crew

Astronaut William M. “Shep” Shepherd
  Expedition 1 Commander
  Birthdate: July 26, 1949
  Birthplace: Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  Selected: May 1984
  Spaceflight experience: STS-27, STS-41, STS-52
  Time in space: 18 days, 8 hours, 12 minutes
  No. of EVAs/EVA time: None

Cosmonaut Sergey K. Krikalyov
  Expedition 1 Flight Engineer
  Birthdate: August 27, 1958
  Birthplace: Leningrad (now St. Petersburg)
  Selected: September 1985
  Spaceflight experience: Mir-4, Mir-9/10, STS-60 (flew on STS-88 between his selection and Expedition 1)
  Time in space: 472 days, 1 hour, 20 minutes (not including STS-88)
  No. of EVAs/EVA time: 7/36 hours, 10 minutes

Cosmonaut Yuri P. Gidzenko
  Expedition 1 Flight Engineer and Soyuz Commander
  Birthdate: March 26, 1962
  Birthplace: Yelanets (now in Ukraine)
  Selected: March 1987
  Spaceflight experience: Mir-20
  Time in space: 179 days, 1 hour, 42 minutes
  No. of EVAs/EVA time: 2/3 hours, 35 minutes

Backup Crew

Astronaut Kenneth D. Bowersox
  Expedition 1 Backup Commander
  Birthdate: November 14, 1956
  Birthplace: Portsmouth, Virginia
  Selected: June 1987
  Spaceflight experience: STS-50, STS-61, STS-73
  Time in space: 40 days, 15 hours, 11 minutes
  No. of EVAs/EVA time: None

Cosmonaut Vladimir N. Dezhurov
  Expedition 1 Backup Flight Engineer and Soyuz Commander
  Birthdate: July 30, 1962
  Birthplace: Yavas (now in Moldova)
  Selected: March 1987
  Spaceflight experience: Mir-18
  Time in space: 115 days, 8 hour, 43 minutes
  No. of EVAs/EVA time: 5/18 hours, 57 minutes

Cosmonaut Mikhail V. Tyurin
  Expedition 1 Backup Flight Engineer
  Birthdate: March 2, 1960
  Birthplace: Kolomna
  Selected: April 1994
  Spaceflight experience: None
  Time in space: None
  No. of EVAs/EVA time: None


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« Odpowiedź #396 dnia: Luty 28, 2020, 21:59 »
Największe osiągnięcia indyjskiego programu kosmicznego 1962-2019 (1)


•     Indian National Committee for Space Research formed and   works on establishing   Thumba Equatorial Rocket   Launching   Station (TERLS)   started


•    First sounding   rocket   launch   from   TERLS   (November   21,   1963)


•    Space   Science   and   Technology   Centre   (SSTC)   established   in   Thumba


•    Experimental   Satellite   Communication   Earth   Station   (ESCES)   set   up   at   Ahmedabad


•    TERLS   dedicated   to   the   United   Nations   (February   2,   1968)


•    Indian   Space   Research   Organisation   (ISRO)   formed   (August   15,   1969)


•    Space Commission and Department of Space (DOS) set up. ISRO   brought under DOS (June 1, 1972)


•    Air-borne   remote   sensing   experiments


•    ISRO   becomes   Government   Organisation   (April   1,   1975)

•    First   Indian   Satellite,   Aryabhata,   launched   (April   19,   1975)


•    Satellite   Instructional   Television   Experiment   (SITE)   conducted


•    Satellite   Telecommunication   Experimental   Project   (STEP)   carried   out


•    Bhaskara-I,   an   experimental   satellite   for   earth   observations,   launched   (June 7,   1979)

•    First    Experimental launch   of SLV-3 with Rohini Technology Payload onboard (August 10, 1979). Satellite could   not be placed in   orbit


•    Second Experimental    launch of   SLV-3. Rohini satellite    successfully  placed    in orbit   (July   18,1980)


•    First   developmental   launch   of   SLV-3.   RS-D1   placed   in   orbit   (May   31,   1981)

•    APPLE, an    experimental geostationary communication    satellite successfully launched   (June   19,   1981)

•    Bhaskara-II   launched   (November   20,   1981)


•    INSAT-1A   launched   (April   10,   1982).   Deactivated   on   September   6,   1982


•    Second   developmental   launch   of   SLV-3.   RS-D2   placed   in   orbit   (April   17,   1983)

•    INSAT-1B   launched   (August   30,   1983)


•    Indo-Soviet   manned   space   mission   (April   1984)


•    First   developmental launch of ASLV with SROSS-1 satellite onboard (March 24, 1987). Satellite could not be placed in orbit


•    Launch   of   first   operational Indian   Remote   Sensing   satellite,   IRS-1A   (March   17,   1988)

•    Second developmental launch of   ASLV   with SROSS-2 onboard (July 13, 1988).Satellite could not be placed in orbit

•    INSAT-1C   launched   (July   22,   1988).   Abandoned   in   November   1989


•    INSAT-1D   launched   (June   12,   1990)

•    Launch   of   second   operational   Remote   Sensing   satellite,   IRS-1B   (August   29,   1991)


•    Third developmental   launch of ASLV with SROSS-C on   board (May 20, 1992). Satellite placed in orbit

•    INSAT-2A, the first satellite of the indigenously-built second-generation   INSAT series, launched (July 10, 1992)


•    INSAT-2B,   the   second   satellite   in   INSAT-2   series,   launched   (July   23,   1993)

•    PSLV-D1, the first developmental launch of   PSLV   with IRS-1E onboard (September 20,1993).   Satellite could   not be placed in   orbit


•    Fourth developmental launch of   ASLV   with   SROSS-C2   onboard (May 4, 1994). Satellite   placed in orbit

•    PSLV-D2,   the second developmental launch of PSLV with IRS-P2 onboard (October 15, 1994). Satellite successfully placed in   Polar   Sun Synchronous Orbit


•    INSAT-2C,   the   third   satellite   in   INSAT-2   series,   launched   (December   7,   1995)

•    Launch   of   third   operational Indian Remote   Sensing   Satellite,   IRS-1C   (December 28, 1995)


•    PSLV-D3,   the third developmental launch of PSLV with   IRS-P3 onboard   (March 21, 1996). Satellite   placed in Polar   Sun Synchronous Orbit


•    INSAT-2D, fourth satellite in INSAT-2 series, launched (June 4, 1997). Becomes in-operable on October 4, 1997.    (An in-orbit satellite, ARABSAT-1C, later renamed   INSAT-2DT, was   acquired in November   1997   to partly augment INSAT system)

•    PSLV-C1, the first operational launch of PSLV with IRS-1D onboard (September 29, 1997). Satellite   placed in orbit


•    INSAT system capacity augmented with the    readiness of INSAT-2DT acquired from ARABSAT   (January   1998)


•    INSAT-2E,   the last satellite   in the multipurpose INSAT-2 series, launched by Ariane   from Kourou, French Guyana   (April 3, 1999)

•    Indian Remote Sensing Satellite, IRS-P4 (OCEANSAT-1), launched by Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle   (PSLV-C2) along with   Korean KITSAT-3 and   German DLR-TUBSAT   from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota (May 26, 1999)


•    INSAT-3B, the first satellite in the third generation INSAT-3 series, launched by Ariane from Kourou, French Guyana (March 22, 2000)


•    Successful flight test   of Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-D1) on April 18, 2001 with   an experimental satellite   GSAT-1 onboard

•    Successful launch of   PSLV-C3 on October 22, 2001 placing three   satellites – India’s TES, Belgian PROBA and   German BIRD into Polar Sun Synchronous Orbit


•    Successful launch of INSAT-3C by Ariane from Kourou,    French Guyana    (January 24, 2002)

•    Successful launch of   KALPANA-1 by ISRO’s   PSLV-C4 from SDSC SHAR (September 12, 2002)


•    Successful launch of   INSAT-3A   by   Ariane   from   Kourou,   French   Guyana   (April 10,   2003)

•    Successful launch of GSLV-D2, the second developmental test flight of GSLV with GSAT-2 onboard from SDSC SHAR (May 8, 2003)

•    Successful launch of   INSAT-3E by Ariane from Kourou, French Guyana (September 28,   2003)

•    Successful launch of   Resourcesat-1 by ISRO’s PSLV-C5 from SDSC SHAR (October 17,   2003)


•    GSLV-F01, the first operational flight of GSLV from SDSC SHAR. EDUSAT successfully placed in GTO   (September 20, 2004)


•    Successful launch of   Cartosat-1   and HAMSAT by   PSLV-C6 from the newly established Second   Launch Pad at SDSC SHAR (May 5, 2005)

•    Successful launch of   INSAT-4A by Ariane from Kourou, French Guyana (December   22, 2005)


•    GSLV-F02, the second operational flight of GSLV from SDSC SHAR with INSAT-4C onboard (July 10, 2006). The satellite could not be placed in orbit


•    PSLV-C7 successfully launches four satellites – India’s Cartosat-2 and Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE-1) as   well as Indonesia’s LAPAN-TUBSAT and Argentina’s PEHUENSAT-1 (January 10, 2007)

•    Successful recovery of SRE-1 after manoeuvring   it to re-enter the earth’s atmosphere and descend over   the Bay   of Bengal about   140 km East of Sriharikota (January 22, 2007)

•    Successful launch of   INSAT-4B   by Ariane   launch vehicle from Korou, French Guyana on March 12, 2007

•    PSLV-C8 successfully launches an Italian satellite    AGILE on April 23, 2007 under a commercial contract with Antrix Corporation

•    Launch of   GSLV-F04 with INSAT-4CR onboard from SDSC SHAR on September 2, 2007


•    PSLV-C10successfully launches TECSAR satellite on January 21, 2008 under a commercial contract with Antrix Corporation

•    PSLV-C9 successfully launches ten satellites on April 28, 2008: India’s Cartosat-2A, Indian Mini Satellite-1 (IMS-1) and eight Nano Satellites for International Customers under a commercial   contract with Antrix Corporation

•    PSLV-C11   successfully   launches   Chandrayaan-1   spacecraft   on   October   22,   2008

•    European   Ariane-5 launch   vehicle successfully launches W2M satellite on December 21, 2008   jointly built   by Antrix/ISRO and EADS Astrium on a commercial basis


•    PSLV-C12   successfully   launches   RISAT-2   and   ANUSAT,   on   April   20,   2009

•    PSLV-C14   successfully launches OCEANSAT-2 and six nanosatellites for international customers under a commercial contract with Antrix Corporation   (September 23, 2009)


•    Successful static testing of   GSLV-MkIII Launch Vehicle’s S200 Solid Propellant Booster Rocket   Stage(January   24, 2010)

•    GSLV-D3,   the first launch of GSLV with indigenous Cryogenic Upper Stage and GSAT-4 satellite onboard.   GSAT-4 could not be placed in   orbit   (April 15, 2010)

•    PSLV-C15, the seventeenth flight of PSLV, successfully launches India’s Cartosat-2B and   STUDSAT, Algeria’s ALSAT-2A,   Canada’s NLS-1   and NLS-2   on (July 12, 2010)

•    Successful Static Testing of GSLV-MkIII Launch Vehicle’s L110 Liquid Core Stage (September   8, 2010)

•    European   Ariane-5 launch vehicle successfully launches HYLAS satellite on November 27, 2010 jointly built by   Antrix/ISRO and   EADS Astrium on a commercial basis

•    GSLV-F06, the seventh launch of GSLV with GSAT-5P satellite onboard, could   not place the satellite   in orbit (December 25, 2010)

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #397 dnia: Luty 28, 2020, 22:00 »
Największe osiągnięcia indyjskiego programu kosmicznego 1962-2019 (2)


•    PSLV-C16   successfully launches India’s Resourcesat-2,   YOUTHSAT    and X-SAT from Singapore   on April 20, 2011

•    GSAT-8 Communication Satellite    launched by Ariane launcher from Kourou, French Guiana on May   21, 2011

•    PSLV-C17   successfully   launches   GSAT-12   Communication   Satellite   on   July   15,   2011

•    Second successful static testing of S-200 booster    to be used in GSLV-Mk III on September 4,   2011

•    PSLV-C18    successfully launches    the Indo-French satellite Megha-Tropiques and three co-passenger satellites   –Jugnu from IIT, Kanpur, SRMSat from SRM University, Chennai and VesselSat–1 from Luxembourg –   on October 12, 2011


•    PSLV, in its twenty first flight (PSLV-C19), launches India’s first Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT-1) from Sriharikota on April 26, 2012

•    In its twenty second flight (PSLV-C21), PSLV successfully launches French earth observation satellite SPOT-6   along with Japanese micro-satellite PROITERES from Sriharikota on September 09,   2012

•    India’s heaviest    communication    satellite, GSAT-10, successfully launched by Ariane-5 VA 209 from Kourou, French Guiana on September 29,   2012


•    PSLV, in its twenty third flight (PSLV-C20), successfully launches Indo-Franch Satellite SARAL   along with   six smaller satellites from abroad from Sriharikota on February 25, 2013

•    PSLV, in its twenty fourth flight (PSLV-C22), successfully launches   India’s first dedicated   navigation   satellite IRNSS-1A from Sriharikota   on July 01, 2013

•    India’s advanced weather satellite INSAT-3D successfully launched by Ariane-5 VA-214 from Kourou, French Guiana on July 26, 2013

•    India’s advanced communication satellite GSAT-7   successfully launched   by Ariane-5 VA215 from Kourou,   French   Guiana on August 30, 2013

•    Mars Orbiter Mission,   the India’s   first interplanetary mission to planet Mars, successfully   launched by PSLV-C25      from   Sriharikota on November 05, 2013

•    Trans Mars Injection Manoeuvre   performed   on Mars Orbiter Spacecraft on December 01, 2013 to place it in Mars Transfer Trajectory


•    In its first   successful   flight   with indigenous   Cryogenic Upper Stage, GSLV-D5 successfully places GSAT-14 into      GTO on January   05, 2014

•    PSLV, in its twenty sixth flight (PSLV-C24), successfully launches IRNSS-1B, the second   satellite of   the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota on April 04, 2014

•    PSLV-C23   Successfully launches   French Earth Observation Satellite- SPOT 7 and four other co-passenger satellites from SDSC SHAR,   Sriharikota on June 30, 2014

•    India’s Mars Orbiter Spacecraft successfully   enters into   an orbit around planet Mars on September 24, 2014

•    PSLV, in its twenty eighth flight (PSLV-C26)   successfully launches   IRNSS-1C,   the third satellite of the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota on October 16, 2014

•    India’s communication satellite,   GSAT-16 successfully launched by the Ariane-5 VA221 from Kourou, French Guiana on December 07, 2014.

•    The first experimental suborbital flight (LVM3-X/CARE)   of India’s next generation launch    vehicle LVM3 (GSLV-MkIII) was    successfully conducted from Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota   on December 18, 2014. CARE   module carried onboard to a height of 126 km successfully recovered

•    PSLV-C27   Successfully Launches India’s Fourth Navigation Satellite IRNSS-1D on March   28, 2015 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota.

•    PSLV-C28    successfully launches    three identical DMC3 commercial Earth Observation Satellites, along with two    smaller satellites from United Kingdom, into    a polar Sun Synchronous Orbit on July 10, 2015   from   Satish Dhawan   Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota.

•    Geo-Synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-D6), equipped with the indigenous Cryogenic Upper Stage   (CUS), successfully launches 2117 kg GSAT-6, into a GTO on    August 27, 2015 from Satish Dhawan   Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota.

•    AstroSat,   India’s first dedicated   astronomy   satellite successfully launched by   PSLV-C30 on September 28, 2015    from Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota. Along with AstroSat, six satellites from international customers    - LAPAN-A2 of Indonesia, NLS-14 (Ev9) of Canada and   four identical LEMUR satellites of   USA   – were also launched by this PSLV flight

•    The 3164 kg GSAT-15 carrying Ku-band transponders and GAGAN    payload launched successfully by the European Ariane-5 VA-227 from Kourou, French Guiana on November 11, 2015

•    In its thirty second flight conducted from SDSC SHAR,   Sriharikota on December 16, 2015, PSLV-C29 successfully launches six satellites from Singapore (400 kg TeLEOS-1 as primary satellite and other   Five co-passenger payloads).


•    The   Polar   Satellite Launch   Vehicle, in   its 33rd flight (PSLV-C31), launches IRNSS-1E, the fifth satellite of   the Indian   Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) on January 20, 2016 from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota.

•    The   Polar   Satellite Launch   Vehicle, in   its 34th flight (PSLV-C32), launches IRNSS-1F, the sixth satellite of   the Indian   Regional Navigational   Satellite System   (IRNSS) on March 10, 2016 from   SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota.

•    The   Polar   Satellite Launch   Vehicle, in its 35th flight (PSLV-C33), launches IRNSS-1G, the seventh satellite of the   Indian Regional   Navigation   Satellite System    (IRNSS) into a Sub-Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (Sub-GTO) on April 28, 2016 from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota.

•    India’s Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology    Demonstrator (RLV-TD), successfully flight tested on May 23, 2016   from   SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota. RLV-TD   is one of the most technologically challenging endeavors of ISRO towards developing   essential technologies   for a fully reusable launch vehicle to enable low cost access to space.

•    India’s Polar Satellite   Launch Vehicle, in its 36th flight (PSLV-C34), launches the 727.5 kg Cartosat-2 Series Satellite for earth observation and 19 co-passenger satellites   together weighing about 560 kg at lift–off into a 505 km   polar   Sun Synchronous Orbit (SSO) on   June   22, 2016 from Sriharikota. The co-passenger satellites   are from USA, Canada, Germany and Indonesia as well as two satellites (SATHYABAMASAT and SWAYAM) from Indian University/Academic   Institute.

•    The   first experimental mission of ISRO’s Scramjet Engine towards the realisation of an Air Breathing Propulsion System was successfully conducted on   August 28, 2016 from Satish Dhawan Space   Centre SHAR, Sriharikota.

•    India’s Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), in its tenth flight (GSLV-F05) launches INSAT-3DR, an    advanced weather satellite, weighing 2,211 kg into a Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO)   on September 08, 2016 from   SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota.

•    India’s Polar Satellite   Launch Vehicle, in its 37th flight (PSLV-C35), launches the 371 kg SCATSAT-1    for weather    related studies and seven co-passenger satellites into polar Sun Synchronous   Orbit   (SSO) on September 26, 2016 from SDSC SHAR Sriharikota. Co-passenger   satellites are ALSAT-1B, ALSAT-2B, ALSAT-1N from Algeria, NLS-19 from Canada and Pathfinder-1 from USA as   well as two satellites PRATHAM from IIT Bombay and PISAT from PES University,   Bengaluru.

•    India’s latest communication satellite, GSAT-18 was inducted into the INSAT/   GSAT system on   October 06, 2016   from   Kourou, French Guiana by Ariane-5 VA-231.   Weighing 3,404 kg at   lift-off, GSAT-18   carries 48 communication transponders to   provide services   in Normal C-band, Upper Extended C-band and Ku-bands of the frequency spectrum   along with a Ku-band beacon for accurately pointing ground antennas towards the satellite.

•    In its 38th flight (PSLV-C36), ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle successfully launches 1,235 kg   Resourcesat-2A Satellite on December 07, 2016 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota. This   is the 37th   consecutively successful   mission of PSLV.


•    In its thirty ninth flight (PSLV-C37), ISRO’s   Polar   Satellite Launch   Vehicle successfully launched the   714 kg Cartosat-2   Series Satellite along   with 103 co-passenger satellites on February 15, 2017 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota. This is   the thirtyeighth   consecutively successful mission   of PSLV. The total weight of   all the   104   satellites carried on-board PSLV-C37 was 1378 kg. This   is the highest number   of satellites launched   in a Single Flight.

•    India’s Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle, in its eleventh flight (GSLV-F09) successfully launched the 2230   kg South Asia Satellite (GSAT-9) from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota, into its planned Geosynchronous Transfer   Orbit (GTO) on May 05, 2017. This is the fourth consecutive success achieved   by GSLV carrying indigenously developed Cryogenic Upper Stage.

•    The first developmental flight (GSLV-MkIII-D1) of India’s heavy lift launch vehicle GSLVMkIII was successfully conducted   on June 05, 2017 from Satish Dhawan   Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota with the launch of GSAT-19 satellite. This was the first orbital mission of GSLV-MkIII, which was mainly   intended to evaluate the vehicle performance including that of   its fully indigenous cryogenic upper stage during the flight. Weighing 3136 kg   at lift-off, GSAT-19 is the heaviest satellite launched from the Indian soil.

•    ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle PSLV-C38 successfully launched the 712 kg Cartosat-2 Series Satellite along with 30 co-passenger satellites on June 23, 2017   from   Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota. This is the thirty-ninth consecutively successful mission of PSLV.

•    India’s latest communication satellite, GSAT-17 was inducted into the INSAT/GSAT   system on June 29, 2017 from Kourou, French Guiana by Ariane-5 VA-238. The 3477 kg GSAT-17 carries communication payloads in C-band, Extended C-band and S-band for   providing various services to the   country. The satellite also carries   equipment    for meteorological data relay and satellite based search and rescue services.

•    The   forty-first flight   of India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C39), carrying   IRNSS-1H   Navigation Satellite conducted on August 31, 2017 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota,   was unsuccessful.


•    In its 42nd flight, PSLV successfully launched the   710 kg Cartosat-2 Series Remote Sensing Satellite along with   30 co-passenger satellites on January 12, 2018 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota. The co-passenger   satellites comprise one Microsatellite and one Nanosatellite from India as well   as 3   Microsatellites and 25   Nanosatellites from six countries, namely, Canada, Finland, France, Republic of Korea, UK and USA.

•    GSLV-F08 in its 12th flight of Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) launched   GSAT6A from the Second Launch Pad (SLP) in Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota on March 29, 2018. However, the ground station lost communication with the satellite.

•    India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, in its forty-third flight (PSLV-C41) in launched IRNSS-1I Satellite from First   Launch Pad (FLP) of SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota on April 12, 2018. The IRNSS-1I is the eighth satellite   to join the   NavIC navigation   satellite constellation.

•    A major technology demonstrator called as   Pad Abort Test was successfully carried out at Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC), SHAR, Sriharikota on July 05, 2018. This was one   of the tests to qualify   a Crew Escape System, which is a critical   technology in human   spaceflight. The   first Pad Abort Test demonstrated the safe recovery of the crew module in case of any   exigency at the launch pad.

•    PSLV-C42   Successfully Launches two   foreign satellites from   Satish Dhawan Space   Centre (SDSC), SHAR, Sriharikota on September 16, 2018. This mission launched two earth observation satellites, NovaSAR and S1-4 (together weighing nearly 889 kg) ofM/s Surrey Satellite Technologies Limited (SSTL), United Kingdom under commercial arrangement with Antrix Corporation Limited.   

•    On November 14, 2018 GSLV MK III-D2 successfully launched communication satellite, GSAT29 into the orbit weighing about 3423 kg from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota.
•    PSLV-C43   on November 29, 2018 successfully launched India’s Hyper spectral Imaging Satellite (HysIS) and 30 international co-passenger satellites. HysIS,   the primary satellite of PSLV-C43 mission, weighing about 380 kg,   is an earth observation satellite configured around ISRO’s Mini Satellite-2 (IMS-2) bus. The co-passengers of HysIS include   1 Micro and 29 Nano satellites from 8 different countries. These satellites have been commercially contracted for launch through Antrix   Corporation Limited, the commercial arm of   ISRO.

•    ISRO’s next generation high throughput communication satellite, GSAT-11 was successfully launched on December   05, 2018 from Kourou launch base, French Guiana by Ariane-5 VA-246.   Weighing about 5854   kg, GSAT-11 is the heaviest satellite built by ISRO. GSAT-11 is   the fore-runner in the   series of advanced communication satellites with   multi-spot   beam antenna coverage over Indian mainland and Islands. GSAT-11 will   play a vital role   in providing broadband   services across the country. It will also provide a platform to demonstrate new generation applications.

•    GSLV-F11    successfully launched GSAT-7A, ISRO’s 39th communication satellite, on December 19, 2018    from the Second Launch Pad (SLP) of Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota. GSAT-7A with a lift-off   mass    of    2250    kg, is a geostationary satellite carrying communication transponders in   Ku-band. The Satellite is built to   provide   communication   capability to the   users over   the Indian   region.


•    PSLV-C44 successfully launched Microsat-R and Kalamsat-V2 on January 24, 2019 from Sriharikota.

•    On February 06, 2019, GSAT 31 was successfully launched from Kourou, French Guiana onboard Arianespace rocket.

•    EMISAT and 28 customer satellites were successfully launched onboard PSLV-C45 on April 01, 2019 from Sriharikota. The launch viewing gallery was inaugurated and opened to the public for viewing launches live from Sriharikota.

•    On May 22, 2019 RISAT-2B satellite was successfully launched onboard PSLV-C46 from Sriharikota.

•    Chandrayaan-2 satellite was successfully launched into an earth orbit by GSLV-MKIII-M1 on July 22, 2019.

•    On November 27,2019 Cartosat-3 and 13 customer satellites were successfully launched by PSLV-C47 from Sriharikota.

•    On December 11, 2019, PSLV-C48 successfully launched RISAT-2BR1satellite and 9 customer satellites from Sriharikota.

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #398 dnia: Marzec 01, 2020, 10:11 »
25 lat temu 6 lutego 1995 roku miało miejsce najbliższe zbliżenie promu  w misji STS-63 Discovery na odległość 11 metrów do stacji Mir. Była to misja poprzedzająca pierwsze dokowanie wahadłowca do stacji orbitalnej. Pierwszy raz za sterami promu kosmicznego znalazła się kobieta.
Z kolei podczas tej wyprawy 9 lutego 1995 Bernard Harris, Jr. uczestniczył w spacerze, jako pierwszy Afroamerykanin.

Bernard Harris: The First African American to Perform a Spacewalk
Feb. 11, 2020

Twenty-five years ago in Feb. 1995, astronaut Bernard Harris (right) became the first African American to perform a spacewalk. In this image, he and fellow STS-63 astronaut Michael Foale, prepare to exit space shuttle Discovery's airlock to began their spacewalk. The pair would test new insulation to protect astronauts from the cold, but the Mission Control cut their spacewalk short after the men reported feeling very cold in their suits.

Zdjęcia astronauty z 2017:

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« Odpowiedź #399 dnia: Marzec 01, 2020, 10:50 »
40 Years Ago: Preparations for STS-1
Feb. 13, 2020 John Uri NASA Johnson Space Center

Space Shuttle Columbia arrived at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) from its North American Rockwell Corporation manufacturing facility in Palmdale, California, on March 24, 1979. Bolted atop its Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA), the orbiter completed its four-day transcontinental ferry flight, making three overnight stops along the way in Texas and Florida. The next day, after removing the orbiter from the back of the SCA, workers towed it into the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF), where Columbia spent the next 19 months preparing for its first flight. In parallel, engineers readied the other components of the Space Shuttle system, the External Tank (ET) and Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs), while the crewmembers and mission controllers held simulations to rehearse various phases of the mission designated STS-1, for Space Transportation System. In February 1980, mission managers planned for a launch in November of that year but anticipated that it might slip into early 1981.

Left: Columbia atop the SCA touching down at KSC.
Right: Columbia in the OPF.

Columbia arrived at KSC with many tiles missing from its Thermal Protection System (TPS) and temporary tiles installed for the ferry flight had to be replaced with permanent ones. The TPS tiles represented one of the most complex new technologies developed for the Space Shuttle and continued to be the leading challenge in getting Columbia ready for its first flight. All in all, roughly 30,000 tiles, each one individually sized for its specific location, needed to be installed on the vehicle and tested for adequate strength and bonding. The ET for STS-1 arrived at KSC in July 1979 after a barge trip from the Michoud assembly plant outside New Orleans, Louisiana, and workers installed it in a test stand in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) to await stacking with the SRBs and .

Left: Engineer applying a tile to Columbia’s left wing.
Right: The ET for STS-1 arrives at KSC.

Three views of the stacking of STS-1 SRBs in the VAB.

All the components of the two SRBs for STS-1 had arrived in the VAB by September 1979, and workers began the stacking process. By early January 1980, they had completed stacking the two rockets on the Mobile Launch Platform, where the boosters awaited the ET and Columbia. To qualify the SRBs for flight, workers conducted four demonstration and three qualification static firings of the booster’s motor at Thiokol’s Wasatch Facility near Brigham City, Utah, facility. With the successful completion of the final test on Feb. 13, 1980, managers qualified the booster for flight.

Left: SRB in place for the final qualification static firing.
Right: SRB during the final qualification static firing in Utah.

All three of Columbia’s Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) passed flight qualification and engineers installed them on the vehicle in August 1979. Workers at Marshall Space Flight Center’s National Space Transportation Laboratory (NSTL) at Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, conducted a series of 3-engine tests using non-flight qualified SSMEs. The first full duration test on Dec. 17, 1979, lasted 554 seconds. A second test on Feb. 1, 1980, ended after just 4.6 seconds due to one of the engines starting late. A repeat of the test on Feb. 28, the second of a planned series of seven, concluded successfully after 560 seconds.

Left: Workers installing one of Columbia’s main engines.
Right: View of the Dec. 17, 1979, 3-engine test at NSTL.

To demonstrate selected Orbiter hardware and software subsystems during a mission timeline several hundred NASA and contractor engineers at KSC, the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, and at Rockwell’s facility in Downey, California, conducted a series of Orbiter Integrated Tests (OIT). The first OIT took place between Dec. 16 and 20, 1979. The prime crew for STS-1, John W. Young and Robert L. Crippen as well as their backups Joe H. Engle and Richard F. Truly, participated in the 5-day test that included Columbia’s first simulated launch and flight into orbit. The crewmembers took part in the OIT from inside Columbia, powered up in the OPF. A second 11-day OIT that put Columbia through all phases of its mission including five simulated launches and a full 54-hour simulated flight concluded successfully on Jan. 18, 1980. Crippen said of the test, “The Shuttle is a really spectacular machine which will do a lot for this country,” while Young said that Columbia performed “like a champ.” NASA Administrator Robert A. Frosch described the test as a major milestone toward achieving the first flight of the Space Shuttle.

STS-1 prime crew Crippen (left) and Young arrive at the OPF for the OIT.

Left: Young about to enter Columbia.
Right: Crippen about to enter Columbia.

To prepare for Columbia’s first mission, flight controllers and astronauts conducted a 30-hour simulation led from Mission Control at JSC. The exercise began on Jan. 24 with a simulated launch and orbital insertion and concluded the next day with a simulated landing. The prime and backup crews participated in the simulation. Three flight controller teams led by Flight Directors Neil B. Hutchinson, Charles R. “Chuck” Lewis, and Donald R. Puddy, along with astronauts Edward G. Gibson, Frederick H. “Rick” Hauck, and Daniel C. Brandenstein acting as capsule communicators (Capcoms) and about 500 NASA and contractor personnel rounded out the simulation. The purpose of the simulation was to evaluate operations and procedures over an extended period of the mission. Flight directors and their teams of flight controllers monitored the Orbiter’s systems’ health, performed navigation and targeting tasks, and supported crew performance of the mission timeline. Additional simulations were held at regular intervals to prepare ground controllers and the crew for the first Space Shuttle mission.

Flight Director Hutchinson (left) confers with Director of Flight Operations Eugene F. “Gene” Kranz
and Flight Director M.P. “Pete” Frank during the January 1980 STS-1 30-hr simulation.

Left: Flight Directors Puddy (left)and Lewis during the January 1980 STS-1 30-hr simulation.
Right: Flight Director Hutchinson (left) with astronauts Gibson, Hauck, and Brandenstein during the January 1980 STS-1 30-hr simulation.

STS-1 prime crew Crippen (left) and Young.

STS-1 backup crew Truly (left) and Engle.

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #400 dnia: Marzec 02, 2020, 09:42 »
30 lat temu 28 lutego 1990 roku rozpoczęła się misja STS-36 Atlantis dla Departamentu Obrony.
Po 30 latach nadal niewiele wiadomo o przebiegu lotu. Nie dało się ukryć parametrów orbity wahadłowca, które były wyjątkowe. Jedyny raz w całym programie załogowym USA orbita była nachylona pod kątem 62 stopni , co miało przełożenie na niższą orbitę o pułapie ok. 200 km, która była jedną z najniższych w programie STS.
Oficjalnie masa wyniesionego ładunku nie jest znana, ale mogła okazać się jedną z największych w całym programie STS.

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« Odpowiedź #401 dnia: Marzec 04, 2020, 10:45 »
Space Station 20th: Long-duration Missions
March 2, 2020

Space stations provide the capability to support long-duration human space flights and the research needed to study the effects of extended periods of weightlessness on humans. The results of the investigations will inform future human exploration missions. Prior to space stations, the longest flight lasted only 18 days, although at the time (1970) it set an endurance record. The small size of the spacecraft not only precluded a longer stay due to lack of storage for consumables but also limited any significant medical monitoring or countermeasures equipment

Space stations that preceded ISS (left to right) Salyut, Skylab 1, Salyut 6, Salyut 7 and Mir. The images do not show the stations to the same scale.

Beginning with the first experimental space station Salyut in 1971, a series of Soviet and American platforms through the 1970s and 1980s played host to numerous long-duration missions, many setting ever-increasing endurance records up to 237 days. Beginning in 1986, the Soviet then Russian space station Mir hosted numerous long-duration missions during its 15 years of operation, extending the human spaceflight endurance record to 438 days, completed by cosmonaut Valeri V. Polyakov in March 1995. His 14-month spaceflight, long enough for a round-trip journey to Mars, remains the longest single space mission to date. Between October 1994 and March 1995, Mir hosted the first long-duration flight by a woman, cosmonaut Yelena V. Kondakova. As she and Polyakov prepared to return to Earth, astronaut Norman E. Thagard joined them in March 1995 as the first American to live aboard Mir, the first long-duration mission of the International Space Station (ISS) Phase 1 Program, also known as the Shuttle-Mir Program. In March 1996, Shannon W. Lucid arrived aboard Mir to begin the first long-duration flight by an American woman.

Left: Polyakov (right) assisting Kondakova with an experiment aboard Mir in 1994.
Right: Polyakov minutes after this return to Earth after 438 days in space in 1995.

Left: Thagard, the first American aboard Mir.
Right: Lucid, the first American woman to complete a long-duration flight aboard Mir.

The ISS provides a platform where scientists can conduct multi-disciplinary international studies on the effects of long-duration spaceflight on human physiology and psychology using instruments and techniques that can be regularly updated to keep up with advancing technology. With ISS nearing 20 years of continuous occupancy by rotating teams of crewmembers, the various investigations have adequate numbers of subject experiences available to reach significant conclusions. The first long-duration crew of William M. Shepherd, Yuri P. Gidzenko and Sergei K. Krikalev arrived at ISS on Nov. 2, 2000. Their replacements, the Expedition 2 crew of Yuri V. Usachev, James S. Voss and Susan J. Helms, arrived on March 10, 2001, and included the first woman to complete a long-duration mission aboard ISS. During their mission, the Space Shuttle delivered the first research racks including the Human Research Facility Rack 1 dedicated to conducting studies on human adaptation to long-duration spaceflight. Additional facilities to support an expanded range of investigations arrived on subsequent Space Shuttle flights.

Left: Expedition 1, the first long-duration crew to live and work aboard ISS (left to right) Krikalev, Shepard and Gidzenko.
Right: ISS Expedition 2 crew, the first to include a woman (left to right) Helms, Usachev and Voss.

As of March 2020, ISS has hosted 170 long-duration crewmember flights of durations ranging from 48 to 340 days, with the majority in the five- to seven-month range. Of these, 152 were flown by males and 18 by females.  In exchange for their contributions to the ISS Program, the European Space Agency (ESA) has conducted 13 long-duration missions, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) eight, and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) three. The longest mission by an ESA astronaut was Luca S. Parmitano’s 201-day flight completed in 2020. Koichi Wakata holds the record for JAXA with his 188-day mission concluded in 2012, while Robert B. Thirsk’s 188-day flight in 2009 was the longest by a CSA astronaut.

Summary chart of long-duration experiences (longer than 90 days) completed aboard ISS.

Left: Parmitano after his return from his second long-duration mission to ISS.
Middle: Wakata being helped out of his spacecraft after returning from his second long-duration flight aboard ISS.
Right: Thirsk relaxes after his ISS mission.

In November 2012, NASA and the Russian space agency Roscosmos agreed to jointly conduct a one-year mission aboard ISS to better understand the effects on humans of such a lengthy exposure to space flight. The two agencies selected veteran space travelers Scott J. Kelly and Mikhail B. Korniyenko as the two participants in the mission. The pair launched to ISS with fellow crewmember Gennadi I. Padalka on March 27, 2015, and landed 340 days later with cosmonaut Sergey A. Volkov on March 2, 2016. The two participated in 23 investigations across seven research disciplines before, during and after their stay aboard ISS as members of Expeditions 43, 44, 45 and 46. Scientists presented the preliminary findings of their studies in January 2017. More information about the experiments and their results is available here. Additional one-year missions aboard ISS are in the planning stages.

Left: One-Year crewmembers Kelly (left) and Korniyenko before the mission.
Right: Kelly and Korniyenko aboard ISS.

Korniyenko (left) and Kelly (right) with fellow crewmember Volkov (middle) after their landing in Kazakhstan.

Of particular interest to scientists, Kelly’s selection as the American astronaut to participate in the one-year mission proved fortuitous: he has an identical twin brother, Mark E. Kelly, also an experienced astronaut. This provided a unique opportunity for scientists to study the effects of a one-year mission on one astronaut, using his twin with a virtually identical genetic profile as a ground-based control subject. Both astronauts agreed to participate in the NASA Twins Study, a panel of investigations looking into the health effects of the long-duration mission, with Scott conducting the experiments aboard ISS and Mark on the ground. After the mission, the investigators jointly published the results of the Twins Study in the prestigious journal Science. A short video describes three of the major findings.

Left: Twin astronauts Mark (left) and Scott Kelly.
Right: Schematic of the NASA Twins Study research themes and publication plan.

Astronaut Christina H. Koch holds the title for the longest single spaceflight by a woman after completing her 329-day mission in February 2020. Launched in March 2019, Koch participated in studies focused on standard measures, a consistent set of core measurements taken from all ISS crewmembers to characterize the effects of living in space for long durations. Investigations recorded measurements in the categories of behavioral health and performance, immunology, microbiology, biochemistry, sensorimotor adaptation and cardiovascular adaptation.

Left: Koch minutes after her return from her record-breaking mission.
Middle: Padalka shortly after his return from his fifth long-duration mission.
Right: Whitson after returning from her third long-duration flight to ISS.

Russian cosmonaut Gennadi I. Padalka currently holds the title as the world’s most space traveled individual. Over the course of five long-duration mission, one aboard Mir and four aboard ISS, Padalka has accumulated 878 days in space, or nearly 2.5 years. In addition, Padalka also holds the record for the most birthdays celebrated in space, one during each of his four stays aboard ISS. Peggy A. Whitson holds the record for most cumulative spaceflight time for a woman as well as for any American astronaut. Over the course of three long-duration missions aboard ISS, she spent a total of 639 days or about 1.75 years in space.

Information gathered during these and future long-duration missions aboard ISS will provide the information needed for future programs to send the first woman and the next man to land on the Moon, for astronauts to live and work aboard the Gateway and one day undertake the first expedition to Mars.

The International Space Station as it appeared in 2018.

For more on ISS, click here. To learn about ISS research and technology, click here .

John Uri  NASA Johnson Space Center

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #402 dnia: Marzec 08, 2020, 06:27 »
60 lat temu 7 marca 1960 powołano pierwszych 12. radzieckich kosmonautów grupy WWS grupa 1

Отряду космонавтов — 60 лет
07.03.2020 08:00

Сегодня, 7 марта 2020 года, российскому Отряду космонавтов исполняется 60 лет. 7 марта 1960 года приказом Главкома ВВС № 267 на должности слушателей-космонавтов были назначены первые двенадцать лётчиков. В структуре Центра подготовки космонавтов было создано подразделение с наименованием «Отряд космонавтов». 15 марта 1960 года первая группа слушателей приступила к теоретическим занятиям, которые проходили в Москве на Центральном аэродроме имени М.В. Фрунзе. С 1 июля 1960 года ЦПК передислоцировали в Подмосковье, где продолжилась подготовка.

К юбилейной дате ЦПК подготовил брошюру «Отряд космонавтов. Юбилейная историческая справка», из которой мы сегодня опубликуем несколько цитат и интересных фактов.

«Космонавты — это вершина космической индустрии, — считает командир Отряда космонавтов Роскосмоса Олег Кононенко. — Мы выполняем работу, в подготовке которой участвуют десятки тысяч специалистов из конструкторских бюро, отраслевых институтов, организаций, обеспечивающих наши полёты. От имени космонавтов отряда хочу выразить им огромную благодарность за всю земную часть работы, которую мы порой не видим, но знаем, что её делают люди во многих городах нашей страны».

Тридцать лет прослужил в отряде дважды Герой Советского Союза, представитель первого Гагаринского набора, командир Отряда космонавтов (1969–1974, 1983–1990 гг.) Борис Валентинович Волынов: «„Я рад и горжусь тем, что попал в число первых космонавтов!“ — говорил Юрий Гагарин. Мы все уже привыкли к космическим полётам — такова натура человеческая. Но какие бы грандиозные свершения ни ожидали нас в будущем, в сердцах нашего поколения вечно будут жить блестящий шар первого спутника, открывший новую эру, неистовый разум Королёва и светлая улыбка Юрия Гагарина. Эти две человеческие жизни вместили в себя и детство авиации и зарю космической эры. Приятно вспомнить ответ создателя американской космической техники Вернера фон Брауна на вопрос Президента Джона Кеннеди: „А почему не мы первые в космосе?“: „Потому что у нас не было Королёва“».

На январь 2020 года в нашей стране квалификацию космонавта получили 283 человека, среди которых 122 (43%) выполнили 264 полёта суммарной продолжительностью более 27 992 суток. Шесть раз в космосе работали четыре представительницы нашей страны. За 60 лет пилотируемой космонавтики в открытом космосе работали 225 человек, среди них 66 советских и российских космонавтов. Отечественные космонавты осуществили 283 выхода в открытый космос суммарной продолжительностью 1296 часов 13 минут (более 54 суток), что составило 70% общего времени внекорабельной деятельности всех космонавтов планеты.

Сейчас в Отряде космонавтов Роскосмоса 32 человека, из них 12 — совершили один и более космических полётов, а 8 — проходят общекосмическую подготовку.

«Наше самое главное богатство — это, безусловно, отряд космонавтов, который представляет собой сплочённую команду единомышленников, объединённых одной великой целью — освоить космическое пространство на благо человечества, — считает начальник ЦПК Герой Российской Федерации, заслуженный лётчик-испытатель РФ Павел Власов. — Еще Юрий Гагарин говорил: „Жизнь показывает, что и космос будут осваивать не какие-нибудь супермены, а самые простые люди“. И это действительно так, но с небольшой поправкой: простые люди, наделённые самыми лучшими качествами. Не только сильные, смелые, умные, выносливые, решительные, но и скромные, открытые в общении, отзывчивые, добрые. Именно таким простым людям открываются просторы космоса!

И я желаю всем космонавтам — действующим и будущим — профессионального долголетия и успешных полётов, причём не только на околоземную орбиту, но и гораздо дальше! Чтобы удалось осуществить мечты первого космонавта планеты, который писал: „Мне хочется побывать на Венере, увидеть, что находится под её облаками, увидеть Марс и самому убедиться, есть ли на нём каналы“. Спасибо за ваш героический труд и светлые устремления!»
« Ostatnia zmiana: Marzec 08, 2020, 09:00 wysłana przez Orionid »

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #403 dnia: Marzec 08, 2020, 14:03 »
60 lat temu 7 marca 1960 powołano pierwszych 12. radzieckich kosmonautów grupy WWS grupa 1

50 лет первому отряду космонавтов и Центру подготовки космонавтов им. Ю.А.Гагарина. Фоторепортаж
04 марта 2010

50 лет назад, 7 марта 1960 года, в первый отряд космонавтов были зачислены двенадцать человек - Иван Аникеев, Валерий Быковский, Борис Волынов, Юрий Гагарин, Виктор Горбатко, Владимир Комаров, Алексей Леонов, Григорий Нелюбов, Андриян Николаев, Павел Попович, Герман Титов и Георгий Шонин. (...)

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #404 dnia: Marzec 13, 2020, 22:05 »
On This Day in Space: March 13, 1781: Uranus is discovered!
By Hanneke Weitering 9 hours ago

On March 13, 1781, Sir William Herschel discovered Uranus, the seventh planet from the sun.

Before Herschel discovered Uranus, other astronomers had seen it before, but no one realized it was planet. Instead, they thought it was a star. Herschel actually thought he was looking at a comet. Because it was moving, he figured it couldn't have been a star.  (...)

Polskie Forum Astronautyczne

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