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Gerald Paul Carr (1932-2020)
« dnia: Sierpień 26, 2020, 22:06 »
26.08.2020 zmarł w wieku 88 lat były astronauta Gerald Paul Carr, który dowodził trzecią załogą Skylab SL-4 amerykańskiej stacji kosmicznej Skylab w 1973 roku. Lot zakończył się po 84 dniach
wodowaniem 08.02.1974.

Cześć jego pamięci...
« Ostatnia zmiana: Sierpień 26, 2020, 22:14 wysłana przez mss »
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« Odpowiedź #1 dnia: Sierpień 26, 2020, 22:28 »
Astronaut Jerry Carr, who led NASA's final Skylab crew, dies at 88

Skylab 4 commander Gerald "Jerry" Carr led his two crewmates on a record-setting 84-day-long stay on board the first United States space station in 1973. (NASA)

August 26, 2020 — Former NASA astronaut Gerald "Jerry" Carr, who in 1973 led the record-setting, final mission on the first U.S. space station, Skylab, has died at the age of 88.

Carr's death was confirmed by his family on Wednesday (Aug. 26) in a statement shared by the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation.

"Throughout his life and career, Jerry Carr was the epitome of an officer and a gentleman. He loved his family, he loved his country and he loved to fly. We are all enormously proud of his legacy as a true space pioneer and of the lasting impact of his historic mission aboard America's first space station. We will remember him most as a devoted husband, father, brother, grandfather and great grandfather. We will miss him greatly," the family's statement read.

An aeronautical engineer and naval aviator, Carr was selected by NASA for its fifth group of astronauts in 1966, alongside future moonwalkers and other Skylab crew members.

Carr's first and only spaceflight was as the commander of Skylab 4 (also referred to as SL-4 or "Skylab 3" as appeared on the crew's mission patch). The third of three crewed stays of increasing duration aboard the orbital workshop, Carr and his Skylab 4 crewmates, Ed Gibson and William "Bill" Pogue, set what was then a record spending 84 days in space.

NASA astronaut Gerald "Jerry" Carr floats aboard the Skylab orbital workshop during its third, longest and final mission. (NASA)

"We proved, I think, just absolutely, positively that the human being can live in weightless environment for an extended period of time," Carr said during a NASA oral history interview in October 2000. "But medically, we gathered the data that I think gave the Russians and other people the understanding and the courage to say, 'Okay, we can stay up for longer periods of time.'"

Rookie record

The Skylab 4 crew launched on Nov. 16, 1973, on board an Apollo command module atop a Saturn IB rocket from NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Carr, Gibson and Pogue were NASA's first all-rookie crew since Neil Armstrong and David Scott lifted off on the Gemini 8 mission seven years earlier.

"I was delighted to get a seat, and I was absolutely floored that they would select me to be a commander," Carr said. "So, I was really flabbergasted to be selected and very happy to do it."

Carr and his crewmates divided responsibilities aboard the Skylab space station. Gibson led performing the mission's planned science experiments, including solar physics studies. Pogue was charged with overseeing the fluid systems.

"My main task was the Skylab navigational guidance," said Carr. "We structured ourselves so that all of us could operate anything, but if anything went wrong there was one expert."

Gerald "Jerry" Carr, Skylab 4 commander, is seen partially suited for a spacewalk aboard the Skylab orbital workshop. (NASA)

In addition to collecting physiological data related to their extended time in space, Carr and his crew continued the Earth and solar observations that began during the first two expeditions to the station.

"One of the things that Ed and Bill and I decided early, probably halfway through our training program, was that we really wanted to have extra film, we wanted to get briefings from people around the world who were experts in different kinds of Earth phenomena, because, as we said in those days, we did not want to be in the position at a debriefing of having someone ask us about something and being able to say nothing more than, 'Yeah, we saw it. Sure was pretty.'" Carr said.

NASA organized 40 hours of training with 20 leading experts to instruct the crew on what to look out for when observing the planet below.

"That turned out to be probably the most exciting and the most rewarding of all of the experiments that we did, [because of] the opportunity to ad lib — and to ad lib intelligently," Carr recalled.

The astronauts also had the chance to observe a recently-discovered comet as it neared the sun. The crew was provided a far-ultraviolet camera to image Comet Kohoutek and it was used during two spacewalks, including one on Dec. 25, 1973.

Skylab 4 commander Gerald "Jerry" Carr demonstrates his strength by balancing Bill Pogue on his finger in microgravity. (NASA)

"[The comet] looked like it was going to do perihelion [the point closest to the sun] about Christmas Day of '73," explained Carr. "The period of the comet was 2,000 years, so there was a lot of talk that maybe that's what the Star of Bethlehem was, [it] was actually that comet, because of the biblical stories of this new star."

"Everybody, [even those] on the ground, thought that it was going to be a beautiful, brilliant comet, and it turned out to be very faint," he said. "We really had to work to find it. And once we found it, it was a gorgeous little thing, but it was really small and faint."

Including the Christmas spacewalk, Carr performed three extravehicular activities (EVAs) to conduct photography, replace film cassettes and recover experiments.

Gerald "Jerry" Carr, Skylab 4 commander, test flies the Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment M509 Experiment, a predecessor to the Manned Maneuvering Unit, on the Skylab space station. (NASA)

Miscommunicated 'mutiny'

NASA, looking to maximize the return on the astronauts' 84 days in space, filled the crew's daily schedules with activities and experiments. This quickly led to Carr, Gibson and Pogue having to give up their free time just to keep up with the load. So, when they chose to take an impromptu day off, it was misconstrued by some journalists to be a mutiny against mission control.

"We got to the point where the morale was low. We weren't feeling too good. We were getting tired. So we said, 'Let's take our day off and maybe a good day's rest will get us back in good shape again,'" Carr recalled. "We took our day off and did what we wanted to do."

That apparently included forgetting to configure their radios to receive calls from the ground during on orbital pass.

"People on the ground called us and we didn't answer them, so the press just thought that was wonderful," Carr recounted. "They said, 'Look at that, these testy old crabby astronauts up there won't even answer the radio now. They've turned off their radio and they won't listen to the people on the ground.'"

"So we have lived under that stigma [of a "mutiny"] all these years, but basically it was we just got careless and we were busy doing other things and didn't think to configure our radios," he said.

A subsequent call with the mission planners resulted in a lighter work load and the crew was still able to complete all of the planned experiments for the mission, plus "a lot of extra ones that we dreamed up," said Carr.

Carr, Gibson and Pogue splashed down on Feb. 8, 1974, having traveled 34.5 million miles (55.5 million kilometers) while circling the planet 1,214 times.

Carr logged a total of 2,017 hours, 15 minutes and 32 seconds in space, a world record at the time, including 15 hours and 51 minutes on his three spacewalks.

Almost to the moon

Gerald Paul "Jerry" Carr was born on Aug. 22, 1932 in Denver Colorado, but he considered Santa Ana, California, where he was raised, his home town.

Carr earned Bachelor of Science degrees in mechanical engineering from the University of Southern California in 1954 and in aeronautical engineering from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in 1961. He received his Master of Science in aeronautical engineering from Princeton University in 1962.

He enlisted in the U.S. Navy in 1949, and was appointed a midshipman with the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps detachment at the University of Southern California the following year. Carr was commissioned in the U.S. Marine Corps in 1954 and underwent flight training at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida, and Naval Air Station Kingsville, Texas, before being assigned to Marine All-Weather-Fighter-Squadron 114, flying the F-9 and F-6 in the U.S. and the Mediterranean.

After postgraduate training, he served with Marine All-Weather-Fighter-Squadron 122, flying the F-8 Crusader in the U.S. and Far East. Carr was serving as a test conductor with Marine Air Control Squadron Three, flying the F-4 Phantom, when he was selected as a member of "The Original Nineteen" to begin training as a NASA astronaut.

Prior to commanding the Skylab 4 crew, Carr joined a group developing the Apollo lunar module, the spacecraft that would land the first humans on the moon.

"I became part of a group of guys who were responsible for following the lunar module through its development and fabrication and delivery, testing and delivery to the Cape," he said. "As they built the lunar module, we would do the testing of the systems as they were put in."

Carr then served on the support crews for Apollo 8, the first mission to launch humans to orbit the moon, and Apollo 12, the second lunar landing, and worked as a capsule communicator (capcom) in Mission Control for both flights.

"I really was thrilled to be part of Apollo 8. It was really a monumental mission, very gratifying to be part of it," he said.

Carr also worked on the development of the lunar roving vehicle (LRV, or lunar rover) and was in line to go to the moon himself, when his likely assignment, the Apollo 19 mission, was canceled.

"Fred Haise was going to be the CDR [commander], Bill Pogue was to be the command module pilot and I was to be the lunar module pilot," Carr said. "It was around 1970, early 1970 or so, when it was decided that Apollos 18, 19, and 20 would be canceled."

"We had lost our opportunity to go to the moon. I remember we moped around for quite a few weeks," Carr said, adding that it was soon after that he was offered the command of Skylab 4.

After his 84 days in space, Carr led a group working on the development of the space shuttle before retiring from NASA in June 1977 (he retired from the Marines with the rank of colonel two years earlier).

Life's legacy

Carr continued working in support of the space program, leading companies that offered consultant and support services to NASA. In 1984, he founded CAMUS, Inc., which served as a subcontractor to Boeing in designing the crew systems for the International Space Station.

For his years of service and contributions to NASA and the aerospace industry, Carr was bestowed an honorary Doctorate of Science in aeronautical engineering from Parks College of Saint Louis University, Illinois in 1976 and was awarded the 1974 Fédération Aéronautique Internationale Gold Space Medal in 1974. That same year, the Gerald P. Carr Intermediate School in Santa Ana, California, was named in his honor.

Carr and his fellow Skylab astronauts were honored with the 1973 Collier Trophy and the 1975 Goddard Memorial Trophy, among other awards.

Carr was inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida in 1997.

In 2008, author David Shayler worked with Carr to write "Around the World in 84 Days: The Authorized Biography of Skylab Astronaut Jerry Carr," as published by Apogee Books.

Gerald "Jerry" Carr speaks at a 2014 wreath laying ceremony for his late Skylab 4 crewmate Bill Pogue at the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. (NASA/Kim Shiflett)

Carr is survived by his widow, Pat Musick, as well as his first wife, Joann Petrie, and their six children, Jennifer, twins Jamee and Jeff, twins Jessica and Joshua and John.

Skylab 4 commander Gerald "Jerry" Carr works aboard the United States' first space station during its third, final and longest mission in 1974. (NASA)

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Odp: Gerald Paul Carr (1932-2020)
« Odpowiedź #2 dnia: Sierpień 26, 2020, 22:38 »
Pozostało już tylko przy życiu 3. kosmicznych uczestników programu Skylab.

Skylab SL-2  Joseph Peter Kerwin 1932
Skylab SL-3  Jack Robert Lousma 1936
Skylab SL-4  Edward George Gibson 1936

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« Odpowiedź #3 dnia: Sierpień 30, 2020, 04:38 »
Scott Kelly@StationCDRKelly 5:11 AM · 28 sie 2020
Saddened to see the passing of Jerry Carr, Naval Aviator, NASA Astronaut and as the commander of Skylab 4 a pioneer of human long duration space flight. Fair winds and following seas, Jerry.

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« Odpowiedź #3 dnia: Sierpień 30, 2020, 04:38 »

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« Odpowiedź #4 dnia: Sierpień 30, 2020, 04:39 »
Statements on the Passing of Gerald ‘Jerry’ Carr
Aug. 26, 2020

Astronaut portrait of Gerald Carr Credits: NASA

Astronaut Gerald Carr, who commanded the last Skylab mission, died Aug. 26, 2020.

Statement from Administrator Jim Bridenstine

“NASA and the nation have lost a pioneer of long duration spaceflight," said NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine. "We send our condolences to the family and loved ones of astronaut Gerald 'Jerry' Carr, whose work provided a deeper understanding of life on Earth and in space.

“A colonel in the U.S. Marine Corps, Carr was a test pilot who logged more than 5,300 hours of jet flying time on aircraft including the F-9, F-6A Skyray, and F-8 Crusader. A naval aviator selected for the astronaut class in 1966, he served as Capcom for Apollos 8 and 12 and broke spaceflight duration records on Skylab 4, the final mission to the orbital workshop.

“Recalling the view back to Earth, Carr credited his Skylab crewmate Edward Gibson with the observation that, from space, ‘You can see no boundaries on the Earth, no man-made boundaries, that the barriers that man puts up between himself and his fellow man, that the only boundaries you can see are the natural ones, the rivers, the lakes, things like that.’

“We remember and honor his life and his contributions to the nation.”

Statement from the Carr and Musick Families

Throughout his life and career, Jerry Carr was the epitome of an officer and a gentleman. He loved his family, he loved his country and he loved to fly. We are all enormously proud of his legacy as a true space pioneer and of the lasting impact of his historic mission aboard America’s first space station. We will remember him most as a devoted husband, father, brother, grandfather, great grandfather and uncle. We will miss him greatly.

For more information about Carr’s NASA career, visit:
« Ostatnia zmiana: Sierpień 30, 2020, 04:41 wysłana przez Orionid »

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Odp: Gerald Paul Carr (1932-2020)
« Odpowiedź #5 dnia: Sierpień 30, 2020, 04:39 »
Gerald Carr, Record-Setting Skylab Commander, Dies Aged 88
By Ben Evans, on August 27th, 2020

The crew of America’s final Skylab mission: Jerry Carr, Ed Gibson and Bill Pogue. They were the first humans to spend New Year in space in 1973-74. Photo Credit: NASA

Bill Pogue (left) and Jerry Carr, pictured aboard Skylab during their 84-day mission, which took place between November 1973 and February 1974. Photo Credit: NASA

(...) But Carr’s experience with the Apollo Lunar Module (LM) raised a reasonable possibility that he would draw at least a backup slot on one of the later Moon missions. Had the final three landings not been canceled due to budget cuts in the summer of 1970, it is quite possible that Carr might have been assigned as Lunar Module Pilot (LMP) for Apollo 19, alongside Commander Fred Haise and Command Module Pilot (CMP) Bill Pogue.

Sadly, it was not to be, and in late 1970 Chief Astronaut Tom Stafford called Carr to his office and asked him if he would be willing to fly with Pogue and another astronaut, physicist Ed Gibson, to Skylab. Their names were formally announced in January 1972. (...)

Uniquely, they were the only all-rookie Apollo crew and only the the fourth crew of astronauts—after Gemini IV, Gemini VII and Gemini VIII—to include no experienced astronaut among its ranks. And when the CSM’s hatch was closed, the three of them looked at one another…and started giggling, “like a bunch of schoolgirls,” Carr reflected. (...)

But it also included a vast amount of scientific research with the Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP) and Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), observations of Comet Kohoutek and Carr tested the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU), forerunner of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU). four sessions of Extravehicular Activity (EVA), totaling more than 22 hours. Of this figure, Carr himself logged three spacewalks with a career total of 15 hours and 49 minutes, including the first (and so far only) EVA to be performed on Christmas Day. (...)

Family photograph of Jerry Carr. Photo Credit: Carr Family/NASA
« Ostatnia zmiana: Styczeń 17, 2022, 19:12 wysłana przez Orionid »

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« Odpowiedź #6 dnia: Sierpień 30, 2020, 23:15 »
Moduł dowodzenia wyprawy Skylab 4, który odbył najdłuższy lot w ramach załogowych wypraw NASA po 40. latach jest przenoszony z Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum in Washington do Oklahoma History Center

Skylab 4 capsule to land in new exhibit at Oklahoma History Center

The Skylab 4 command module atop its new mounting base in the restoration hangar at the National Air and Space Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia. (Cosmosphere)

August 28, 2020 — A historic NASA spacecraft will soon leave the Smithsonian for the Sooner State.

The Apollo command module that was flown by the third and last astronaut crew to live on board the United States' first space station is set to go on display in Oklahoma. The Skylab 4 capsule was previously on exhibit for more than 40 years at the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.

"Today our SpaceWorks crew is at the Oklahoma History Center to begin the installation of the display case for the Skylab 4 command module (CM)," the Cosmosphere space museum in Kansas announced on its social media accounts on Thursday (Aug. 27), referencing its artifact restoration, replication and design division. "The rest of the case will be installed when the CM arrives in September."

The SpaceWorks team fabricated both the display case and the mounting base for the Skylab 4 spacecraft that will be used at the Oklahoma History Center (OHC) in Oklahoma City.

"Things are moving at the OHC!" the history center wrote on Instagram, captioning photos of the case's metal framework being moved into the center by forklift.

The news of the spacecraft's pending move came the day after the commander of NASA's Skylab 4 mission, Gerald "Jerry" Carr, died at the age of 88. Carr lifted off aboard the command module with Ed Gibson and William "Bill" Pogue, a native of Oklahoma, on Nov. 16, 1973.

Carr, Gibson and Pogue's 84-day stay on the Skylab orbital workshop marked the most time that humans had lived and worked in space, a world record held for four years. The command module still holds the record for the longest flight by an American-launched, crewed spacecraft. The crew and capsule splashed down and were recovered from the Pacific Ocean on Feb. 8, 1974. (...)

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« Odpowiedź #7 dnia: Wrzesień 02, 2020, 03:06 »
7:03 PM · 1 wrz 2020 @NASAKennedy
On Aug. 31, we held a remembrance ceremony for former NASA astronaut Gerald “Jerry” Carr.

Danny Frank - Guest, Gerald Carr
240 wyświetleń•1 maj 2019
Former NASA Astronaut, Gerald Carr, joins Danny to reflect on the state of space exploration today.

Jerry Carr Interview - 11.16.16
339 wyświetleń•29 lis 2016
« Ostatnia zmiana: Styczeń 17, 2022, 19:10 wysłana przez Orionid »

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« Odpowiedź #8 dnia: Wrzesień 02, 2020, 03:29 »
Skylab 3 Commander, a Patient Astronaut
By Victor K. McElheny Nov. 17, 1973
See the article in its original context from
November 17, 1973, Page 22

This is a digitized version of an article from The Times’s print archive, before the start of online publication in 1996. To preserve these articles as they originally appeared, The Times does not alter, edit or update them.
Occasionally the digitization process introduces transcription errors or other problems; we are continuing to work to improve these archived versions.

Before he went aloft on his first space flight for eight or more weeks as the commander of the Skylab 3 crew, Gerald Paul Carr, a close‐cropped lieutenant colonel in the Marine Corps, said exuberantly, “I'm looking forward most to sticking my nose up against the wardroom window and watching earth go by.” The 41‐year‐old pilot had to be patient in waiting for this view, which sweeps by the round window of the orbiting workshop 16 times a day. Colonel Carr has been an astronaut for seven years, during which 11, of the 18 pilots selected with him as astronauts in April, 1966, have already flown in space.

Men in the News

There were two astronauts each from the class of 1966 on Apollos 13, 14, 15 and 16, one on Apollo 17, the last lunar flight, and one each on the first two Skylab crews, launched in May and July.

None of the three men now aboard Skylab has flown in space before. It is the first time since December, 1965, when Air Force Col. Frank Borman and Navy Capt. James A. Lovell Jr. spent two weeks aboard Gemini 7, that all members of an American astronaut crew are “rookies.”

Colonel Carr has been asked about this constantly, and a typical answer begins, “There is no substitute for experience.” He noted that the commanders of the first two Skylab flights, Capts. Charles Conrad Jr. and Alan L. Bean of the Navy had both had many problems calling for solutions on short notice.

“They thought of things that never would have occurred to others,” Colonel Carr said. “I'm sure that our lack of experience will be an embarrassment at one time or another in the mission.”

Referring to the 29 manned space flights in 12 years before the latest Skylab mission, Colonel Carr said, “We've matured to the point where we can get away with all‐rookie crews.'”

Although the brown‐haired, blue‐eyed colonel's first space flight opportunity came with Skylab, he was closely in volved with the Apollo program.

He spent much time at the Grumman Aerospace Corporation's factory at Bethpage, L. I., where the two stages of the lunar landing craft were put together in an immense “clean room” on metal stands decorated with the pictures of the astronauts who woud fly in them.

“I enjoy fiddling around with systems,” Colonel Carr said, noting that one of his hobbies is restoring an old sports car. He worked on the lunar lander that was to have flown on the Apollo 8 mission—which instead simply orbited the moon. Then, he worked on the lunar lender that Captains Conrad and Bean piloted to the moon's Ocean of Storms in November, 1969.

Role in Mission Control

Like many other astronauts, Colonel Carr worked as a “capsule communicator” in the mission control room in Houston, serving as the sole relay for all comments, requests and orders between earth and the astronauts in space.

On Apollo 8, he was at the CapCom's console when Captain Lovell, newly in orbit around the moon on the morning of Christmas Eve, began describing it for earthdwellers as “essentially gray, like plaster of paris.”

As Apollo 12 lifted from the Kennedy Space Center into a rainy sky and was struck by lightning, it was Colonel Carr who heard the word from the spaceship that “we had the whole world drop out on us,” meaning that the astronauts had encountered major, if brief, problems with their electrical systems. Colonel Carr recalled that he was a charter member of “The Royal Order of the Sweaty Palm.”

Colonel Carr was born Aug. 22, 1932, in Denver and grew up in Santa Ana, Calif., where his mother still lives and where he met his wife, the former Jo Ann Ruth Petrie. They have three sons and three daughters, including two sets of fraternal twins.

After receiving a bachelor of science degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Southern California in 1954, he entered the Marine Corps, and, after flight training, served in tactical squadrons before shifting to systems testing duty in 1965–66.

NASA via United Press International

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« Odpowiedź #9 dnia: Wrzesień 20, 2020, 03:54 »
Three Types of Food You Can Take to Space
486 049 wyświetleń•9 sty 2014 Smithsonian Channel
At the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, Skylab 4 commander Gerald Carr visits the duplicate of the spacecraft he once called home.
« Ostatnia zmiana: Styczeń 17, 2022, 19:09 wysłana przez Orionid »

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« Odpowiedź #9 dnia: Wrzesień 20, 2020, 03:54 »