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« Odpowiedź #30 dnia: Lipiec 07, 2020, 00:44 »
It’s (small) rocket science, after all
by Jeff Foust Monday, July 6, 2020


A Rocket Lab Electron rocket lifts off Saturday on its ill-fated launch. (credit: Rocket Lab webcast)

Maybe companies should think twice about launching on US holidays.

To be fair, it was the morning of Sunday, July 5, in New Zealand when an Electron rocket lifted off from Rocket Lab’s Launch Complex 1 there. However, back in the United States, where Rocket Lab is headquartered, it was still the afternoon of July 4 when the Electron lifted off on a launch licensed by the FAA’s Office of Commercial Space Transportation. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3981/1

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« Odpowiedź #31 dnia: Lipiec 07, 2020, 00:44 »
National spaceports: the past
by Wayne Eleazer Monday, July 6, 2020


An Atlas V launch in August 2019, seen from the author’s home.

The US Air Force, long the operator of the nation’s primary space launch bases, is giving some thought to what “National Spaceports” should be. This analysis should be aided by certain facts.

The launch bases at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS) and Vandenberg Air Force Base (AFB) originally were conceived as test facilities for Air Force Systems Command programs. Systems Command’s main focus was its product centers, the procurement organizations for new Air Force systems. They conducted development and acquisition of new military hardware. Under Systems Command’s highly programmatic focus, the launch centers and all other test ranges were entirely driven by the various procurement program requirements. Program offices almost always greatly dislike even the idea that they could be impacted by the requirements and actions of other programs, and as a result this produced a huge proliferation of range systems and facilities designed to meet specific program requirements, largely without regards to overall efficiency. Tracking systems, communications systems, utilities, and brick-and-mortar support facilities required by programs were installed at the launch bases largely without regard to long-term costs or efficiency. This had the effect of increasing test center capacity: dozens or even hundreds of test support operations were common every day, and even multiple rocket launches in one day were common. On the other hand, no doubt many opportunities were lost that could have reduced costs, or at least been better for future activities. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3982/1

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« Odpowiedź #32 dnia: Lipiec 14, 2020, 11:31 »
Review: The Sirens of Mars
by Jeff Foust Monday, July 13, 2020



The Sirens of Mars: Searching for Life on Another World
by Sarah Stewart Johnson
Crown, 2020
hardcover, 264 pp., illus.
ISBN 978-1-101-90481-7
US$28.99
https://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/110190481X/spaceviews

Move over, Shark Week: it’s Mars Month. From now through (hopefully) the end of the month, three missions are set to launch to go to Mars. The United Arab Emirates’ first Mars mission, an orbiter called Hope, is set to launch Wednesday morning (Tuesday afternoon US time) on an H-2A rocket in Japan. Next week is the likely launch date for Tainwen-1, China’s first full-scale Mars mission that includes an orbiter, lander, and rover. NASA’s Mars 2020 mission, carrying the rover Perseverance, is now scheduled for launch July 30 after some launch vehicle and spacecraft processing issues delayed the launch from July 17. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3983/1

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« Odpowiedź #33 dnia: Lipiec 14, 2020, 11:31 »
Enhancing space deterrence thought for nuclear threshold threats (part 3)
A future defense space strategy for the Second Nuclear Age
by Christopher M. Stone Monday, July 13, 2020


The defense space strategy of the future must acknowledge the connection of space as a “forward region” of homeland defense similar to that of the emergent Asian nuclear-space powers in the second nuclear age environment.

Deterrence theory favors status quo powers, not powers unhappy with the limitations put on them by the existing distribution of power and superior weapons in the hands of others.
— Therese Delpech: Nuclear Deterrence in the 21st Century
(...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3984/1

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« Odpowiedź #33 dnia: Lipiec 14, 2020, 11:31 »

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« Odpowiedź #34 dnia: Lipiec 14, 2020, 11:32 »
Not so dark skies
by Al Globus Monday, July 13, 2020



In the book Dark Skies, Daniel Deudney examines space settlement[1] in detail and comes to the conclusion that it is so likely to exterminate humanity or have other serious consequences that it should not be undertaken at all, or at least not for several centuries, giving time to improve homo sapiens’ habits. Deudney comes to his surprising conclusion by applying geopolitics, a part of political science that studies “the practice of states controlling and competing for territory,”[2] among other things, to space settlement, which Deudney describes as “habitat expansionism.” Deudney uses a version of geopolitical theory to generate 12 propositions and then applies them to predict the future, coming to the conclusion that space settlement is an existential threat to humanity and should be viewed in the same category as nuclear war. Dark Skies is a difficult read but it is also a detailed and extensive critique of space settlement that deserves a thoughtful response. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3985/1

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« Odpowiedź #35 dnia: Lipiec 14, 2020, 11:32 »
CSI: Rocket Science
by Jeffrey L. Smith Monday, July 13, 2020


The Castor 600 rocket motor’s nozzle disintegrated during its inaugural test in May 2019, setting off an intense investigation. (credit: Northrop Grumman)

In the failure review process, engineers and technicians work together to perform two separate but equally important tasks: the Investigation to determine the accident’s Root Cause, and the Recovery to implement the Corrective Action.

These are their stories.
(...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3986/1

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« Odpowiedź #36 dnia: Lipiec 14, 2020, 11:32 »
What’s in a name when it comes to an “accord”?
by Jeff Foust Monday, July 13, 2020


While development of the lunar Gateway (above) will be done through an extension of the intergovernmental agreement for the International Space Station, NASA envisions a new approach for further international cooperation in the Artemis program. (credit: NASA)

The cooperation among the nations involved in the International Space Station is governed by what’s known as the Intergovernmental Agreement (IGA), a legal framework that handles the rights and responsibilities of the United States, Russia, Japan, Canada, and various European nations involved in the station. That framework will be extended to cover the lunar Gateway, the facility NASA is developing in lunar orbit as part of the Artemis program with future contributions by Canada, Europe, Japan, and perhaps Russia. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3987/1

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« Odpowiedź #37 dnia: Lipiec 21, 2020, 05:47 »
Review: Once Upon a Time I Lived on Mars
by Jeff Foust Monday, July 20, 2020



Once Upon a Time I Lived on Mars: Space, Exploration, and Life on Earth
by Kate Greene
St. Martin’s Press, 2020
hardcover, 240 pp.
ISBN 978-1-250-15947-2
US$27.99
https://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1250159474/spaceviews

While the robotic missions launching to Mars this year have a wide range of science goals, they are widely seen as precursors for eventual human missions to the Red Planet. NASA’s Mars 2020 mission includes an experiment called MOXIE that will demonstrate a way to produce oxygen from the carbon dioxide in the Martian atmosphere, a capability that will be essential for future human expeditions. NASA’s fiscal year 2021 budget proposal included a request to start work on a Mars Ice Mapper mission, an orbiter that would search for subsurface ice deposits that could be resources for future human expeditions. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3988/1

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« Odpowiedź #38 dnia: Lipiec 21, 2020, 05:47 »
Tracking off-the-books satellites with low perigees
by Charles Phillips Monday, July 20, 2020


A printout of a computer prediction of the reentry of Skylab in 1979, illustrating the hazards of low-perigee objects.

One fascinating study is objects that reenter the atmosphere: watching to see how low an orbit various objects can have and still survive, and where they reenter. My first professional job was in the US Air Force as an orbital analyst and one of the first things I worked on was the reentry of Skylab. It was a lot of fun for a young person. The image above is a plot from our 427M computer that showed predicted reentry time and location; there are probably not many surviving prints from that system. Skylab was an example that large objects that fall from the sky can cause damage and alarm to people below them. I was glad that the US Air Force had taken upon itself the responsibility of alerting the world. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3989/1

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« Odpowiedź #39 dnia: Lipiec 21, 2020, 05:47 »
The pandemic’s effect on NASA science
by Jeff Foust Monday, July 20, 2020


The coronavirus pandemic is partly to blame for the latest James Webb Space Telescope launch slip, a seven-month delay to October 31, 2021. (credit: NASA/Chris Gunn)

When the coronavirus pandemic started affecting NASA operations in March, forcing the agency to close centers (see “Space in uncertain times”, The Space Review March 23, 2020), NASA leadership prioritized some activities, like operation of the International Space Station and other spacecraft missions. NASA also elevated the priority of the SpaceX Demo-2 commercial crew test flight and the launch of the Mars 2020 mission. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3990/1

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« Odpowiedź #40 dnia: Lipiec 21, 2020, 05:47 »
Handshakes and histories: The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, 45 years later
by Asif Siddiqi and Dwayne A. Day Monday, July 20, 2020


The Apollo-Soyuz mission was in many ways intended to be the most visible symbol of a new era of détente between the United States and the Soviet Union. (credit: NASA)

On July 15, 1975, two rockets lifted off their launch pads on other sides of the world. One was a Soyuz spacecraft launching out of the Baikonur Cosmodrome, carrying cosmonauts Alexei Leonov and Valeri Kubasov. The other was an Apollo spacecraft atop the last of the Saturn IB rockets, carrying Thomas Stafford, Vance Brand, and Deke Slayton. Two days later the spacecraft linked up, their space travelers opened their hatches, and they engaged in a symbolic handshake in orbit that was intended to symbolize a thawing of Cold War tensions between two superpowers equipped to annihilate each other in nuclear war. Now, 45 years later, the Russian space agency Roscosmos has released a large trove of declassified documents about the Soviet side of this event which at the time seemed incredibly historic, but in retrospect now looks like a minor footnote in a long and continuing rivalry. Hindsight, it turns out, can be blurrier than we think. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3991/1

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« Odpowiedź #41 dnia: Lipiec 28, 2020, 05:21 »
Review: Promise Denied
by Jeff Foust Monday, July 27, 2020



Promise Denied: NASA’s X-34 and the Quest for Cheap, Reusable Access to Space
by Bruce I. Larrimer
NASA, 2020
ebook, 410 pp., illus.
ISBN 9781626830516
free
https://www.nasa.gov/connect/ebooks/promise_denied.html

If, in 1995, you told people in the space industry that in a quarter-century there would be partially reusable launch vehicles in operation commercially, the news might have been a little bit of a disappointment. The mid-1990s were the heyday for reusable launch vehicle concepts, particularly single stage to orbit (SSTO). The DC-X Delta Clipper, developed by the Pentagon and later transferred to NASA and renamed the DC-XA Clipper Graham, was making test flights in New Mexico, demonstrating vertical takeoff and landing. NASA had ambitions for an even more capable RLV demonstrator, the X-33, that Lockheed Martin won the contract to develop with plans to turn it into a commercial SSTO vehicle, VentureStar. Certainly by 2020 RLVs would be commonplace, flying daily! (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3992/1

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« Odpowiedź #42 dnia: Lipiec 28, 2020, 05:22 »
What you should learn from Comet NEOWISE
by Hariharan Karthikeyan Monday, July 27, 2020


Comet NEOWISE as photographed by the author recently. (credit: Hariharan Karthikeyan)

This was nothing short of a hasty search for the highest point in the city. As the sky dimmed, we drove in separate cars for miles and miles unsuccessfully, finally settling for a rugged trail that branched off of Beatty Drive in El Dorado Hills, California. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3993/1

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« Odpowiedź #43 dnia: Lipiec 28, 2020, 05:22 »
Highway to the Danger Zone: The National Reconnaissance Office and a downed F-14 Tomcat in Iraq
by Dwayne A. Day Monday, July 27, 2020


An F-14 Tomcat from fighter squadron VF-154 “the Black Knights” like the one lost over Iraq in April 2003. (credit: seaforces.org)

It was April 1, 2003, in the opening days of the American invasion of Iraq, known as Operation Iraqi Freedom, when it still seemed like the United States and its coalition partners were going to liberate the country from a brutal dictator, and before the occupation turned into a long, brutal, messy conflict. Lieutenant Chad Vincelette and Lieutenant Commander Scotty “Gordo” McDonald were assigned to squadron VF-154, “the Black Knights,” flying the squadron’s last deployment of the F-14A Tomcat. Their call-sign was “JUNKER 14.” The squadron had been split in two, with most aircraft staying on the USS Kitty Hawk, while five were based ashore, at Al Udeid Air Base, in Qatar. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3994/1

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« Odpowiedź #44 dnia: Lipiec 28, 2020, 05:22 »
National spaceports: the future
by Wayne Eleazer Monday, July 27, 2020


The Space Force offers an opportunity to stop repeating the mistakes of the past when it comes to operating launch sites. (credit: US Navy)

“National spaceports: the past” explained how different organizational inclinations, as well as both Command and Air Force priorities and specific experiences, impacted the way different Air Force commands regarded and managed the Air Force test ranges that have become national spaceports. These attitudes and priorities had significant impacts on the way the spaceports were operated and planned. (...)
https://www.thespacereview.com/article/3995/1

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« Odpowiedź #44 dnia: Lipiec 28, 2020, 05:22 »