Autor Wątek: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń  (Przeczytany 81508 razy)

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #420 dnia: Czerwiec 06, 2020, 16:45 »
06.06.2020 mija 35 lat od startu statku Sojuz T-13.


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« Odpowiedź #421 dnia: Lipiec 31, 2020, 05:19 »
35 lat temu na początku miesiąca minęło 35 lat od czasu kiedy pierwszy raz europejska sonda kosmiczna opuściła bezpośrednie otoczenie Ziemi.

GIOTTO 20 YEARS ON
13 March 2006

LAUNCH AND ORBIT

The launch of Giotto took place at 11:23 UT, 2 July 1985 by an Ariane-1 rocket from the European spaceport in Kourou.  The spacecraft entered a 10-month solar orbit and eight months into its first orbit passed comet Halley at a distance of 596 km. (...)
https://sci.esa.int/web/giotto/-/38922-giotto-20-years-on

1985: Giotto (ESA)
International Astronautical Federation
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g6JD_FIksTA

https://sci.esa.int/web/giotto/display-page-cl-display-page-content-long

https://www.wired.com/2012/06/capturing-a-comet-giotto-ii-1985/



https://sci.esa.int/web/giotto/-/38922-giotto-20-years-on

https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=1985-056A

https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Space_Science/Giotto_overview
https://sci.esa.int/web/giotto/-/36680-launch-of-giotto

https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F1-4020-4520-4_156

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« Odpowiedź #422 dnia: Sierpień 01, 2020, 21:45 »
70 Years Ago: First launch from Cape Canaveral
July 24, 2020

As Lao Tzu famously said, “Every journey begins with a single step.” For America’s journey into space, one of those first steps occurred 70 years ago, on July 24, 1950. On that date, the United States launched its first two-stage rocket, combining German and American technology, from a place on the Atlantic coast of central Florida called Cape Canaveral. It was the first launch from that facility that, for the past 70 years, has seen thousands of rockets take to the skies, destined for Earth orbit, the Moon, planets, and even beyond. From Cape Canaveral and from the nearby NASA Kennedy Space Center, astronauts launched on the first pioneering crewed missions, headed for Moon landings, and helped to build the International Space Station. (...)


Left: Bumper 8 in its gantry at Complex 3 prior to launch.
Right: First rocket launch from Cape Canaveral, the Bumper 8 flight.

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/70-years-ago-first-launch-from-cape-canaveral

Cytuj
Bumper No. 8, a German V-2 with a 320 kg Army-JPL Wac Corporal, was fired from the Long-Range Proving Ground at Cape Canaveral at a very low angle of attack. The first-stage V-2 climbed 16 km before it exploded. The second-stage Corporal separated successfully, however, and traveled another 24 km. This was the first missile launch from Cape Canaveral.

https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bumper_WAC
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RTV-G-4_Bumper

AA https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=4182.msg148380#msg148380
« Ostatnia zmiana: Sierpień 01, 2020, 22:03 wysłana przez Orionid »

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #423 dnia: Sierpień 01, 2020, 23:23 »
60 lat temu 29 lipca 1960 roku doszło do nieudanego startu Mercury-Atlas -D (MA-1).

Celem suborbitalnego lotu miało być przetestowanie kapsuły załogowej w jej pierwszym locie.
Między 59,0 a 60,0 sekundą lotu doszło do eksplozji, która doprowadziła do dezintegracji rakiety.
Sama zaś kapsuła została pomyślnie oddzielona od rakiety, ale zbyt wcześnie, żeby spadochrony mogły w pełni zadziałać, co skutkowało naruszeniem jej integralności podczas twardego wodowania, które nastąpiło po 220 sekundach od startu.
30 lipca 1960 roku udało się odzyskać zachowane w 95% szczątki kapsuły spoczywające na głębokości 18 metrów  w Oceanie Atlantyckim.

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vMvO62MSVi8" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vMvO62MSVi8</a>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=37&v=vMvO62MSVi8&feature=emb_title

The Story of the Vanishing Rocket: Remembering the MA-1 Mission, 60 Years On
By Ben Evans, on July 29th, 2020


MA-1 launches into the rain and low cloud on 29 July 1960. Photo Credit: NASA

(...) The purpose of MA-1 was to demonstrate the integrity and re-entry heating characteristics of the Mercury capsule, which, at that time, was expected to carry a U.S. astronaut into orbit a year or so later. Instrumentation aboard the spacecraft would evaluate its performance during the dynamic descent back to Earth and establish the adequacy of the recovery network and procedures. To this end, the Atlas-D’s guidance system was set up to provide the proper conditions at separation to mimic an in-flight abort, thereby applying maximum critical heating on the capsule’s thermal-protection “shingles”. According to the post-flight investigation report, MA-1 was also intended to simulate “a condition where a complete control system failure is encountered, since the capsule did not employ a stabilization and control system”.

After vanishing totally from view at 36 seconds, the Atlas-D’s flight profile continued normally, before calamity struck at just shy of a minute since liftoff. Investigators would later show that the rocket reached an altitude of about 5.6 miles (9.1 km) and was a couple miles (3.2 km) downrange of the Cape when things started to go wrong. At T+58.5 seconds, the vehicle experienced “a severe impulse disturbance” that was recorded by all accelerometers and rate gyroscopes aboard both the Atlas-D and the MA-1 capsule. The disturbance induced a “forward-acting shock-load of about 25 G on the capsule”, according to post-flight investigators, but in itself did not induce damage to either the rocket or the spacecraft, nor did it cause an appreciable drop in thrust.   

Less than a tenth of a second later, telemetry measurements centered upon the upper portion of the Atlas-D suddenly went dead, followed in short order by a decay in propulsion system performance as the automatic abort system commanded a shutdown of the engines. The pressure differential between the liquid oxygen and kerosene tanks dropped to zero and by T+60 seconds all engine thrust was gone. Telemetry vanished, literally, like a blip from a data screen, and multiple objects—presumably debris—appeared on radar. “It appears,” noted the post-flight report, “that sometime between 59.0 and 60.0 seconds, the booster experienced major structural damage.” (...)
https://www.americaspace.com/2020/07/29/the-story-of-the-vanishing-rocket-remembering-the-ma-1-mission-60-years-on/#more-115844

Fragments, Capsule, Mercury MA-1


These fragments are all that are left of Mercury capsule number 4, launched on July 29, 1960, on the Mercury-Atlas 1 (MA-1) mission, the first launch of a production Mercury spacecraft on the Atlas booster. At 59 seconds after launch, the Atlas broke up and exploded as it was passing through the region of maximum dynamic pressure. The structural failure appears to have occurred near the adapter between the Mercury spacecraft and the Atlas booster, resulting in the spacecraft and the attached adapter falling to the sea and being destroyed on impact. Mercury capsule 4 did not have an escape tower, environmental control system or cockpit instruments, but carried much instrumentation for what was intended to be a suborbital test of the Mercury-Atlas vehicle and the Mercury reentry protection system.

In 1985, Marks Morrison, Don Schoffield and Howard Robertson gave the surviving pieces to the Smithsonian.

https://airandspace.si.edu/collection-objects/fragments-capsule-mercury-ma-1/nasm_A19870191000

Cytuj
The first Mercury-Atlas -D (MA-1) was successfully launched from Cape Canaveral to test the Mercury capsule and Atlas D booster for future use in NASA's Project Mercury manned orbital flight program. Mercury-Atlas 1 (MA-1) was launched from the Atlantic Missile Range in a test of spacecraft structural integrity under maximum heating conditions. After 58.5 seconds of flight, MA-1 exploded and the spacecraft was destroyed upon impact off-shore. None of the primary capsule test objectives were met. The mission objectives were to check the integrity of the spacecraft structure and afterbody shingles for a reentry associated with a critical abort and to evaluate the open-loop performance of the Atlas abort-sensing instrumentation system. The spacecraft contained no escape system and no test subject. Standard posigrade rockets were used to separate the spacecraft from the Atlas, but the retrorockets were dummies. The flight was terminated because of a launch vehicle and adapter structural failure. The spacecraft was destroyed upon impact with the water because the recovery system was not designed to actuate under the imposed flight conditions. Later most of the spacecraft, the booster engines, and the liquid oxygen vent valve were recovered from the ocean floor. Since none of the primary flight objectives was achieved, Mercury-Atlas 2 (MA-2) was planned to fulfill the mission.
http://www.astronautix.com/j/july29.html

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #423 dnia: Sierpień 01, 2020, 23:23 »

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #424 dnia: Sierpień 03, 2020, 01:18 »
Celebrating the International Space Station (ISS)
June 19, 2020


https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/celebrating-the-international-space-station-iss-0

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #425 dnia: Sierpień 08, 2020, 00:01 »
Czy aby na pewno 8 sierpnia 2000 ?

Kolejna para Clusterów na orbicie
  08.08.2000 o 11:13:35.440 z Bajkonuru wystartowała rakieta Sojuz/Fregat, która wyniosła na orbitę dwa satelity
serii Cluster-2 - Rumba (FM-5) i Tango (FM-8). Poprzednie nosiły nazwy Samba (FM-6) i Salsa (FM-7) i ich
start opisywany był tutaj. Mimo drobnych problemów z 3-cim stopniem rakiety nośnej oba satelity po
szeregu manewrów osiągnęły zaplanowane robocze orbity (hp=17200 km, ha=120600 km i=90,5°). Obecnie
wszystkie 4 satelity są na właściwych orbitach i po ukończeniu testów sprzętu przystąpią do naukowych
badań według planu lotu.
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/n000801.htm#04

ESA highlights Cluster mission's 20 years of observing Earth's magnetosphere
Posted by Julie Celestial on August 7, 2020 at 19:28 UTC (2 hours ago)

ESA's Cluster mission, launched in June 2000, was designed to study the Earth's magnetosphere, which protects the planet from impacts by cosmic particles but also interacts with them, generating spectacular phenomena like auroras. As the mission enters its third decade in space, ESA highlights 20 years of observations under its belt.

Cluster is the first mission to have examined, modeled, and 3D-mapped the magnetosphere and the processes within it, in detail. It helped improve our understanding of space weather phenomena, which arise from the interaction between the magnetosphere and particles forming the solar wind. These phenomena can affect not only living organisms but also electronic equipment on the ground or in orbit.

The mission is composed of four spacecraft called Rumba, Salsa, Samba, and Tango, flying in a pyramid-like formation on an elliptical pole orbit. Although the mission was a huge success, it encountered issues during its early days. The underperformance of the first stage of the Soyuz launcher left Rumba and Tango in a wrong orbit, making them rely on their own propulsion.

"ESA was a bit worried 20 years ago, during the launch of the second pair of spacecraft. Ever since then, the mission has made huge progress, and it is far from finished," said Philippe Escoubet, Cluster Project Scientist at ESA.

Over the last 20 years, Cluster observations have revealed details about the processes in the magnetosphere and how the atmosphere supports life. The mission also provided insights into space weather required to enable safe satellite communications and space travel. (...)
https://watchers.news/2020/08/07/esa-cluster-observing-earth-magnetosphere/

Cytuj
2000 August 9 - . 11:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
Rumba - . Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: Friedrichshafen. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Cluster 2. USAF Sat Cat: 26463 . COSPAR: 2000-045A. Apogee: 116,297 km (72,263 mi). Perigee: 21,430 km (13,310 mi). Inclination: 88.50 deg. Period: 3,423.30 min.
Tango - . Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: Friedrichshafen. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Cluster 2. USAF Sat Cat: 26464 . COSPAR: 2000-045B. Apogee: 116,300 km (72,200 mi). Perigee: 21,430 km (13,310 mi). Inclination: 88.50 deg. Period: 3,423.40 min.
Rumba and Tango were the second pair of Cluster II magnetospheric research satellites of the European Space Agency. A series of five burns of the Fregat stage took them from an initial 190 km / 64.8 degree parking orbit to their final 17,200 x 120,600 km orbits inclined 90 degrees to the equator. They then separated from the Fregat and took up operations.
http://www.astronautix.com/a/august09.html

https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/cluster.htm

https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_chr/lau2000.htm

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #426 dnia: Sierpień 08, 2020, 09:31 »
Czy aby na pewno 8 sierpnia 2000 ?

Kolejna para Clusterów na orbicie
  08.08.2000 o 11:13:35.440 z Bajkonuru wystartowała rakieta Sojuz/Fregat, która wyniosła na orbitę dwa satelity
serii Cluster-2 - Rumba (FM-5) i Tango (FM-8). Poprzednie nosiły nazwy Samba (FM-6) i Salsa (FM-7) i ich
start opisywany był tutaj. Mimo drobnych problemów z 3-cim stopniem rakiety nośnej oba satelity po
szeregu manewrów osiągnęły zaplanowane robocze orbity (hp=17200 km, ha=120600 km i=90,5°). Obecnie
wszystkie 4 satelity są na właściwych orbitach i po ukończeniu testów sprzętu przystąpią do naukowych
badań według planu lotu.
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/n000801.htm#04
...

Na pewno 09.08.2000...dzięki za korektę!
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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #427 dnia: Wczoraj o 21:41 »
Aug. 10, 2020
Space Station 20th: Expedition 1 Crewmembers Depart for Russia

ISS welcomes first Progress resupply vehicle; STS-106 prepared for launch

Following the successful arrival of the Zvezda Service Module (SM) at the International Space Station (ISS) on July 26, 2000, the pace of activity to prepare the facility for its first occupants increased significantly. After only one launch (STS-101) to ISS in the first six months of the year, the second half of 2000 saw seven launches, including the Expedition 1 crew of Commander William M. Shepherd, Flight Engineer and Soyuz Commander Yuri P. Gidzenko, and Flight Engineer Sergei K. Krikalev. The crew completed its training in Houston and departed for Russia for the final time as the first Progress resupply ship arrived at ISS. At Kennedy Space Center (KSC), workers prepared Space Shuttle Atlantis for its next visit to the station.


Left: Expedition 1 crewmembers (left to right) Gidzenko, Krikalev, and Shepherd cutting the
ceremonial cake. Right: MACE experiment aboard STS-67, precursor to the MACE-II
experiment for Expedition 1.


On Aug. 4, 2000, Shepherd, Gidzenko, and Krikalev participated in the traditional cake cutting ceremony in the Space Station Training Facility at the Johnson Space Center in Houston. The event symbolized the completion of their training program in the United States. One of their last training sessions included a safety briefing on the Middeck Active Control Experiment-II (MACE-II), being delivered to ISS aboard the STS-106 mission in September. MACE-II, a follow-on from the first MACE investigation conducted aboard STS-67 in 1995, became the first active NASA science experiment aboard ISS. Funded by the NASA Langley Research Center and developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the experiment sought to demonstrate active structural control to improve spacecraft stability. The Expedition 1 crew departed Houston on Aug. 10 and arrived in Moscow the next day to complete their training program at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, and ultimately, at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan prior to their launch on Oct. 31.


Left: Launch of a Progress cargo resupply vehicle. Middle: View of a Progress vehicle approaching ISS.
Right: The two latest additions to ISS as seen from STS-106, the Zvezda Service Module (middle) and
the Progress M1-3 cargo resupply vehicle (at right).


A Soyuz rocket took off from Baikonur on Aug. 6 carrying the Progress M1-3 uncrewed cargo resupply vehicle. The liftoff marked the 400th launch from Baikonur’s Site 1, also known as Gagarin Start since the first man in space, Yuri A. Gagarin, launched from that pad on April 12, 1961. Progress M1-3 completed an automatic docking at Zvezda’s aft port two days after launch, delivering about 1.5 tons of propellant for refueling the Zvezda module and 1,355 pounds of equipment to outfit the station in preparation for the Expedition 1 crew’s arrival. The addition of Progress M1-3 raised the mass of ISS to about 60 tons. The vehicle began refueling Zvezda a few days after arriving and remained attached to ISS so the STS-106 crewmembers could offload its cargo in September. It departed ISS on Nov. 1 to free the docking port for the Expedition 1 crew who arrived aboard their Soyuz TM31 spacecraft the next day.


Left: Workers transfer Space Shuttle Atlantis from the OPF to the VAB in preparation for
the STS-106 mission. Right: Space Shuttle Atlantis rolls out to Launch Pad 39B.


Following its return on May 29 from the STS-101 mission to ISS, workers in the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) at KSC began the work to turn Space Shuttle Atlantis around for STS-106 scheduled for early September. Among the significant activities, they removed and replaced the three main engines and the Spacehab module from the payload bay. On Aug. 7, they towed it to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) for mating with the External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters four days later, the same day the Spacehab module arrived at Launch Pad 39B. The Space Shuttle stack followed on Aug. 13. During their 11-day flight, the seven-member STS-106 crew comprising five American astronauts and two Russian cosmonauts outfitted Zvezda with equipment brought up on the Shuttle as well as aboard Progress M1-3 to prepare it for the arrival of the Expedition 1 crew in early November. Two of the crewmembers conducted a spacewalk to connect electrical, communications, and telemetry cables between the Zvezda and Zarya modules.

To be continued…

źródło: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/space-station-20th-expedition-1-crewmembers-depart-for-russia
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