Autor Wątek: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń  (Przeczytany 100355 razy)

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Offline mss

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« Odpowiedź #420 dnia: Czerwiec 06, 2020, 16:45 »
06.06.2020 mija 35 lat od startu statku Sojuz T-13.


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« Odpowiedź #421 dnia: Lipiec 31, 2020, 05:19 »
35 lat temu na początku miesiąca minęło 35 lat od czasu kiedy pierwszy raz europejska sonda kosmiczna opuściła bezpośrednie otoczenie Ziemi.

GIOTTO 20 YEARS ON
13 March 2006

LAUNCH AND ORBIT

The launch of Giotto took place at 11:23 UT, 2 July 1985 by an Ariane-1 rocket from the European spaceport in Kourou.  The spacecraft entered a 10-month solar orbit and eight months into its first orbit passed comet Halley at a distance of 596 km. (...)
https://sci.esa.int/web/giotto/-/38922-giotto-20-years-on

1985: Giotto (ESA)
International Astronautical Federation
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g6JD_FIksTA

https://sci.esa.int/web/giotto/display-page-cl-display-page-content-long

https://www.wired.com/2012/06/capturing-a-comet-giotto-ii-1985/



https://sci.esa.int/web/giotto/-/38922-giotto-20-years-on

https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=1985-056A

https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Space_Science/Giotto_overview
https://sci.esa.int/web/giotto/-/36680-launch-of-giotto

https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F1-4020-4520-4_156

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« Odpowiedź #422 dnia: Sierpień 01, 2020, 21:45 »
70 Years Ago: First launch from Cape Canaveral
July 24, 2020

As Lao Tzu famously said, “Every journey begins with a single step.” For America’s journey into space, one of those first steps occurred 70 years ago, on July 24, 1950. On that date, the United States launched its first two-stage rocket, combining German and American technology, from a place on the Atlantic coast of central Florida called Cape Canaveral. It was the first launch from that facility that, for the past 70 years, has seen thousands of rockets take to the skies, destined for Earth orbit, the Moon, planets, and even beyond. From Cape Canaveral and from the nearby NASA Kennedy Space Center, astronauts launched on the first pioneering crewed missions, headed for Moon landings, and helped to build the International Space Station. (...)


Left: Bumper 8 in its gantry at Complex 3 prior to launch.
Right: First rocket launch from Cape Canaveral, the Bumper 8 flight.

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/70-years-ago-first-launch-from-cape-canaveral

Cytuj
Bumper No. 8, a German V-2 with a 320 kg Army-JPL Wac Corporal, was fired from the Long-Range Proving Ground at Cape Canaveral at a very low angle of attack. The first-stage V-2 climbed 16 km before it exploded. The second-stage Corporal separated successfully, however, and traveled another 24 km. This was the first missile launch from Cape Canaveral.

https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bumper_WAC
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RTV-G-4_Bumper

AA https://www.forum.kosmonauta.net/index.php?topic=4182.msg148380#msg148380
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« Odpowiedź #423 dnia: Sierpień 01, 2020, 23:23 »
60 lat temu 29 lipca 1960 roku doszło do nieudanego startu Mercury-Atlas -D (MA-1).

Celem suborbitalnego lotu miało być przetestowanie kapsuły załogowej w jej pierwszym locie.
Między 59,0 a 60,0 sekundą lotu doszło do eksplozji, która doprowadziła do dezintegracji rakiety.
Sama zaś kapsuła została pomyślnie oddzielona od rakiety, ale zbyt wcześnie, żeby spadochrony mogły w pełni zadziałać, co skutkowało naruszeniem jej integralności podczas twardego wodowania, które nastąpiło po 220 sekundach od startu.
30 lipca 1960 roku udało się odzyskać zachowane w 95% szczątki kapsuły spoczywające na głębokości 18 metrów  w Oceanie Atlantyckim.

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vMvO62MSVi8" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vMvO62MSVi8</a>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=37&v=vMvO62MSVi8&feature=emb_title

The Story of the Vanishing Rocket: Remembering the MA-1 Mission, 60 Years On
By Ben Evans, on July 29th, 2020


MA-1 launches into the rain and low cloud on 29 July 1960. Photo Credit: NASA

(...) The purpose of MA-1 was to demonstrate the integrity and re-entry heating characteristics of the Mercury capsule, which, at that time, was expected to carry a U.S. astronaut into orbit a year or so later. Instrumentation aboard the spacecraft would evaluate its performance during the dynamic descent back to Earth and establish the adequacy of the recovery network and procedures. To this end, the Atlas-D’s guidance system was set up to provide the proper conditions at separation to mimic an in-flight abort, thereby applying maximum critical heating on the capsule’s thermal-protection “shingles”. According to the post-flight investigation report, MA-1 was also intended to simulate “a condition where a complete control system failure is encountered, since the capsule did not employ a stabilization and control system”.

After vanishing totally from view at 36 seconds, the Atlas-D’s flight profile continued normally, before calamity struck at just shy of a minute since liftoff. Investigators would later show that the rocket reached an altitude of about 5.6 miles (9.1 km) and was a couple miles (3.2 km) downrange of the Cape when things started to go wrong. At T+58.5 seconds, the vehicle experienced “a severe impulse disturbance” that was recorded by all accelerometers and rate gyroscopes aboard both the Atlas-D and the MA-1 capsule. The disturbance induced a “forward-acting shock-load of about 25 G on the capsule”, according to post-flight investigators, but in itself did not induce damage to either the rocket or the spacecraft, nor did it cause an appreciable drop in thrust.   

Less than a tenth of a second later, telemetry measurements centered upon the upper portion of the Atlas-D suddenly went dead, followed in short order by a decay in propulsion system performance as the automatic abort system commanded a shutdown of the engines. The pressure differential between the liquid oxygen and kerosene tanks dropped to zero and by T+60 seconds all engine thrust was gone. Telemetry vanished, literally, like a blip from a data screen, and multiple objects—presumably debris—appeared on radar. “It appears,” noted the post-flight report, “that sometime between 59.0 and 60.0 seconds, the booster experienced major structural damage.” (...)
https://www.americaspace.com/2020/07/29/the-story-of-the-vanishing-rocket-remembering-the-ma-1-mission-60-years-on/#more-115844

Fragments, Capsule, Mercury MA-1


These fragments are all that are left of Mercury capsule number 4, launched on July 29, 1960, on the Mercury-Atlas 1 (MA-1) mission, the first launch of a production Mercury spacecraft on the Atlas booster. At 59 seconds after launch, the Atlas broke up and exploded as it was passing through the region of maximum dynamic pressure. The structural failure appears to have occurred near the adapter between the Mercury spacecraft and the Atlas booster, resulting in the spacecraft and the attached adapter falling to the sea and being destroyed on impact. Mercury capsule 4 did not have an escape tower, environmental control system or cockpit instruments, but carried much instrumentation for what was intended to be a suborbital test of the Mercury-Atlas vehicle and the Mercury reentry protection system.

In 1985, Marks Morrison, Don Schoffield and Howard Robertson gave the surviving pieces to the Smithsonian.

https://airandspace.si.edu/collection-objects/fragments-capsule-mercury-ma-1/nasm_A19870191000

Cytuj
The first Mercury-Atlas -D (MA-1) was successfully launched from Cape Canaveral to test the Mercury capsule and Atlas D booster for future use in NASA's Project Mercury manned orbital flight program. Mercury-Atlas 1 (MA-1) was launched from the Atlantic Missile Range in a test of spacecraft structural integrity under maximum heating conditions. After 58.5 seconds of flight, MA-1 exploded and the spacecraft was destroyed upon impact off-shore. None of the primary capsule test objectives were met. The mission objectives were to check the integrity of the spacecraft structure and afterbody shingles for a reentry associated with a critical abort and to evaluate the open-loop performance of the Atlas abort-sensing instrumentation system. The spacecraft contained no escape system and no test subject. Standard posigrade rockets were used to separate the spacecraft from the Atlas, but the retrorockets were dummies. The flight was terminated because of a launch vehicle and adapter structural failure. The spacecraft was destroyed upon impact with the water because the recovery system was not designed to actuate under the imposed flight conditions. Later most of the spacecraft, the booster engines, and the liquid oxygen vent valve were recovered from the ocean floor. Since none of the primary flight objectives was achieved, Mercury-Atlas 2 (MA-2) was planned to fulfill the mission.
http://www.astronautix.com/j/july29.html

Polskie Forum Astronautyczne

Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #423 dnia: Sierpień 01, 2020, 23:23 »

Offline Orionid

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« Odpowiedź #424 dnia: Sierpień 03, 2020, 01:18 »
Celebrating the International Space Station (ISS)
June 19, 2020


https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/celebrating-the-international-space-station-iss-0

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« Odpowiedź #425 dnia: Sierpień 08, 2020, 00:01 »
Czy aby na pewno 8 sierpnia 2000 ?

Kolejna para Clusterów na orbicie
  08.08.2000 o 11:13:35.440 z Bajkonuru wystartowała rakieta Sojuz/Fregat, która wyniosła na orbitę dwa satelity
serii Cluster-2 - Rumba (FM-5) i Tango (FM-8). Poprzednie nosiły nazwy Samba (FM-6) i Salsa (FM-7) i ich
start opisywany był tutaj. Mimo drobnych problemów z 3-cim stopniem rakiety nośnej oba satelity po
szeregu manewrów osiągnęły zaplanowane robocze orbity (hp=17200 km, ha=120600 km i=90,5°). Obecnie
wszystkie 4 satelity są na właściwych orbitach i po ukończeniu testów sprzętu przystąpią do naukowych
badań według planu lotu.
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/n000801.htm#04

ESA highlights Cluster mission's 20 years of observing Earth's magnetosphere
Posted by Julie Celestial on August 7, 2020 at 19:28 UTC (2 hours ago)

ESA's Cluster mission, launched in June 2000, was designed to study the Earth's magnetosphere, which protects the planet from impacts by cosmic particles but also interacts with them, generating spectacular phenomena like auroras. As the mission enters its third decade in space, ESA highlights 20 years of observations under its belt.

Cluster is the first mission to have examined, modeled, and 3D-mapped the magnetosphere and the processes within it, in detail. It helped improve our understanding of space weather phenomena, which arise from the interaction between the magnetosphere and particles forming the solar wind. These phenomena can affect not only living organisms but also electronic equipment on the ground or in orbit.

The mission is composed of four spacecraft called Rumba, Salsa, Samba, and Tango, flying in a pyramid-like formation on an elliptical pole orbit. Although the mission was a huge success, it encountered issues during its early days. The underperformance of the first stage of the Soyuz launcher left Rumba and Tango in a wrong orbit, making them rely on their own propulsion.

"ESA was a bit worried 20 years ago, during the launch of the second pair of spacecraft. Ever since then, the mission has made huge progress, and it is far from finished," said Philippe Escoubet, Cluster Project Scientist at ESA.

Over the last 20 years, Cluster observations have revealed details about the processes in the magnetosphere and how the atmosphere supports life. The mission also provided insights into space weather required to enable safe satellite communications and space travel. (...)
https://watchers.news/2020/08/07/esa-cluster-observing-earth-magnetosphere/

Cytuj
2000 August 9 - . 11:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-U-PVB.
Rumba - . Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: Friedrichshafen. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Cluster 2. USAF Sat Cat: 26463 . COSPAR: 2000-045A. Apogee: 116,297 km (72,263 mi). Perigee: 21,430 km (13,310 mi). Inclination: 88.50 deg. Period: 3,423.30 min.
Tango - . Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Manufacturer: Friedrichshafen. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Cluster 2. USAF Sat Cat: 26464 . COSPAR: 2000-045B. Apogee: 116,300 km (72,200 mi). Perigee: 21,430 km (13,310 mi). Inclination: 88.50 deg. Period: 3,423.40 min.
Rumba and Tango were the second pair of Cluster II magnetospheric research satellites of the European Space Agency. A series of five burns of the Fregat stage took them from an initial 190 km / 64.8 degree parking orbit to their final 17,200 x 120,600 km orbits inclined 90 degrees to the equator. They then separated from the Fregat and took up operations.
http://www.astronautix.com/a/august09.html

https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/cluster.htm

https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_chr/lau2000.htm

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Odp: Kalendarium historycznych wydarzeń
« Odpowiedź #426 dnia: Sierpień 08, 2020, 09:31 »
Czy aby na pewno 8 sierpnia 2000 ?

Kolejna para Clusterów na orbicie
  08.08.2000 o 11:13:35.440 z Bajkonuru wystartowała rakieta Sojuz/Fregat, która wyniosła na orbitę dwa satelity
serii Cluster-2 - Rumba (FM-5) i Tango (FM-8). Poprzednie nosiły nazwy Samba (FM-6) i Salsa (FM-7) i ich
start opisywany był tutaj. Mimo drobnych problemów z 3-cim stopniem rakiety nośnej oba satelity po
szeregu manewrów osiągnęły zaplanowane robocze orbity (hp=17200 km, ha=120600 km i=90,5°). Obecnie
wszystkie 4 satelity są na właściwych orbitach i po ukończeniu testów sprzętu przystąpią do naukowych
badań według planu lotu.
http://lk.astronautilus.pl/n000801.htm#04
...

Na pewno 09.08.2000...dzięki za korektę!
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Offline mss

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« Odpowiedź #427 dnia: Sierpień 10, 2020, 21:41 »
Aug. 10, 2020
Space Station 20th: Expedition 1 Crewmembers Depart for Russia

ISS welcomes first Progress resupply vehicle; STS-106 prepared for launch

Following the successful arrival of the Zvezda Service Module (SM) at the International Space Station (ISS) on July 26, 2000, the pace of activity to prepare the facility for its first occupants increased significantly. After only one launch (STS-101) to ISS in the first six months of the year, the second half of 2000 saw seven launches, including the Expedition 1 crew of Commander William M. Shepherd, Flight Engineer and Soyuz Commander Yuri P. Gidzenko, and Flight Engineer Sergei K. Krikalev. The crew completed its training in Houston and departed for Russia for the final time as the first Progress resupply ship arrived at ISS. At Kennedy Space Center (KSC), workers prepared Space Shuttle Atlantis for its next visit to the station.


Left: Expedition 1 crewmembers (left to right) Gidzenko, Krikalev, and Shepherd cutting the
ceremonial cake. Right: MACE experiment aboard STS-67, precursor to the MACE-II
experiment for Expedition 1.


On Aug. 4, 2000, Shepherd, Gidzenko, and Krikalev participated in the traditional cake cutting ceremony in the Space Station Training Facility at the Johnson Space Center in Houston. The event symbolized the completion of their training program in the United States. One of their last training sessions included a safety briefing on the Middeck Active Control Experiment-II (MACE-II), being delivered to ISS aboard the STS-106 mission in September. MACE-II, a follow-on from the first MACE investigation conducted aboard STS-67 in 1995, became the first active NASA science experiment aboard ISS. Funded by the NASA Langley Research Center and developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the experiment sought to demonstrate active structural control to improve spacecraft stability. The Expedition 1 crew departed Houston on Aug. 10 and arrived in Moscow the next day to complete their training program at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, and ultimately, at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan prior to their launch on Oct. 31.


Left: Launch of a Progress cargo resupply vehicle. Middle: View of a Progress vehicle approaching ISS.
Right: The two latest additions to ISS as seen from STS-106, the Zvezda Service Module (middle) and
the Progress M1-3 cargo resupply vehicle (at right).


A Soyuz rocket took off from Baikonur on Aug. 6 carrying the Progress M1-3 uncrewed cargo resupply vehicle. The liftoff marked the 400th launch from Baikonur’s Site 1, also known as Gagarin Start since the first man in space, Yuri A. Gagarin, launched from that pad on April 12, 1961. Progress M1-3 completed an automatic docking at Zvezda’s aft port two days after launch, delivering about 1.5 tons of propellant for refueling the Zvezda module and 1,355 pounds of equipment to outfit the station in preparation for the Expedition 1 crew’s arrival. The addition of Progress M1-3 raised the mass of ISS to about 60 tons. The vehicle began refueling Zvezda a few days after arriving and remained attached to ISS so the STS-106 crewmembers could offload its cargo in September. It departed ISS on Nov. 1 to free the docking port for the Expedition 1 crew who arrived aboard their Soyuz TM31 spacecraft the next day.


Left: Workers transfer Space Shuttle Atlantis from the OPF to the VAB in preparation for
the STS-106 mission. Right: Space Shuttle Atlantis rolls out to Launch Pad 39B.


Following its return on May 29 from the STS-101 mission to ISS, workers in the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) at KSC began the work to turn Space Shuttle Atlantis around for STS-106 scheduled for early September. Among the significant activities, they removed and replaced the three main engines and the Spacehab module from the payload bay. On Aug. 7, they towed it to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) for mating with the External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters four days later, the same day the Spacehab module arrived at Launch Pad 39B. The Space Shuttle stack followed on Aug. 13. During their 11-day flight, the seven-member STS-106 crew comprising five American astronauts and two Russian cosmonauts outfitted Zvezda with equipment brought up on the Shuttle as well as aboard Progress M1-3 to prepare it for the arrival of the Expedition 1 crew in early November. Two of the crewmembers conducted a spacewalk to connect electrical, communications, and telemetry cables between the Zvezda and Zarya modules.

To be continued…

źródło: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/space-station-20th-expedition-1-crewmembers-depart-for-russia
« Ostatnia zmiana: Sierpień 10, 2020, 21:43 wysłana przez mss »
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« Odpowiedź #428 dnia: Sierpień 30, 2020, 04:37 »
Minęło 55 lat od rekordowej wtedy misji Gemini 5.

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dScETU2vcRA" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dScETU2vcRA</a>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dScETU2vcRA

55 Years Ago: Gemini 5 Sets a New Record
Aug. 28, 2020


Gemini 5 prime and backup crews during the preflight press conference, left to right, See, Conrad, Cooper, and Armstrong.

The primary goals of Project Gemini included proving the techniques required for the Apollo Program to fulfill President John F. Kennedy’s goal of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to Earth before the end of the 1960s. The series of two-man Gemini flights followed the successful completion of Project Mercury that placed America’s first astronauts into orbit. Paramount among the techniques demonstrated during Project Gemini was rendezvous and docking necessary to implement the Lunar Orbit Rendezvous method NASA chose for the Moon landing mission. Additional goals of Gemini included proving that astronauts could work outside their spacecraft during spacewalks, or Extravehicular Activities (EVA), and ensuring that spacecraft and astronauts could function for at least eight days, considered the minimum time for a roundtrip mission to the Moon.

The first two Gemini missions flew without a crew to validate the spacecraft’s design and reliability, especially of its heat shield. Astronauts Virgil I. Grissom, the first person to enter space twice, and John W. Young flew the first Gemini mission to carry a crew, Gemini 3. During their three-orbit flight, they validated the spacecraft’s life support systems and performed the first orbital maneuvers, critical for future rendezvous missions. Astronaut Edward H. White completed the first American EVA during Gemini 4, and along with James A. McDivitt he completed a four-day flight that was the longest American mission up to that time. The primary goal of Gemini 5 was to fly in space for eight days, proving that astronauts and their spacecraft could function for the expected duration of a lunar landing mission. The extended duration meant that the spacecraft could no longer rely on just batteries for power but instead used fuel cells that produced electricity by combining hydrogen and oxygen, creating water as a byproduct. At eight days, Gemini 5 would spend more time in space than all previous American missions combined. A rendezvous simulation test was also part of Gemini 5’s mission plan, as were a series of scientific experiments. (...)



Four views of the Earth taken by the Gemini 5 crew. Cape Canaveral, Florida, left, Baja California, Mexico, Salton Sea,
southern California, and the Straits of Gibraltar, with Spain at top left and Morocco at bottom right.



Conrad, left, and Cooper cut the cake baked in their honor by the crew of the USS Lake Champlain


Cooper and Conrad give a speech to the House of Representatives

(...) From Washington, DC, starting on Sept. 15 Cooper and Conrad and their families embarked on a 13-day six-nation goodwill tour to Greece, Turkey, Ethiopia, the Malagasy Republic, Kenya, and Nigeria, with a final rest stop in the Canary Islands, assigned to them by President Johnson.  At a State Department luncheon prior to their departure, attended by ambassadors from the six countries they would visit, Cooper said that from Gemini 5 “you don’t see any of the combat, you don’t see any of the fighting and bickering, the world looks like a very peaceful place.” During their stop in Athens, they attended the International Astronautical Congress and met with the crew of Voskhod 2, Soviet cosmonauts Pavel I. Belyayev and Aleksei A. Leonov, who completed the first walk in space six months earlier. During their goodwill tour, NASA assigned Conrad as the backup Command Pilot for Gemini 8.  Cooper and Conrad returned to Houston on Sept. 28. (...)
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/55-years-ago-gemini-5-sets-a-new-record

'You Ready, Rookie?' Remembering Gemini V, OTD in 1965
By Ben Evans, on August 21st, 2020


Gemini V crewmen Gordon Cooper (right) and Charles “Pete” Conrad. Photo Credit: NASA

(...) Preparations for Gemini V had already seen Conrad gain, then lose, the chance to make a spacewalk. In early plans for the mission, the Gemini IV pilot would depressurize the spacecraft’s cabin, open the hatch and stand on his seat, with an actual “egress”—a true Extravehicular Activity (EVA)—slated for Gemini V. But following the surprise spacewalk by Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov in March 1965, the U.S. spacewalk was correspondingly moved forward to Gemini IV. As a result, devoid of any EVA, Cooper and Conrad’s mission came to be grimly known by the two men as “Eight Days in a Garbage Can”, for they would be required to simply “exist” for a week in orbit and demonstrate that they could at least survive long enough for a minimum-duration round trip to the Moon. (...)
https://www.americaspace.com/2020/08/21/you-ready-rookie-remembering-gemini-v-otd-in-1965/
« Ostatnia zmiana: Wrzesień 10, 2020, 05:09 wysłana przez Orionid »

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« Odpowiedź #429 dnia: Sierpień 31, 2020, 23:36 »
Space Station 20th: Two Months to Go to Expedition 1
Aug. 31, 2020 John Uri NASA Johnson Space Center

NASA accepts US Lab Destiny from Boeing, prepares shuttles for ISS resupply and assembly

With the launch of the Expedition 1 crew to the International Space Station (ISS) only two months away, teams at Kennedy Space Center’s (KSC) Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) made progress preparing future elements for launch. After an acceptance review, Boeing handed over to NASA the US Laboratory module Destiny, the primary US research element. Workers prepared other elements for future launches. Elsewhere at KSC, workers readied Space Shuttles Atlantis and Discovery for the next two missions to outfit ISS for the first crew’s arrival in early November 2000. The Expedition 1 crew of Commander William M. Shepherd, Flight Engineer Sergei K. Krikalev, and Soyuz Commander Yuri P. Gidzenko and their backups Kenneth D. Bowersox, Mikhail V. Tyurin and Vladimir N. Dezhurov continued their training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City outside of Moscow.


Left: View of the SSPF with multiple ISS elements being readied for launch.
Right: Greene, left and Mills signing formal documents turning Destiny over from Boeing to NASA.


By August 2000, nearly 90 percent of the station’s hardware had been manufactured, and elements amounting to more than 280,000 pounds were in the SSPF undergoing final assembly and pre-flight testing. NASA formally accepted the US Laboratory research module Destiny from the Boeing Co. on Aug. 31, 2000.  Jay H. Greene, deputy manager of the ISS Program Office, formally accepted the element at KSC from Joseph C. “Joe” Mills, deputy ISS program manager at Boeing. The handover followed an extensive two-day review by an Acceptance Review Board that assessed all the engineering and testing results documents to ensure the module’s readiness for the next phase of prelaunch preparations. Greene said, “It has been a pleasure to watch the NASA/Boeing team come together to accomplish this major milestone in the ISS program.”


Left: US Lab in the Element Rotation Stand at Boeing’s facility in Huntsville, Alabama.
Middle: Installation of the first rack standoff.
Right: Interior of US Lab showing all four rack standoffs installed.


Although the US Lab module’s initial design and requirements date back to the 1980s as part of Space Station Freedom, Boeing began construction of the 28-foot long module in 1995 at its facility at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The interior design of the module included 24 racks in a quad arrangement, with 8 racks each along the two side walls, the ceiling, and the floor. Four standoffs installed longitudinally in the module at 90 degree intervals provided support for the utilities to the racks. Eleven of the racks provided systems functions such as electrical power, communications, computers to control the station, and life support.  The module launched partially outfitted with five racks installed with the remaining six brought up on the following shuttle mission. The 13 racks dedicated to research arrived over multiple shuttle outfitting and resupply missions.


Left: Bridges, left, Brinkley, and Cockrell at Destiny naming ceremony.
Right: Workers install the first systems rack into Destiny.


The US Lab module arrived at KSC’s SSPF on Nov. 16, 1998, to begin prelaunch integration. On Nov. 30 of that year, in a ceremony headlined by KSC Director Roy D. Bridges, ISS Program Manager Randy H. Brinkley, and Kenneth D. Cockrell, Commander of STS-98 the mission that delivered the module to ISS, the US Lab was officially named Destiny. Workers in the SSPF began the installation of the systems racks into the module and in early 2000 conducted a Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT) with several ISS elements, including Destiny, to ensure they communicated with each other on the ground before they were launched into orbit.


Left: Space Shuttle Atlantis rolls out to Launch Pad 39B for STS-106.
Middle: The STS-106 payload including the double Spacehab module in the Payload Changeout Room at Pad 39B.
Right: The STS-106 crew participate in the TCDT.


Preparations at KSC were underway for STS-106 and STS-92, the last two shuttle missions before the Expedition 1 crew took up residence aboard ISS to begin permanent human occupancy in space. Workers rolled Space Shuttle Atlantis out to Launch Pad 39B on Aug. 13, 2000, ahead of its early September launch on the STS-106 mission. The payload for the flight including a double Spacehab module with supplies to outfit the Zvezda Service Module arrived at the pad’s Payload Changeout Room on Aug. 15. The seven-member STS-106 crew, comprising five Americans and two Russians, completed the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) on Aug. 17.


Left: STS-92 Commander Duffy accepts the key to the Z1 Truss from Boeing’s
Elbon in the SSPF. Middle: STS-92 crewmembers examine the Z1 Truss in the SSPF.
Right: Space Shuttle Discovery being lifted to be mated to its ET and SRBs in the VAB.


Brian Duffy, Commander of STS-92, accepted the ceremonial key to the Z1 Truss from Boeing’s director of ISS ground operations John Elbon in the SSPF on July 30, 2000. Duffy and the rest of his crew who installed the first truss segment onto ISS during the October 2000 STS-92 mission then inspected the element. In KSC’s Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), workers mated Space Shuttle Discovery with its External Tank (ET) and Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB) on Aug. 23 in preparation for its September rollout to Launch Pad 39A.

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/space-station-20th-two-months-to-go-to-expedition-1

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« Odpowiedź #430 dnia: Wrzesień 06, 2020, 15:18 »
Remembering the First Shuttle Night Landing, OTD in 1983 (Part 1)

By Ben Evans, on September 5th, 2020


On 5 September 1983, 37 years ago tonight, Challenger completed the first night-time landing of the Space Shuttle Program. Photo Credit: NASA

Forty minutes past midnight at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., on this day in September 1983, a ghostly black-and-white glider swept silently out of the dark desert sky and alighted on concrete Runway 22. It was Challenger, returning to Earth from her third orbital mission, STS-8, a six-day flight which had already set a plethora of records, including the first night launch of the shuttle program, the oldest man in space at that time and the first African-American astronaut. Throughout its 30-year operational career, the shuttle completed no fewer than 26 night landings—identified by NASA as missions which ended no later than 15 minutes before sunrise—at either the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) or Edwards. Among that number were four Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing missions and over a dozen International Space Station (ISS) assembly flights.

więcej: https://www.americaspace.com/2020/09/05/doing-it-first-remembering-the-first-shuttle-night-landing-part-1/
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« Odpowiedź #431 dnia: Wrzesień 06, 2020, 15:21 »
Remembering the Shuttle Night Landings (Part 2)

By Ben Evans, on September 6th, 2020


Endeavour alights on Runway 15 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida on 1 June 2011, wrapping up the second-to-last shuttle night landing. Photo Credit: Tom Farrar/Tony Gray

Throughout its 30 years of operational service, America’s Space Shuttle program accomplished no less than 26 landings in the hours of darkness. Characterized by NASA as missions which ended no later than 15 minutes before sunrise, these “night landings” put their astronaut crews and trainers to the ultimate test, without the usual visual cues afforded by bringing the shuttle back to Earth in daylight. All told, between STS-8 in September 1983 and STS-135 in July 2011, no fewer than 130 men and women from eight nations made landfall aboard the shuttle at night. And three of them—seasoned veterans Steve Hawley, Jim Newman and Joe Tanner—did so three times across their astronaut careers.

więcej: https://www.americaspace.com/2020/09/06/remembering-the-shuttle-night-landings-part-2/
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« Odpowiedź #432 dnia: Wrzesień 06, 2020, 17:45 »
Wykaz nocnych lądowań wahadłowców z podziałem na Kalifornię i Florydę:

https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/launch/night_landings.html

A night landing is designated as any landing which occurs no later than 15 minutes before sunrise.
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« Odpowiedź #433 dnia: Wrzesień 07, 2020, 05:27 »
25 lat temu do 11-dniowego lotu wystartował Endeavour do misji STS-69


STS069-715-050 (7-18 September 1995) --- The STS-69 crewmembers take a moment from a busy flight to pose for the traditional in-flight crew portrait on the middeck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. Left to right on the front row are astronauts Kenneth D. Cockrell, pilot; and David M. Walker, mission commander. Left to right on the back row are astronauts James S. Voss (payload commander), Michael L. Gernhardt and James H. Newman, all mission specialists. Endeavour with a five-member crew, launched on September 7, 1995, from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The mission ended September 18, 1995, with a successful landing on Runway 33 at KSC.


1) STS069-723-072 (11 September 1995) --- Prior to being released by Space Shuttle Endeavour’s Remote Manipulator System (RMS) for a period of time, the Wake Shield Facility (WSF) is backdropped against the darkness of space over a blue and white Earth. The picture was taken shortly after midnight Houston time on September 11, 1995.
2) STS069-703-00H (10 September 1995) --- Prior to being re-captured by Space Shuttle Endeavour’s Remote Manipulator System (RMS), the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN-201) spacecraft was recorded on film, backdropped against the darkness of space over a heavily cloud-covered Earth.


1) STS069-714-046 (16 September 1995) --- Astronaut Michael L. Gernhardt, mission specialist, is pictured during the September 16, 1995, Extravehicular Activity (EVA) which was conducted in and around Space Shuttle Endeavour’s cargo bay. Gernhardt, whose visor reflects Endeavour’s forward section, was standing on a mobile foot restraint attached to the arm of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). Unlike earlier space walking astronauts, Gernhardt was able to use an Electronic Cuff Checklist (ECC), forerunner for Space Station. Evaluations for Space Station-era tools and various elements of the space suits were performed by Gernhardt and his space walking crewmate, astronaut James S. Voss, payload commander.
2) STS069-714-063 (16 September 1995) --- Astronaut James S. Voss, payload commander, is pictured during the September 16, 1995, Extravehicular Activity (EVA) which was conducted in and around Space Shuttle Endeavour’s cargo bay. Voss, whose visor reflects Endeavour’s forward section, was standing on a mobile foot restraint attached to the arm of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). As evidenced by the thin white cable, Voss was tethered to the end of the RMS as well. Evaluations for Space Station-era tools and various elements of the space suits were performed by Voss and his space walking crewmate, astronaut Michael L. Gernhardt, mission specialist.



Red Dog's Pack: 20 Years Since STS-69 (Part 1)
By Ben Evans, on September 12th, 2015

(...) For the first time in the shuttle program, two satellites would be deployed and retrieved, using the Canadian-built Remote Manipulator System (RMS) mechanical arm on STS-69. The first was the Wake Shield Facility (WSF), flying its second mission, and the other was the Shuttle-Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN)-201. Yet when veteran NASA astronaut Jim Voss was assigned as Payload Commander of STS-69 in August 1993, the cargo was quite different, consisting instead of the fourth Spacehab laboratory and the Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS)-III. (...)
https://www.americaspace.com/2015/09/12/red-dogs-pack-20-years-since-sts-69-part-1/

Red Dog's Pack: 20 Years Since STS-69 (Part 2)
By Ben Evans, on September 13th, 2015


Spectacular view of Hurricane Marilyn, centered over the Caribbean Sea, during the STS-69 mission in September 1995. Photo Credit: NASA

(...) With the retrieval planned for early on 10 September, Walker and Cockrell performed a thruster firing on the 9th to refine Endeavour’s rate of closure and prepare for the rendezvous. By the morning of the 10th, they had maneuvered the shuttle to a distance of just 330 feet (100 meters) from the payload. Gernhardt was scheduled to capture SPARTAN-201 at 10:24 a.m. EDT, but this opportunity was missed due to the payload entering an unexpected attitude during proximity operations. “Concern about whether the SPARTAN had operated correctly was raised when the spacecraft was to be retrieved,” noted NASA in a 29 September news release. “At that time, the crew reported that SPARTAN was rotating slowly and its batteries seemed to have been drained.” Preliminary indications suggested that the payload placed itself into a “safe mode” and shut down its power systems, which prevented it from achieving its intended rendezvous attitude. Consequently, Walker and Cockrell manually flew a 180-degree maneuver “around” their quarry to line up the RMS grapple fixture with the end effector, and Gernhardt successfully captured SPARTAN-201 at 11:02 a.m. Approximately 19 minutes later, he had lowered the satellite onto its berth in the payload bay.

At the close of its third mission, SPARTAN-201 was hailed as a huge success by NASA. In late-September, after STS-69 had landed, Project Scientist Dick Fisher of the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., reported that its data tapes indicated that the payload operated as planned throughout its flight. The attitude issue during the final rendezvous and proximity operations could not be properly investigated until the payload was back on Earth. Nor could a full assessment of its scientific data be made until it was back in the hands of principal investigators. One of the key mission objectives had been to observe the Sun’s north pole, since the mission coincided with the passage of the Ulysses spacecraft over this region. As Ulysses performed in-situ measurements of the physical properties of electrons, protons, and ions in the solar wind, SPARTAN-201 complemented it by completing observations from low-Earth orbit. Specifically, researchers were interested in making collaborative observations of the source of the solar wind and developing a clearer understanding of physical circumstances of the Sun’s outer corona. (...)
https://www.americaspace.com/2015/09/13/red-dogs-pack-20-years-since-sts-69-part-2/

https://www.americaspace.com/2014/09/20/dog-names-dog-tags-dog-bowls-the-11-barking-days-of-sts-69-part-1/
https://www.americaspace.com/2014/09/21/dog-names-dog-tags-dog-bowls-the-11-barking-days-of-sts-69-part-2/

STS-69 Mission Highlights Resource Tape
929 wyświetleń•22 lip 2011 NASA STI Program

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z5RNI5gmMrQ" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z5RNI5gmMrQ</a>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z5RNI5gmMrQ

https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-69.html

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« Odpowiedź #434 dnia: Wrzesień 08, 2020, 04:57 »
20 lat temu rozpoczęła się misja STS-106 Atlantis/F-22 ISS-2A.2B

Space Shuttle Flight 99 (STS-106) Post Flight Presentation
2360 wyświetleń•30 kwi 2011 National Space Society

<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pdsLA9V7NcE" target="_blank">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pdsLA9V7NcE</a>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pdsLA9V7NcE


"KSC-00PD-1263 (September 2000) --- Filling the ground with billows of smoke and steam created by the flaming solid rocket boosters, Space Shuttle Atlantis speeds toward space on mission STS-106. The perfect on-time liftoff occurred at 8:45:47 a.m. EDT. On the 11-day mission to the International Space Station, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long-duration crew is due to arrive at the Station in late fall. Landing of Atlantis is targeted for 4:45 a.m. EDT on Sept. 19."




1) "S106-E-5195 (13 September 2000) --- Two cosmonauts and five astronauts pose for a tradition-based inflight crew portrait aboard the International Space Station (ISS), which is currently docked with the Space Shuttle Atlantis. Astronauts Terrence W. Wilcutt, mission commander, and Scott D.Altman (bottom center) are surrounded by the five mission specialists (counterclockwise from Wilcutt)--cosmonaut Boris V. Morukov, astronauts Richard A. Mastracchio, Edward T. Lu and Daniel C. Burbank, along with cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko. Morukov and Malenchenko represent the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. The seven had just taken a brief break from the continuing tasks they're performing to help ready the ISS for other astronauts' and cosmonauts' permanent habitation in the near future. "
2) "S106-E-5255 (16 September 2000) --- STS-106 crew members, rapidly approaching the time when good-byes to the International Space Station (ISS) will be in order, pose for an inflight crew portrait, snapped by a pre-set electronic still camera (ESC) nearby. Astronaut Terrence W. Wilcutt, mission commander, is at front center, and Scott D. Altman, pilot, front right. Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, mission specialist, is at front left. In the rear are (from the left) astronauts Daniel C. Burbank, Edward T. Lu and Richard A. Mastracchio, along with cosmonaut Boris V. Morukov, all mission specialists. Malenchenko and Morukov represent the Russian Aviation and Space Agency."


1) JSC2000-E-23502 (11 September 2000) --- Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, STS-106 mission specialist, completes donning his thermal underwear prior to putting on the outer garment called the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Malenchenko, representing the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, was about to spend a period in excess of six hours outside Atlantis along with astronaut Edward T. Lu (out of frame at right).
2) S106-348-012 (11 September 2000) --- Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, mission specialist, was captured on film by his spacewalking colleague, astronaut Edward T. Lu, during the 6-hour-plus space walk the two performed on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Malenchenko was one of two mission specialists on the 12-day flight who represented the Russian Aviation and Space Agency.


1) "S106-E-5116 (11 September 2000) --- This view of the International Space Station (ISS) was taken while it was docked with the Space Shuttle Atlantis and shows parts of all but one of the current components. From the top are the Progress supply vehicle, the Zvezda service module, and the Zarya functional cargo block (FGB). The Unity, now linked to the docking system of the Atlantis in the cargo bay, is out of view at bottom. A multicolored layer signals a sunset or sunrise on Earth at bottom left."
2) S106-E-5324 (18 September 2000) --- Backdropped against Earth's horizon, the International Space Station (ISS) is seen following its undocking with the Space Shuttle Atlantis. After accomplishing all mission objectives in outfitting the station for the first resident crew, the seven astronauts and cosmonauts undocked at 3:46 GMT on Sept. 18 over Russia near the northeastern portion of Ukraine. When Atlantis was at a safe distance from the station, about 450 feet, astronaut Scott D. Altman, pilot, performed a 90-minute, double-loop fly around to enable the crew to document the station’s exterior. He fired Atlantis’ jets one final time to separate from the station at 5:35 (GMT) September 18.


1) "S106-E-5258 (17 September 2000) --- As the STS-106 crew is in the process of closing down its operations with the International Space Station (ISS), astronaut Scott D. Altman, pilot, documents the activity. "
2) STS106-373-004 (8-20 September 2000) --- Three members of the STS-106 crew move the treadmill device. They are (counterclockwise from bottom) astronaut Edward T. Lu and cosmonaut Boris V. Morukov, both mission specialists, along with astronaut Scott D. Altman, pilot.

https://spaceflight.nasa.gov/gallery/images/shuttle/sts-106/ndxpage18.html

https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-106.html

https://spaceflight.nasa.gov/shuttle/archives/sts-106/

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